Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
I'm not real and I deny I won't heal unless I cry.Cocteau Twinslet it gomore quotes

stars: fun


The Outbreak Poems — artistic emissions in a pandemic


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A `\pi` day music video!: Transcendental Tree Map premieres on 2020 Pi Day from Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself. Watch live from Barbican Centre.
Music video of the “Transcendental Tree Map” Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite album. This video premiered on 2020 Pi Day. Music by Max Cooper. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2020 Pi Day art celebrates digits of `\pi` with piku (パイク) —poetry inspired by haiku.
They serve as the form for The Outbreak Poems.
Tau Day tree map animation of 8,909 digits of `\tau = 2 \pi` created with 40,015 lines. The video is 6:28 minutes long.

`\pi` Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants


Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
—Horace

This year: creatures that don't exist, but once did, in the skies.

This year's `\pi` day song is Exploration by Karminsky Experience Inc. Why? Because "you never know what you'll find on an exploration".

If you like space, you'll love my the 12,000 billion light-year map of clusters, superclusters and voids. Find the biggest nothings in Boötes and Eridanus.

create myths and contribute!

Want to contribute to the mythology behind the constellations in the `\pi` in the sky? Many already have a story, but others still need one. Please submit your stories!

The `\pi` star chart has 80 constellations. Many of them have stories to tell—look up and listen.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A basic render of the `\pi` star chart in plate carrée projection, with focus on the constellations. (zoom)

I would love to have a complete mythology for each constellation. Please submit your stories!

contributions

Camptor — Veronica Falconeri

dramatis personae—the constellations

The symbols beside the constellation index indicate which hemisphere the constellation can be found (◓ north, ◒ south or ● both). The first 25 brightest stars in the constellation are also listed, along with their apparent magnitude, longitude and latitude.


1 ●
ALAOTRA (Ala)
Alaotra grebe
(Tachybaptus rufolavatus)
✝ 1985-2010

Alaotra is frustrated that Tadorna seems to get all the attention. Often confused for a duck, Alaotra would love you to know that she's in fact a grebe. She's very proud of this fact, despite of being prone to falls due to some biomechanical issues having to do with foot placement.

Shape: 3/57 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 166.8, -0.2
β
2.3 160.7, 10.8
γ
2.5 163.3, 4.5
δ
3.0 164.9, -0.4
ε
3.4 172.9, 4.8
ζ
3.6 178.0, 7.0
η
3.7 174.2, 9.9
θ
3.8 176.9, -2.5
ι
3.8 160.8, 10.3
κ
4.0 168.7, 2.7
λ
4.1 179.8, -0.7
μ
4.1 162.2, 3.3
ν
4.2 166.3, 3.7
ξ
4.3 163.9, 3.3
ο
4.3 177.6, 4.9
π
4.3 163.3, 4.9
ρ
4.3 163.5, 10.0
ς
4.3 174.4, 4.2
σ
4.5 159.1, 12.5
τ
4.7 160.2, 9.2
υ
4.8 173.7, -0.7
φ
5.0 177.0, 6.6
χ
5.0 172.4, 0.4
ψ
5.1 168.4, -0.5
ω
5.1 163.7, -1.2

2 ◓
ALLOPERLA (All)
Robert's Stonefly
(Alloperla roberti)
✝ ?

Shape: 4/42 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -82.0, 55.3
β
2.8 -89.2, 64.1
γ
3.0 -87.0, 72.1
δ
3.3 -82.1, 59.2
ε
3.5 -83.7, 73.7
ζ
3.6 -94.1, 54.9
η
3.7 -89.0, 69.0
θ
3.7 -83.5, 60.1
ι
3.9 -85.1, 68.6
κ
3.9 -85.4, 54.4
λ
3.9 -84.5, 81.5
μ
4.0 -88.8, 57.1
ν
4.0 -81.2, 58.8
ξ
4.3 -89.1, 62.9
ο
4.3 -83.4, 67.9
π
4.4 -89.3, 52.8
ρ
4.5 -78.9, 68.1
ς
4.8 -87.7, 72.1
σ
4.9 -93.7, 79.6
τ
5.0 -84.9, 58.5
υ
5.0 -85.4, 67.4
φ
5.1 -88.3, 55.4
χ
5.3 -83.2, 55.5
ψ
5.5 -90.6, 54.6
ω
6.2 -94.6, 77.4

3 ◓
APLONIS (Apl)
mysterious bird of Ulieta
(Aplonis ulietensis)
✝ 1774-1850

Shape: 2/21 stars, 1 edges.

α
1.0 25.9, 60.0
β
1.2 15.0, 71.6
γ
3.7 28.1, 65.4
δ
3.8 16.9, 72.0
ε
4.5 14.6, 72.2
ζ
4.5 18.6, 69.2
η
4.6 17.6, 73.5
θ
4.7 25.0, 63.4
ι
5.1 3.5, 75.4
κ
5.1 2.6, 53.8
λ
5.3 24.3, 71.4
μ
5.5 13.0, 76.2
ν
5.5 21.2, 60.3
ξ
5.6 29.1, 75.1
ο
6.0 18.0, 66.7
π
6.2 6.7, 56.3
ρ
6.2 2.9, 59.6
ς
6.4 15.2, 56.2
σ
7.1 22.0, 60.1
τ
7.1 23.4, 58.4
υ
7.1 10.2, 63.7

4 ●
ARAUCARIA (Ara)
Araucaria
(Araucaria mirabilis)
✝ middle Jurassic

Araucaria is truly a marvel. She is so large, in fact, that the constellation only shows the canopy and does not include the tree trunk—which was known to reach a height of 100 m. Araucaria offers plenty of protection and has many flying friends all around, including Urania, Moho and WhĒkau. Just a little further are the ducks (and a grebe), Camptor, Mariana, Tadorna and Alaotra. They would love to visit Araucaria but worry that they are too heavy to perch on her branches.

Shape: 8/1232 stars, 8 edges.

α
-0.4 143.3, 5.3
β
0.5 120.1, 17.0
γ
1.4 148.3, 4.7
δ
1.7 138.1, 12.7
ε
1.7 143.6, 5.3
ζ
1.8 129.1, 27.3
η
1.8 138.7, 4.7
θ
2.0 137.1, 17.3
ι
2.2 127.3, 19.1
κ
2.4 132.7, 16.6
λ
2.4 123.3, 18.8
μ
2.7 148.8, 7.0
ν
2.8 118.3, 17.2
ξ
3.0 146.0, 13.3
ο
3.0 130.1, 4.9
π
3.1 135.0, 19.7
ρ
3.1 136.5, 8.3
ς
3.3 129.4, 5.2
σ
3.3 134.4, 29.5
τ
3.4 140.5, 13.9
υ
3.4 122.4, 13.1
φ
3.5 126.5, 15.0
χ
3.5 130.5, 18.1
ψ
3.6 127.6, 19.5
ω
3.6 129.4, 20.0

5 ◒
ARCHAEAMPHORA (Archaea)
Archaeamphora
(Archaeamphora longicervia)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 7/1838 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.9 87.6,-18.5
β
2.1 79.1,-26.6
γ
2.4 95.8,-20.0
δ
2.5 92.1,-19.9
ε
2.5 76.4,-26.0
ζ
2.6 96.4, -8.8
η
2.9 86.0,-13.9
θ
3.0 92.7,-23.4
ι
3.1 83.8,-18.8
κ
3.1 94.7,-11.7
λ
3.2 89.0, -8.0
μ
3.4 83.4, -7.4
ν
3.4 80.9, -8.8
ξ
3.4 92.0, -0.1
ο
3.5 96.8,-19.8
π
3.5 78.3,-12.1
ρ
3.6 84.4,-30.2
ς
3.6 92.8,-30.1
σ
3.7 83.7,-15.0
τ
3.7 81.3, -4.3
υ
3.7 80.5, -6.0
φ
3.7 91.9, -6.0
χ
3.7 79.6,-19.2
ψ
3.7 92.3, -8.2
ω
3.8 92.4, -9.8

6 ◒
ARCHAEFRUCTUS (Archaef)
-
(Archaefructus eoflora)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 5/1019 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -97.9,-21.1
β
2.7 -103.1,-31.8
γ
2.8 -81.4,-15.6
δ
2.8 -98.5,-28.8
ε
2.8 -94.8,-18.9
ζ
3.0 -83.7,-19.1
η
3.1 -109.8,-37.8
θ
3.1 -88.7,-12.9
ι
3.1 -102.8,-21.5
κ
3.2 -88.5,-17.9
λ
3.2 -98.4,-35.1
μ
3.2 -97.6,-19.4
ν
3.2 -90.2,-20.3
ξ
3.2 -84.4,-10.7
ο
3.4 -81.7,-26.7
π
3.5 -102.5,-29.4
ρ
3.5 -103.5,-34.5
ς
3.6 -93.9,-28.6
σ
3.6 -103.2,-22.7
τ
3.6 -92.4,-23.2
υ
3.6 -108.2,-23.7
φ
3.7 -105.7,-29.6
χ
3.7 -92.2,-23.2
ψ
3.8 -100.6,-29.7
ω
3.9 -106.0,-35.2

7 ◓
ARCHAEOPTERYX (Archaeo)
Urvogel
(Archaeopteryx lithographica)
✝ late Jurassic

Shape: 14/2287 stars, 14 edges.

α
2.0 148.1, 37.2
β
2.3 144.0, 23.2
γ
2.4 142.3, 75.2
δ
2.4 130.6, 42.8
ε
2.6 126.7, 37.9
ζ
2.9 139.2, 79.0
η
3.0 135.2, 45.1
θ
3.2 151.4, 43.9
ι
3.3 145.2, 63.2
κ
3.4 125.2, 43.7
λ
3.4 135.4, 34.8
μ
3.4 144.7, 67.3
ν
3.4 144.4, 57.8
ξ
3.5 142.5, 42.3
ο
3.5 148.0, 32.6
π
3.6 117.4, 51.9
ρ
3.6 131.7, 47.5
ς
3.7 149.8, 26.0
σ
3.7 143.1, 34.8
τ
3.8 127.9, 43.6
υ
3.8 138.5, 31.5
φ
3.8 123.0, 38.9
χ
3.8 140.5, 27.4
ψ
3.8 152.9, 49.2
ω
4.0 146.5, 58.4

8 ◓
ARDEA (Ard)
Bennu heron
(Ardea bennuides)
✝ Holocene

Urged by Camelops, Ardea is trying to beat Aepyornis and be the first to see beyond the sky. It looks like she may be winning, but Camelops knows its a futile pursuit. Only he knows what is beyond the sky.

Shape: 9/1768 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.6 -149.2, 81.4
β
2.0 -160.2, 53.3
γ
2.0 -169.6, 52.9
δ
2.1 -162.1, 33.7
ε
2.1 -172.7, 22.1
ζ
2.4 -159.3, 60.5
η
2.4 -161.8, 61.3
θ
2.5 -166.7, 58.1
ι
2.7 -168.7, 56.0
κ
2.8 -169.2, 31.0
λ
3.0 -155.9, 79.2
μ
3.0 -179.7, 57.2
ν
3.0 -151.8, 61.1
ξ
3.3 -147.5, 66.8
ο
3.4 -176.4, 39.8
π
3.4 -162.3, 38.3
ρ
3.5 -172.8, 36.2
ς
3.6 -168.7, 37.1
σ
3.7 -148.8, 70.2
τ
3.7 -174.0, 31.7
υ
3.7 -178.4, 43.5
φ
3.7 -162.3, 45.3
χ
3.7 -167.5, 48.5
ψ
3.7 -169.4, 47.3
ω
3.8 -156.5, 64.2

9 ◓
ARGENTAVIS (Arg)
magnificent silver bird
(Argentavis magnificens)
✝ late Miocene

Argentavis is a big bird in the big sky. There are many stories of his feud with Pelagornis, who spreads his wings in the southern hemisphere — both insist that they have the biggest wing span.

Shape: 5/69 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 64.9, 27.1
β
2.8 68.8, 26.7
γ
3.0 69.2, 33.4
δ
3.1 55.6, 30.2
ε
3.5 65.1, 41.7
ζ
3.5 55.1, 35.4
η
3.5 63.4, 26.3
θ
3.5 71.7, 43.2
ι
3.7 58.2, 35.7
κ
3.8 71.1, 43.2
λ
3.8 71.0, 41.9
μ
3.9 65.0, 26.8
ν
4.0 58.2, 41.5
ξ
4.0 53.3, 25.1
ο
4.0 68.9, 40.9
π
4.0 65.9, 29.4
ρ
4.2 61.2, 28.5
ς
4.2 72.2, 32.9
σ
4.2 71.2, 29.8
τ
4.3 64.3, 32.6
υ
4.3 65.4, 23.7
φ
4.3 67.4, 31.9
χ
4.3 62.4, 25.2
ψ
4.4 69.0, 35.8
ω
4.4 60.1, 21.4

10 ◓
AUROCHS (Aur)
Aurochs
(Bos primigenius)
✝ 1627

Runs in the vast plains of the north together with Mammuthus and Quagga.

Shape: 7/62 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.8 63.3, 66.1
β
2.9 50.6, 49.8
γ
2.9 69.3, 58.4
δ
3.1 61.0, 59.1
ε
3.2 40.8, 60.8
ζ
3.3 34.5, 52.9
η
3.5 65.4, 61.1
θ
3.6 63.8, 47.3
ι
3.7 50.1, 49.1
κ
3.7 62.2, 58.3
λ
3.8 68.8, 59.8
μ
3.8 39.8, 63.8
ν
3.8 46.5, 40.0
ξ
3.9 64.0, 66.5
ο
4.1 32.1, 50.9
π
4.2 30.9, 53.1
ρ
4.3 55.8, 60.7
ς
4.3 40.3, 46.0
σ
4.4 33.3, 58.5
τ
4.5 56.1, 56.9
υ
4.6 57.9, 61.4
φ
4.7 57.9, 48.0
χ
4.7 42.7, 34.7
ψ
4.7 67.4, 59.1
ω
4.8 61.0, 47.1

11 ◒
BASILOSAURUS (Bas)
king lizard
(Basilosaurus cetoides)
✝ late Eocene

The king lizard dives into the depths of the sky at the very tip of the south hemisphere. Some say that he is chasing the South star, `\alpha` Basilosaurus.

Shape: 3/61 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.8 180.0,-88.1
β
3.3 -166.2,-86.7
γ
3.3 -168.1,-66.1
δ
3.4 -118.3,-74.7
ε
3.6 -138.6,-70.5
ζ
3.6 -2.9,-85.6
η
3.6 -171.5,-78.3
θ
3.6 -78.3,-85.5
ι
3.7 -166.7,-70.0
κ
3.7 2.0,-81.0
λ
3.7 179.3,-80.9
μ
3.8 -4.9,-86.5
ν
3.8 -65.7,-84.9
ξ
4.0 58.5,-85.2
ο
4.1 -140.2,-87.3
π
4.2 90.8,-86.0
ρ
4.2 -29.5,-86.8
ς
4.3 -175.5,-77.0
σ
4.3 62.4,-80.9
τ
4.5 -139.5,-70.5
υ
4.5 -120.2,-73.4
φ
4.6 -141.2,-74.7
χ
4.7 -153.7,-69.7
ψ
5.0 -125.1,-70.0
ω
5.0 90.0,-85.7

12 ◓
BOLYERIA (Bol)
Round Island Burrowing boa
(Bolyeria multocarinata)
✝ 1975

Shape: 5/602 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.7 -108.2, 43.1
β
2.9 -116.2, 40.8
γ
3.1 -102.1, 36.4
δ
3.5 -110.0, 32.0
ε
3.6 -109.5, 39.0
ζ
3.6 -117.5, 33.5
η
3.6 -104.9, 46.7
θ
3.9 -116.9, 38.9
ι
3.9 -112.5, 35.7
κ
4.0 -120.2, 41.3
λ
4.0 -116.7, 32.2
μ
4.1 -109.3, 36.8
ν
4.2 -116.5, 46.4
ξ
4.2 -113.1, 32.2
ο
4.3 -103.4, 31.8
π
4.3 -119.9, 37.6
ρ
4.3 -117.1, 39.6
ς
4.3 -110.8, 40.6
σ
4.5 -117.9, 43.0
τ
4.5 -100.0, 39.3
υ
4.5 -107.3, 39.1
φ
4.6 -122.4, 30.5
χ
4.6 -114.3, 33.2
ψ
4.6 -101.8, 41.8
ω
4.7 -109.0, 34.7

13 ◓
BRON (Bro)
thunder lizard
(Brontosaurus excelsus)
✝ late Jurassic

It's hard to be bigger than Bron. He must always pay attention not to step on his frolicking friend Compsognathus, who seeks to find protection in Bron's shadow. Some believe that if Bron stretches his neck, he can look above the sky! But don't tell Ardea this—she's in a contest with Aepyornis to be the first!

Shape: 12/5230 stars, 11 edges.

α
1.3 -139.4, 27.3
β
1.6 -104.6, 13.8
γ
1.8 -167.0, 8.5
δ
2.0 -80.3, 1.0
ε
2.0 -123.1, 25.8
ζ
2.4 -62.3, 8.1
η
2.4 -109.5, 20.5
θ
2.5 -123.5, 17.8
ι
2.6 -94.8, 13.5
κ
2.6 -107.7, 7.0
λ
2.7 -133.7, 20.4
μ
2.8 -170.6, 13.2
ν
2.9 -125.4, 12.4
ξ
2.9 -174.0, 7.6
ο
2.9 -127.0, 25.8
π
3.0 -159.1, 22.4
ρ
3.0 -92.0, 5.9
ς
3.0 -100.7, 12.5
σ
3.0 -111.8, 27.5
τ
3.0 -108.9, 9.8
υ
3.1 -111.2, 23.9
φ
3.1 -111.0, 12.7
χ
3.1 -147.7, 28.6
ψ
3.1 -61.8,-13.0
ω
3.2 -169.8, 7.6

14 ◓
CAMELOPS (Came)
Camelops
(Camelops kansanus)
✝ late Pliocene to early Holocene

Camelops played a cruel joke on Ardea and Aepyornis, asking them to try to look beyond the sky. Both think they have the longest neck, so they're still trying!

Shape: 6/1789 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.5 -146.6, 37.9
β
2.9 -136.6, 37.6
γ
3.0 -124.9, 57.9
δ
3.0 -153.9, 42.7
ε
3.0 -132.1, 36.7
ζ
3.3 -154.5, 44.8
η
3.3 -133.9, 49.7
θ
3.3 -127.6, 60.2
ι
3.4 -130.3, 36.8
κ
3.4 -142.0, 53.2
λ
3.6 -138.4, 47.4
μ
3.6 -129.2, 64.1
ν
3.6 -149.4, 42.2
ξ
3.7 -124.8, 38.1
ο
3.7 -148.8, 43.4
π
3.7 -151.6, 46.1
ρ
3.8 -126.3, 44.9
ς
3.8 -127.3, 43.0
σ
3.9 -151.5, 53.3
τ
3.9 -144.8, 65.8
υ
3.9 -137.0, 50.2
φ
3.9 -136.5, 42.1
χ
3.9 -134.8, 36.8
ψ
4.0 -152.5, 35.0
ω
4.0 -133.1, 40.2

15 ◓
CAMPTOR (Camp)
Labrador duck
(Camptorhynchus labradorius)
✝ 1878

Camptor flew long and far to find a pond without ducks on Earth, but could find no such pond. So she chose longest journey, and flew to settle in the sky.

Shape: 3/570 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 160.1, 21.1
β
2.5 178.3, 27.0
γ
2.5 174.1, 11.8
δ
2.6 172.1, 10.8
ε
2.7 157.7, 22.5
ζ
2.7 167.3, 34.6
η
2.9 170.9, 32.2
θ
2.9 179.5, 24.0
ι
3.2 171.4, 20.4
κ
3.4 177.4, 25.4
λ
3.4 161.5, 22.3
μ
3.5 173.9, 14.4
ν
3.6 168.2, 21.7
ξ
3.6 160.1, 28.0
ο
3.7 179.4, 30.1
π
3.7 163.9, 13.1
ρ
3.8 157.4, 34.2
ς
3.8 170.5, 29.5
σ
3.8 160.8, 22.8
τ
3.9 177.1, 7.9
υ
3.9 161.9, 34.4
φ
3.9 179.8, 24.6
χ
4.0 174.7, 21.0
ψ
4.0 178.3, 14.5
ω
4.0 159.7, 31.4

16 ◓
CARACARA (Car)
Guadalupe caracara
(Caracara lutosa)
✝ 1900 or 1903

Shape: 4/7 stars, 4 edges.

α
3.7 47.9, 72.0
β
3.7 44.3, 75.1
γ
3.8 45.8, 68.8
δ
3.9 41.5, 72.0
ε
4.8 43.9, 71.7
ζ
5.5 54.3, 75.2
η
6.3 43.8, 73.2

17 ●
CERVUS (Cer)
Eastern elk
(Cervus canadensis canadensis)
✝ 1 September 1877

The last elk was shot in Pennsylvania. Oops.

Shape: 6/296 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.3 30.9,-20.2
β
1.5 18.3, -9.6
γ
1.7 18.1, 4.2
δ
2.1 32.1,-10.8
ε
2.4 17.8, -2.0
ζ
2.9 28.1,-12.0
η
3.1 35.8, 1.2
θ
3.1 34.5, -1.4
ι
3.2 30.1,-23.1
κ
3.2 21.4, 8.4
λ
3.4 24.7, -0.9
μ
3.4 24.2, -2.8
ν
3.4 22.9,-20.7
ξ
3.5 19.7,-25.0
ο
3.6 19.9, -5.2
π
3.6 34.8, 3.7
ρ
3.6 26.8, 2.1
ς
3.6 22.1,-13.5
σ
3.7 16.0, 18.6
τ
3.7 23.2, 15.2
υ
3.7 30.5, 6.9
φ
3.7 28.2,-16.4
χ
3.8 18.6, 13.7
ψ
3.8 19.1,-11.0
ω
3.9 28.3, 7.4

18 ◓
COMPSOGNATHUS (Com)
Compsognathus
(Compsognathus longipes)
✝ late Jurassic

The tiniest of dinosaurs, Compsognathus hides in the protection of Bron's shadow.

Shape: 2/190 stars, 1 edges.

α
3.6 -103.2, 25.8
β
4.2 -102.6, 26.1
γ
4.3 -97.6, 29.4
δ
4.3 -98.2, 27.5
ε
4.3 -103.4, 27.1
ζ
4.7 -99.7, 26.2
η
4.7 -100.8, 26.2
θ
4.8 -101.7, 25.0
ι
4.8 -103.8, 27.0
κ
4.9 -101.1, 23.8
λ
5.1 -100.3, 22.6
μ
5.1 -98.1, 24.1
ν
5.2 -98.6, 23.3
ξ
5.2 -100.4, 23.5
ο
5.2 -106.0, 29.2
π
5.3 -98.0, 22.8
ρ
5.3 -102.8, 28.6
ς
5.3 -99.2, 24.0
σ
5.4 -97.6, 27.9
τ
5.4 -98.7, 29.2
υ
5.4 -105.0, 26.3
φ
5.5 -106.7, 24.1
χ
5.5 -103.0, 26.6
ψ
5.5 -104.6, 24.4
ω
5.5 -100.5, 22.6

19 ◒
COOKSONIA (Coo)
-
(Cooksonia bohemica)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 5/364 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.2 -63.4,-48.9
β
1.9 -53.2,-57.7
γ
2.3 -59.2,-53.5
δ
2.5 -57.2,-56.0
ε
2.6 -58.7,-61.9
ζ
2.6 -64.6,-67.4
η
2.9 -59.4,-46.5
θ
3.1 -68.3,-49.7
ι
3.2 -63.6,-47.7
κ
3.2 -64.7,-53.3
λ
3.2 -65.7,-48.2
μ
3.4 -58.7,-45.2
ν
3.5 -68.5,-48.3
ξ
3.6 -46.3,-58.4
ο
3.7 -67.7,-58.8
π
3.7 -47.2,-58.9
ρ
3.8 -48.6,-74.0
ς
3.9 -54.7,-57.5
σ
3.9 -54.5,-50.0
τ
4.0 -52.4,-71.4
υ
4.1 -50.5,-58.2
φ
4.1 -57.9,-44.0
χ
4.1 -61.5,-73.0
ψ
4.1 -67.1,-60.6
ω
4.2 -57.5,-50.9

20 ◒
COPEPTERYX (Cop)
Copepteryx
(Copepteryx titan)
✝ late Oligocene

Shape: 6/57 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.5 162.7,-30.0
β
0.8 161.2,-44.6
γ
1.6 174.6,-29.1
δ
1.6 172.9,-54.4
ε
1.8 176.6,-43.7
ζ
2.3 178.4,-14.9
η
2.4 158.8,-39.3
θ
2.8 174.9,-37.6
ι
3.0 163.2,-51.6
κ
3.0 166.3,-57.6
λ
3.0 158.6,-33.0
μ
3.2 160.1,-24.9
ν
3.3 158.2,-33.3
ξ
3.3 168.1,-49.5
ο
3.4 176.2,-52.9
π
3.4 172.5,-57.4
ρ
3.4 174.4,-43.1
ς
3.5 175.6,-17.8
σ
3.5 173.9,-31.4
τ
3.6 157.1,-25.4
υ
3.7 170.9,-29.9
φ
3.8 174.6,-30.2
χ
4.1 164.6,-31.0
ψ
4.1 178.6,-37.7
ω
4.2 167.5,-32.4

21 ◒
CORVINA (Cor)
Kosrae starling
(Aplonis corvina)
✝ mid 19th century

Shape: 3/82 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.4 124.9,-21.3
β
2.9 123.6,-17.2
γ
3.2 117.9,-15.7
δ
3.4 117.1,-23.2
ε
3.5 116.9,-20.6
ζ
3.8 120.1,-12.5
η
3.9 128.4,-24.6
θ
3.9 124.3,-14.0
ι
3.9 115.0,-18.3
κ
4.0 119.7,-21.5
λ
4.0 125.4,-21.9
μ
4.1 129.7,-14.6
ν
4.1 124.4,-18.3
ξ
4.2 123.1,-22.0
ο
4.2 126.8,-20.4
π
4.3 121.2,-20.0
ρ
4.3 121.6,-18.0
ς
4.3 120.4,-20.6
σ
4.4 127.0,-19.7
τ
4.4 123.6,-24.1
υ
4.4 114.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 117.0,-13.5
χ
4.6 119.5,-21.1
ψ
4.6 119.1,-14.6
ω
4.6 125.9,-20.2

22 ◒
CUPIDO (Cup)
Heath hen
(Tympanuchus cupido cupido)
✝ 1932

Shape: 4/1164 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 58.8,-21.1
β
2.7 62.9,-27.9
γ
2.7 73.8,-18.1
δ
3.2 60.1,-13.1
ε
3.2 57.8,-21.1
ζ
3.3 57.6,-28.5
η
3.4 64.2,-22.1
θ
3.6 65.7,-10.7
ι
3.8 72.5,-12.1
κ
3.8 59.5,-16.4
λ
3.9 66.5,-12.1
μ
3.9 66.7,-18.7
ν
3.9 69.5,-28.3
ξ
4.0 70.1,-18.0
ο
4.0 60.3,-14.0
π
4.2 72.5,-18.0
ρ
4.2 64.0,-14.0
ς
4.3 70.0,-18.1
σ
4.3 63.8,-24.4
τ
4.3 59.7, -8.9
υ
4.4 63.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 60.7,-19.9
χ
4.4 63.8,-12.0
ψ
4.5 63.8,-16.5
ω
4.6 63.4,-27.9

23 ◒
CYLINDRASPIS (Cyl)
Giant tortoise
(Cylindraspis indica)
✝ 1795

Ever since meeting Pinta, they've been fast (and slow) friends.

Shape: 4/233 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.1 27.7,-67.6
β
1.6 14.9,-61.4
γ
2.1 15.3,-71.4
δ
2.8 16.9,-75.3
ε
2.9 28.7,-69.5
ζ
3.0 28.2,-76.3
η
3.1 16.5,-61.4
θ
3.2 19.4,-56.6
ι
3.4 21.0,-67.8
κ
3.4 18.6,-77.3
λ
3.5 20.6,-62.1
μ
3.6 29.0,-65.2
ν
3.8 38.7,-62.0
ξ
3.8 5.3,-76.3
ο
3.9 29.6,-75.1
π
4.1 33.1,-66.5
ρ
4.2 15.4,-64.4
ς
4.2 31.9,-62.1
σ
4.3 30.0,-61.0
τ
4.3 16.1,-69.1
υ
4.3 31.5,-79.1
φ
4.3 32.5,-57.2
χ
4.3 32.2,-58.0
ψ
4.4 24.2,-77.5
ω
4.5 11.0,-63.7

24 ◒
DEINOCHEIRUS (Dei)
-
(Deinocheirus mirificus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 5/47 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.6 -130.4,-49.4
β
2.8 -124.9,-52.7
γ
2.8 -142.5,-51.2
δ
2.8 -144.4,-45.5
ε
2.9 -119.5,-51.6
ζ
3.1 -119.6,-47.6
η
3.5 -136.6,-52.8
θ
3.6 -132.1,-61.3
ι
3.6 -127.6,-65.5
κ
3.6 -131.4,-56.3
λ
3.7 -135.2,-54.2
μ
3.7 -138.2,-48.9
ν
3.8 -125.5,-49.5
ξ
4.4 -126.7,-57.9
ο
4.4 -117.3,-49.1
π
4.7 -140.8,-61.2
ρ
4.7 -142.3,-56.2
ς
4.7 -117.2,-45.9
σ
4.7 -124.0,-58.9
τ
4.8 -119.5,-50.5
υ
4.8 -146.1,-67.1
φ
4.8 -135.5,-63.7
χ
5.1 -141.9,-60.8
ψ
5.3 -136.6,-50.6
ω
5.3 -113.5,-51.2

25 ◓
DESMODUS (Des)
Giant Vampire Bat
(Desmodus draculae)
✝ Pleistocene or early Holocene

It is thought that each night Desmodus flies up against the dome of the sky, looking for a way to escape.

Shape: 3/122 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 -72.9, 70.4
β
2.8 29.1, 77.7
γ
3.4 -58.5, 71.8
δ
3.5 60.5, 88.1
ε
3.6 -167.3, 70.3
ζ
3.6 23.6, 79.4
η
3.6 108.0, 82.9
θ
3.7 -132.9, 71.2
ι
3.8 -141.7, 76.6
κ
3.8 -175.7, 71.0
λ
3.9 -106.4, 87.6
μ
3.9 30.8, 83.5
ν
4.0 -126.8, 75.8
ξ
4.0 -94.9, 84.7
ο
4.0 170.4, 88.4
π
4.1 -178.1, 73.5
ρ
4.1 98.0, 85.8
ς
4.2 -137.3, 74.1
σ
4.2 168.0, 83.9
τ
4.2 -167.7, 68.5
υ
4.2 108.8, 83.3
φ
4.3 -164.9, 70.1
χ
4.3 -124.1, 75.6
ψ
4.3 126.3, 85.2
ω
4.4 160.0, 77.3

26 ◓
ECTOPISTES (Ect)
Passenger pigeon
(Ectopistes migratorius)
✝ 1 September 1914

The last pidgeon, Martha, died in 1914 at the Cincinanati zoo. What a place to leave the earth from, eh?

Shape: 3/33 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.4 -28.5, 59.8
β
2.0 -19.7, 76.4
γ
2.7 -11.0, 68.1
δ
3.0 -34.3, 63.4
ε
3.2 -32.2, 73.3
ζ
3.3 -21.8, 64.7
η
3.5 -25.5, 62.4
θ
3.5 -6.2, 66.0
ι
3.5 -12.7, 56.1
κ
3.8 2.2, 73.5
λ
4.1 -10.4, 57.7
μ
4.2 -4.8, 77.3
ν
4.3 -15.0, 55.7
ξ
4.3 -10.6, 63.4
ο
4.3 -10.1, 76.5
π
4.5 -6.2, 65.6
ρ
4.5 -1.6, 61.1
ς
4.9 -12.5, 54.3
σ
5.1 -18.1, 53.0
τ
5.1 -29.3, 65.2
υ
5.2 -21.3, 69.4
φ
5.2 -16.9, 55.7
χ
5.4 -26.5, 55.9
ψ
5.5 -7.1, 64.6
ω
5.6 -29.3, 70.0

27 ●
GLYPTODON (Gly)
Glyptodon
(Glyptodon clavipes)
✝ Pleistocene

The Glyptodon is very slowly crossing from the south to the north hemisphere to play with Bron and Compsognathus. Will he make it?

Shape: 7/332 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.4 -140.9, 0.9
β
2.4 -123.4, 0.6
γ
2.8 -126.9,-13.6
δ
2.8 -114.0, -5.3
ε
2.9 -134.8, 4.8
ζ
2.9 -128.9, 4.7
η
2.9 -137.4,-10.0
θ
3.0 -135.7,-14.2
ι
3.0 -142.1, 6.0
κ
3.1 -141.4,-14.0
λ
3.1 -138.0, -9.7
μ
3.1 -121.1,-11.0
ν
3.6 -112.7, -6.6
ξ
3.6 -137.3, 3.0
ο
3.8 -126.6, -5.1
π
3.8 -122.3, -7.3
ρ
3.8 -141.4, -1.7
ς
3.8 -113.2, 4.5
σ
3.8 -138.7,-12.3
τ
3.9 -124.4, 4.8
υ
3.9 -127.3, 1.6
φ
4.0 -120.8, -0.1
χ
4.1 -129.0,-11.2
ψ
4.1 -118.9,-12.4
ω
4.1 -114.1, -3.1

28 ◓
HIPPOTRAGUS (Hip)
Bluebuck
(Hippotragus niger)
✝ 1799-1800

Shape: 7/437 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.9 78.0, 32.5
β
1.6 80.8, 29.4
γ
2.3 80.1, 36.0
δ
2.3 85.2, 19.5
ε
2.7 74.7, 32.0
ζ
2.8 84.6, 37.3
η
3.0 79.3, 29.5
θ
3.3 71.5, 21.1
ι
3.4 76.8, 19.4
κ
3.4 76.8, 41.0
λ
3.6 70.8, 15.4
μ
3.6 93.1, 37.0
ν
3.7 72.8, 22.8
ξ
3.7 72.6, 41.3
ο
3.7 81.2, 19.5
π
3.8 88.2, 33.4
ρ
3.9 80.4, 20.1
ς
3.9 83.5, 29.2
σ
4.0 83.0, 23.1
τ
4.0 75.4, 12.3
υ
4.0 84.9, 35.7
φ
4.1 87.5, 43.2
χ
4.1 72.1, 12.8
ψ
4.1 73.7, 39.1
ω
4.2 81.0, 11.8

29 ◒
HOOPOE (Hoo)
hoopoe starling
(Fregilupus varius)
✝ 1850s

Shape: 3/73 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 100.5,-25.4
β
3.2 103.9,-30.5
γ
3.3 109.6,-27.5
δ
3.9 100.9,-28.9
ε
3.9 99.5,-25.1
ζ
4.0 110.1,-20.8
η
4.0 104.6,-32.2
θ
4.1 109.0,-27.0
ι
4.1 109.3,-30.7
κ
4.3 108.2,-22.5
λ
4.5 104.6,-27.2
μ
4.6 103.6,-23.7
ν
4.7 100.7,-19.9
ξ
4.8 100.1,-29.8
ο
4.8 108.5,-17.6
π
4.8 101.1,-27.9
ρ
4.8 106.4,-23.6
ς
4.8 110.2,-29.4
σ
4.8 107.2,-22.1
τ
4.8 104.6,-24.6
υ
4.9 102.7,-27.6
φ
4.9 100.3,-22.9
χ
5.0 104.8,-18.2
ψ
5.0 103.8,-23.9
ω
5.1 102.7,-32.0

30 ◒
HUIA (Hui)
Huia
(Heteralocha acutirostris)
✝ 1907

Shape: 3/53 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.2 -108.0,-14.9
β
3.4 -105.8,-13.9
γ
3.4 -106.2,-12.0
δ
3.5 -106.4,-13.8
ε
3.8 -107.8,-10.4
ζ
4.1 -106.7,-13.8
η
4.1 -106.9,-19.7
θ
4.3 -107.1,-11.7
ι
4.4 -107.6,-19.3
κ
4.5 -107.7,-13.7
λ
4.7 -109.9,-11.6
μ
4.8 -108.4,-17.6
ν
4.8 -105.4,-14.2
ξ
4.9 -106.7,-15.6
ο
5.0 -106.8,-13.3
π
5.1 -103.4,-11.7
ρ
5.1 -109.8,-10.8
ς
5.1 -104.6,-10.1
σ
5.2 -106.9,-13.6
τ
5.2 -105.2,-17.4
υ
5.3 -105.7,-11.7
φ
5.4 -105.3,-19.6
χ
5.5 -102.6,-15.8
ψ
5.5 -108.9,-11.3
ω
5.5 -106.5,-14.1

31 ◓
HYDRODAMALIS (Hyd)
Steller's sea cow
(Hydrodamalis gigas)
✝ 1768

Shape: 4/72 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 -51.1, 19.5
β
2.6 -42.5, 16.6
γ
2.7 -50.6, 25.5
δ
2.7 -29.5, 38.6
ε
3.0 -30.6, 27.8
ζ
3.0 -53.4, 30.8
η
3.2 -49.6, 34.1
θ
3.4 -33.5, 30.8
ι
3.5 -40.9, 37.1
κ
3.5 -47.6, 19.7
λ
3.5 -49.3, 32.1
μ
3.6 -43.7, 35.2
ν
3.6 -34.2, 32.4
ξ
3.6 -52.9, 22.4
ο
3.8 -56.7, 31.9
π
3.8 -43.8, 17.0
ρ
3.9 -43.8, 20.2
ς
3.9 -49.4, 29.6
σ
4.0 -53.1, 41.8
τ
4.0 -40.9, 24.3
υ
4.0 -33.0, 51.9
φ
4.1 -48.0, 22.8
χ
4.1 -31.6, 36.0
ψ
4.1 -45.0, 17.9
ω
4.1 -44.3, 20.2

32 ●
IBEX (Ibe)
Pyrenean ibex
(Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica))
✝ 2000

Shape: 6/817 stars, 6 edges.

α
1.5 -43.2,-21.3
β
2.0 -53.4, 6.2
γ
2.0 -49.2, -4.5
δ
2.2 -41.2,-12.1
ε
2.5 -53.4,-16.6
ζ
2.5 -55.7, -3.2
η
2.8 -56.9,-10.2
θ
2.8 -55.0, -9.0
ι
3.3 -45.0,-12.2
κ
3.5 -42.4,-12.2
λ
3.6 -46.7, -7.9
μ
3.7 -46.8,-13.9
ν
3.8 -49.7, -7.4
ξ
3.8 -54.4, 0.6
ο
3.9 -41.1,-20.6
π
4.0 -49.3,-14.6
ρ
4.0 -56.3, -8.6
ς
4.0 -49.9, 7.6
σ
4.0 -48.1,-15.9
τ
4.1 -44.9,-27.1
υ
4.1 -50.5, -6.9
φ
4.1 -53.6,-13.4
χ
4.1 -40.4,-14.5
ψ
4.2 -50.0,-25.9
ω
4.2 -57.4,-21.9

33 ◓
INCILIUS (Inc)
Golden toad
(Incilius periglenes)
✝ 15 May 1989

Toads are studied by herpetologists. I'd love to be one just so that I can say that word at a party.

Shape: 4/106 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 -107.3, 61.0
β
2.6 -108.6, 56.1
γ
2.7 -118.9, 56.6
δ
3.3 -112.9, 61.9
ε
3.6 -117.5, 56.4
ζ
3.7 -110.4, 47.5
η
3.8 -112.7, 60.7
θ
3.8 -113.0, 49.2
ι
3.8 -113.4, 65.5
κ
3.8 -113.7, 55.1
λ
4.0 -108.0, 63.6
μ
4.1 -119.3, 60.3
ν
4.2 -107.6, 49.0
ξ
4.4 -112.2, 49.8
ο
4.5 -117.4, 66.0
π
4.6 -113.2, 48.4
ρ
4.7 -121.4, 51.5
ς
4.7 -116.9, 52.9
σ
4.7 -120.1, 48.2
τ
4.7 -109.9, 49.6
υ
4.7 -114.6, 49.7
φ
4.7 -121.2, 54.5
χ
4.8 -113.7, 58.7
ψ
4.8 -114.2, 62.5
ω
4.8 -116.1, 49.2

34 ◓
KELENKEN (Kel)
Terror bird
(Kelenken guillermoi)
✝ Miocene

Shape: 5/48 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.6 10.9, 14.0
β
1.9 9.0, 27.4
γ
2.2 -4.6, 17.4
δ
2.4 9.4, 18.3
ε
2.7 13.8, 26.3
ζ
2.9 -0.6, 12.1
η
3.1 11.2, 22.4
θ
3.3 15.0, 25.6
ι
3.4 1.3, 25.0
κ
3.5 5.8, 7.7
λ
3.7 8.9, 20.3
μ
3.8 4.6, 29.2
ν
3.8 -7.4, 20.0
ξ
3.8 1.4, 9.5
ο
4.1 13.7, 17.6
π
4.2 2.1, 15.5
ρ
4.5 3.9, 18.4
ς
4.6 1.9, 21.9
σ
4.6 3.9, 27.4
τ
4.8 -4.7, 22.1
υ
4.8 10.4, 29.8
φ
4.9 -1.0, 10.2
χ
5.1 -3.0, 8.1
ψ
5.2 13.3, 20.5
ω
5.2 3.1, 12.4

35 ◒
KIMBETOPSALIS (Kim)
-
(Kimbetopsalis simmonsae)
✝ middle Puercan

Shape: 8/2155 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.2 34.3,-48.0
β
1.4 33.6,-31.4
γ
1.4 79.6,-47.0
δ
1.6 58.0,-41.7
ε
2.1 89.4,-37.1
ζ
2.3 63.5,-37.8
η
2.3 79.6,-39.4
θ
2.4 59.8,-32.4
ι
2.6 36.9,-42.6
κ
2.7 40.7,-35.7
λ
2.7 73.1,-45.3
μ
2.9 45.6,-32.4
ν
2.9 30.9,-41.4
ξ
3.4 31.3,-28.9
ο
3.4 89.1,-39.8
π
3.4 44.6,-26.6
ρ
3.4 43.4,-44.2
ς
3.5 55.2,-31.5
σ
3.6 42.5,-30.8
τ
3.6 40.8,-40.0
υ
3.6 63.9,-37.2
φ
3.7 55.0,-25.7
χ
3.8 42.0,-32.4
ψ
3.8 37.6,-30.4
ω
3.9 50.2,-38.2

36 ●
KLEKOWSKII (Kle)
Colossus penguin
(Palaeeudyptes klekowskii)
✝ late Eocene

Shape: 5/714 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 46.2, 3.2
β
1.5 57.7, 14.2
γ
1.8 53.1, -9.6
δ
1.8 38.3, 13.3
ε
2.1 45.6, 11.4
ζ
2.5 48.5,-13.8
η
2.6 52.7, 18.4
θ
2.7 42.5, 0.0
ι
2.8 46.4, 10.7
κ
2.8 49.8,-12.5
λ
2.9 54.1, -5.8
μ
3.0 36.6, 16.1
ν
3.1 39.6,-15.1
ξ
3.2 51.7, 3.6
ο
3.3 48.8, 8.5
π
3.4 53.1, 7.2
ρ
3.5 47.3, 15.7
ς
3.5 48.3,-10.8
σ
3.6 36.5, 9.3
τ
3.6 67.4, 10.3
υ
3.6 65.2, 13.5
φ
3.7 67.5, 15.2
χ
3.8 52.1, 13.6
ψ
3.8 58.1, 17.1
ω
3.8 54.9,-22.9

37 ◒
LEPIDODENDRON (Lep)
Scale tree
(Lepidodendron)
✝ Carboniferous

Shape: 6/1028 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 -19.4,-47.6
β
2.6 -24.8,-50.1
γ
2.9 -21.9,-44.0
δ
2.9 -24.5,-38.8
ε
2.9 -34.2,-44.1
ζ
3.0 -37.6,-41.3
η
3.1 -43.0,-52.1
θ
3.2 -44.7,-40.0
ι
3.4 -30.0,-42.2
κ
3.6 -37.9,-48.5
λ
3.7 -28.2,-40.8
μ
3.9 -18.6,-56.8
ν
4.0 -33.8,-42.1
ξ
4.0 -36.0,-51.0
ο
4.0 -33.7,-38.5
π
4.0 -39.9,-38.2
ρ
4.1 -43.8,-40.7
ς
4.1 -20.8,-54.6
σ
4.1 -33.9,-42.5
τ
4.2 -25.8,-48.7
υ
4.2 -28.8,-39.3
φ
4.3 -36.1,-56.3
χ
4.3 -23.8,-51.5
ψ
4.4 -33.6,-56.2
ω
4.4 -30.4,-48.5

38 ◓
MALPAISOMYS (Mal)
Lava mouse
(Malpaisomys insularis)
✝ ?

Not much is known about when Malpaisomys became extinct. Some think it's when humans and dogs arrived on the Canary islands. Malpaisomys worries that because of his small size, nobody cares.

Shape: 3/38 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.4 123.7, 78.1
β
2.8 120.5, 71.0
γ
2.8 124.0, 77.7
δ
3.5 127.5, 74.1
ε
3.7 126.3, 79.5
ζ
3.7 125.7, 81.3
η
3.7 113.1, 74.3
θ
3.8 113.6, 74.5
ι
3.8 119.5, 71.6
κ
4.1 116.8, 74.7
λ
4.1 132.6, 76.6
μ
4.2 121.2, 73.2
ν
4.3 114.7, 77.7
ξ
4.5 132.0, 69.9
ο
4.6 124.4, 70.2
π
4.7 129.0, 69.3
ρ
4.8 119.4, 71.9
ς
4.8 118.7, 66.2
σ
4.9 130.6, 65.3
τ
5.4 112.6, 68.5
υ
5.6 130.4, 64.3
φ
5.6 131.5, 82.4
χ
5.7 112.7, 68.0
ψ
5.8 121.8, 70.9
ω
5.8 129.3, 66.6

39 ◓
MAMMUTHUS (Mam)
Woolly mammoth
(Mammuthus primigenius)
✝ Pleistocene, early Holocene

Shape: 8/69 stars, 7 edges.

α
-0.7 13.6, 33.6
β
0.6 26.5, 31.5
γ
1.7 19.3, 41.5
δ
1.9 36.3, 37.6
ε
2.3 7.2, 34.4
ζ
2.5 24.6, 46.6
η
2.6 33.6, 46.1
θ
2.9 13.0, 35.9
ι
3.0 34.2, 33.9
κ
3.0 5.0, 51.1
λ
3.1 21.5, 20.4
μ
3.1 30.2, 46.3
ν
3.2 7.6, 37.1
ξ
3.2 -3.9, 43.0
ο
3.3 29.8, 43.9
π
3.3 33.0, 27.3
ρ
3.3 25.6, 46.0
ς
3.5 19.6, 47.2
σ
3.6 24.2, 33.8
τ
3.7 7.3, 33.5
υ
3.8 5.3, 45.5
φ
4.0 18.2, 51.1
χ
4.2 6.1, 42.5
ψ
4.4 -1.8, 40.9
ω
4.4 -0.6, 39.4

40 ●
MARIANA (Mar)
Mariana mallard
(Anas oustaleti)
✝ 1981

Shape: 3/17 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.7 157.8, -4.1
β
3.5 155.8, -2.1
γ
4.0 154.1, -3.4
δ
4.0 155.4, -0.3
ε
4.1 155.9, -2.7
ζ
4.3 159.4, 0.4
η
4.8 154.8, -1.1
θ
4.9 153.4, 0.6
ι
5.1 154.1, -2.1
κ
5.2 157.5, 4.2
λ
5.8 153.1, -0.7
μ
5.9 158.9, -1.5
ν
6.0 152.6, -6.6
ξ
6.1 157.4, 0.9
ο
6.2 155.5, 2.3
π
6.6 152.7, -4.7
ρ
7.0 156.0, -7.2

41 ◒
MEGALODON (Megal)
Giant shark
(Carcharodon Megalodon)
✝ early miocene, late Pliocene

One word: terrifying. More words: endlessly chasing Tecopa. The megalodon possesses the brightest star in the sky.

Shape: 4/20 stars, 4 edges.

α
-2.0 127.3,-65.2
β
2.9 129.9,-74.5
γ
2.9 148.7,-74.0
δ
3.0 134.5,-62.4
ε
3.3 128.0,-66.4
ζ
3.7 136.4,-74.1
η
3.9 120.4,-67.1
θ
4.2 131.4,-69.0
ι
4.6 140.6,-75.0
κ
4.8 145.4,-72.0
λ
4.9 146.5,-77.1
μ
4.9 135.1,-68.5
ν
5.0 120.8,-76.0
ξ
5.4 127.6,-69.5
ο
5.8 125.0,-77.4
π
5.9 132.1,-74.1
ρ
6.0 121.6,-75.9
ς
6.3 146.0,-68.3
σ
6.5 132.3,-62.7
τ
6.9 139.5,-77.0

42 ◒
MEGANEURA (Megan)
Giant dragonfly
(Meganeura brongniarti)
✝ late Carboniferous

Shape: 5/122 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 -81.4,-71.5
β
2.0 -97.1,-83.7
γ
2.2 -113.2,-61.9
δ
2.5 -90.5,-57.6
ε
2.7 -104.2,-57.2
ζ
3.1 -93.9,-79.9
η
3.2 -107.8,-68.1
θ
3.2 -107.9,-80.4
ι
3.3 -107.3,-77.8
κ
3.4 -76.9,-71.1
λ
3.5 -91.8,-65.3
μ
3.5 -101.5,-78.4
ν
3.6 -92.8,-59.1
ξ
3.6 -108.1,-75.7
ο
3.6 -96.6,-75.1
π
3.6 -79.4,-55.8
ρ
3.6 -90.2,-66.2
ς
3.8 -90.8,-52.8
σ
3.8 -89.3,-66.0
τ
3.8 -90.6,-62.0
υ
3.9 -104.2,-58.6
φ
3.9 -112.1,-79.0
χ
4.0 -114.5,-69.0
ψ
4.0 -84.6,-56.7
ω
4.1 -115.6,-62.8

43 ◓
MINMI (Min)
Minmi
(Minmi paravertebra)
✝ early Cretaceous

The Minmi is actually much larger than his name suggests. He really wants you to know that.

Shape: 5/749 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.8 87.9, 7.3
β
2.3 89.9, 7.9
γ
2.5 76.6, 6.0
δ
2.7 87.0, 7.2
ε
2.7 93.4, 7.5
ζ
3.1 95.9, 5.7
η
3.3 86.5, 2.3
θ
3.6 79.2, 8.3
ι
3.6 94.6, 6.3
κ
3.7 79.7, 5.7
λ
3.7 84.7, 8.1
μ
3.8 95.8, 9.9
ν
4.1 80.0, 7.1
ξ
4.2 93.8, 0.3
ο
4.2 76.1, 4.3
π
4.2 98.7, 2.8
ρ
4.3 78.0, 1.7
ς
4.3 78.9, 7.2
σ
4.3 84.7, 8.1
τ
4.4 97.3, 4.4
υ
4.4 77.6, 2.1
φ
4.4 78.4, 7.7
χ
4.5 76.1, 5.4
ψ
4.5 76.5, 8.4
ω
4.5 98.1, 3.4

44 ◓
MOA (Moa)
Moa
(Dinornis novaezealandiae)
✝ Miocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/60 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -17.2, 27.0
β
1.0 -25.6, 22.4
γ
1.6 -21.0, 17.5
δ
1.8 -10.9, 34.4
ε
1.9 -11.9, 45.0
ζ
2.0 -23.0, 43.6
η
2.6 -9.5, 35.4
θ
2.6 -23.4, 26.2
ι
2.8 -33.0, 20.6
κ
3.0 -14.3, 17.8
λ
3.0 -7.6, 35.2
μ
3.2 -8.5, 40.0
ν
3.3 -19.6, 48.5
ξ
3.3 -8.8, 44.9
ο
3.4 -16.8, 29.5
π
3.5 -17.6, 49.5
ρ
3.5 -16.9, 37.1
ς
3.7 -32.9, 24.9
σ
3.8 -21.4, 40.6
τ
3.8 -25.0, 16.9
υ
4.1 -28.5, 23.9
φ
4.1 -21.0, 23.6
χ
4.5 -12.8, 16.4
ψ
4.5 -10.1, 42.4
ω
4.6 -23.2, 18.1

45 ◒
MOHO (Moh)
ʻōʻō
(Moho braccatus)
✝ 1987

The ʻōʻō has all its letters with diacriticals. This makes the whēkau jealous. They haven't talked since.

Shape: 6/70 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 135.0, -7.0
β
2.6 131.3,-10.0
γ
3.1 130.1, -5.5
δ
3.4 135.9, -7.8
ε
3.5 129.3, -4.6
ζ
3.8 141.4,-19.0
η
4.0 143.0, -2.7
θ
4.0 135.5,-10.0
ι
4.0 136.3,-10.4
κ
4.0 132.2,-11.1
λ
4.1 134.1, -9.0
μ
4.1 128.3,-10.1
ν
4.1 138.6, -7.6
ξ
4.1 136.5, -7.5
ο
4.1 132.9, -6.2
π
4.2 143.7, -5.7
ρ
4.2 135.5,-15.6
ς
4.4 141.6,-17.4
σ
4.4 141.7,-10.3
τ
4.4 140.1,-10.4
υ
4.5 137.5,-12.2
φ
4.6 132.3, -7.5
χ
4.7 134.1, -7.9
ψ
4.8 134.3, -9.4
ω
4.8 134.8,-13.4

46 ◓
NESIOTA (Nes)
St Helena Olive
(Nesiota elliptica)
✝ 2003

I frankly hate olives and there's no end to my pleasure in throwing olives at the sky.

Shape: 4/784 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.8 116.4, 37.4
β
2.8 112.3, 25.9
γ
2.9 117.3, 30.7
δ
3.4 105.5, 29.0
ε
3.4 112.5, 23.4
ζ
3.5 115.9, 34.5
η
3.6 112.5, 36.9
θ
4.0 104.4, 23.0
ι
4.1 111.4, 33.1
κ
4.2 110.4, 29.8
λ
4.2 108.4, 33.2
μ
4.3 102.5, 23.2
ν
4.3 119.4, 23.5
ξ
4.3 115.1, 33.7
ο
4.4 118.3, 37.5
π
4.4 115.4, 36.3
ρ
4.5 119.0, 26.9
ς
4.6 103.4, 36.7
σ
4.6 109.4, 37.4
τ
4.6 109.2, 32.7
υ
4.6 117.3, 35.6
φ
4.7 102.9, 36.6
χ
4.7 106.6, 28.2
ψ
4.7 115.7, 36.3
ω
4.8 103.9, 26.4

47 ◒
O'AHU 'AKEPA (Oah)
O'ahu 'akepa
(Loxops wolstenholmei)
✝ 1990s

Like Pipilo, the O'ahu 'akepa is the only other multi-part constellation. Here, a pair of akepas are chatting and spreading rumors about Tadorna.

Shape: 4/30 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.3 150.9, -4.2
β
2.6 151.7,-13.5
γ
3.1 148.9, -9.1
δ
3.7 148.2,-12.2
ε
3.7 152.9,-16.5
ζ
3.8 152.8, -9.6
η
3.9 145.9, -7.0
θ
4.2 149.0,-11.2
ι
4.3 149.9,-15.6
κ
4.3 147.3,-13.2
λ
4.6 149.7, -1.2
μ
4.8 147.7, -7.3
ν
4.8 153.8,-18.9
ξ
4.9 152.5,-15.8
ο
5.0 147.1, -5.4
π
5.1 148.0,-10.5
ρ
5.2 148.5, -4.1
ς
5.2 150.8, -2.3
σ
5.5 145.7,-11.2
τ
5.6 147.0, -9.4
υ
5.7 148.5,-14.4
φ
5.9 152.4, -8.4
χ
6.1 150.4, -1.2
ψ
6.2 151.2, -6.9
ω
6.2 146.8, -3.9

48 ◒
PALAEOALDROVANDA (Pal)
-
(Palaeoaldrovanda splendens)
✝ late Cretaceous

Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Xerces is seen flying nearby. He must be careful.

Shape: 3/121 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.0 1.0,-44.3
β
3.4 2.1,-38.5
γ
3.6 6.9,-39.5
δ
3.9 4.7,-42.1
ε
4.1 2.5,-37.8
ζ
4.1 2.1,-40.7
η
4.7 2.7,-43.6
θ
4.8 6.7,-41.6
ι
4.9 1.7,-44.7
κ
5.1 1.5,-42.0
λ
5.1 4.7,-44.7
μ
5.1 0.9,-42.0
ν
5.1 2.2,-43.3
ξ
5.1 0.5,-40.1
ο
5.4 3.0,-44.2
π
5.6 3.4,-43.4
ρ
5.7 6.2,-38.4
ς
5.7 5.8,-39.6
σ
5.8 2.6,-38.4
τ
5.8 4.0,-42.5
υ
5.9 6.1,-38.7
φ
6.0 1.9,-38.7
χ
6.0 4.2,-43.6
ψ
6.2 3.5,-44.4
ω
6.2 1.4,-38.9

49 ●
PECATONICA (Pec)
Pecatonica River mayfly
(Acanthametropus pecatonica)
✝ -

The mayfly loves to pester Raphus, the Dodo bird. He is too worried about guarding his eggs to pay attention to Pecatonica, though.

Shape: 4/58 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.3 3.9, -2.1
β
3.1 1.0, -1.4
γ
3.3 4.0, -7.2
δ
3.5 4.7, 6.2
ε
3.5 14.1, -0.2
ζ
3.7 6.1, 5.4
η
3.8 2.2, -6.7
θ
4.1 1.4, 6.9
ι
4.2 11.4, -3.1
κ
4.2 1.1, -9.7
λ
4.3 14.1, 6.5
μ
4.3 11.9, 1.8
ν
4.6 4.7, 6.0
ξ
4.6 12.3, -2.2
ο
4.6 3.7, -3.5
π
4.8 -3.6, -0.6
ρ
4.8 8.3, 3.3
ς
4.8 2.7, 5.5
σ
5.0 8.1, 6.1
τ
5.0 6.7, -1.8
υ
5.1 3.3, -1.3
φ
5.2 8.0, -1.0
χ
5.2 7.7, -6.3
ψ
5.4 -2.3, -6.3
ω
5.6 7.6, -9.9

50 ◒
PELAGORNIS (Pel)
Pelagornis
(Pelagornis sandersi)
✝ upper Oligocene

He can barely fit in the southern skies. With a wingspan of over 5 meters, he is certain that he is the biggest bird in the sky. However, Argentavis of the northern hemisphere disagrees.

Shape: 6/192 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.4 74.8,-55.9
β
2.7 92.1,-47.9
γ
3.1 60.2,-50.6
δ
3.3 49.0,-48.0
ε
3.4 83.7,-51.3
ζ
3.4 67.3,-52.6
η
3.5 81.6,-50.7
θ
3.7 86.6,-53.6
ι
4.1 58.6,-51.6
κ
4.3 85.9,-53.3
λ
4.3 77.7,-57.0
μ
4.4 50.6,-48.6
ν
4.4 70.2,-51.2
ξ
4.5 84.8,-54.3
ο
4.6 90.4,-48.8
π
4.6 55.4,-51.2
ρ
4.7 60.3,-51.9
ς
4.7 76.5,-51.8
σ
4.7 89.9,-56.3
τ
4.7 60.1,-45.5
υ
4.8 65.0,-49.2
φ
4.8 56.3,-46.2
χ
4.9 74.0,-50.4
ψ
4.9 72.4,-50.5
ω
4.9 67.6,-50.3

51 ◒
PHELSUMA (Phe)
Rodrigues day gecko
(Phelsuma edwardnewtoni)
✝ late 1800s?

The Phelsuma was described as unafraid of humans and said to be tame and happy to eat fruit from your hand. Lessons to be learned here?

Shape: 10/131 stars, 10 edges.

α
0.5 -121.9,-33.4
β
1.1 -160.8,-36.7
γ
1.4 -128.5,-26.2
δ
1.4 -151.1,-41.5
ε
1.5 -177.8,-36.5
ζ
1.5 -156.1,-32.5
η
1.8 -131.8,-43.7
θ
1.8 -137.6,-30.2
ι
2.0 -148.0,-31.3
κ
2.0 -178.0,-55.0
λ
2.1 -167.1,-33.7
μ
2.1 -140.1,-27.1
ν
2.3 -177.6,-42.4
ξ
2.6 -143.7,-32.1
ο
2.7 -153.2,-29.1
π
2.8 -137.2,-27.4
ρ
3.0 -111.4,-31.8
ς
3.1 -157.5,-31.9
σ
3.3 -153.6,-33.1
τ
3.3 -144.3,-28.6
υ
3.3 -141.6,-31.9
φ
3.4 -167.7,-48.4
χ
3.4 -166.6,-53.8
ψ
3.5 -132.3,-40.5
ω
3.5 -161.7,-48.0

52 ◓
PINGUINUS (Ping)
Great auk
(Pinguinus impennis)
✝ 1852

Shape: 3/88 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.0 -70.5, 55.1
β
1.5 -68.3, 57.7
γ
2.6 -75.9, 52.3
δ
2.8 -71.9, 38.9
ε
2.9 -67.6, 36.3
ζ
3.5 -65.0, 47.1
η
3.5 -75.4, 32.0
θ
3.5 -75.2, 38.8
ι
3.6 -63.6, 48.5
κ
3.8 -61.0, 47.5
λ
3.8 -70.8, 36.0
μ
3.9 -75.6, 32.2
ν
3.9 -70.6, 32.4
ξ
3.9 -60.9, 44.1
ο
4.0 -74.5, 39.9
π
4.0 -69.1, 50.6
ρ
4.0 -73.1, 33.1
ς
4.0 -68.4, 39.2
σ
4.1 -74.6, 40.0
τ
4.1 -60.8, 35.7
υ
4.1 -57.9, 30.8
φ
4.2 -74.3, 54.3
χ
4.2 -72.7, 36.0
ψ
4.2 -67.7, 31.2
ω
4.3 -70.2, 63.6

53 ◵
PINTA (Pint)
Pinta Island tortoise
(Chelonoidis abingdonii)
✝ 24 June 2012

The last of its kind, a male named Lonesome George, died in 2012.

Shape: 5/402 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -32.6,-64.5
β
1.9 -39.5,-74.1
γ
2.0 -5.6,-63.5
δ
2.3 -4.8,-54.5
ε
2.5 -2.1,-74.5
ζ
3.1 -16.6,-61.4
η
3.4 -6.9,-69.2
θ
3.6 -19.7,-64.4
ι
3.6 -12.5,-65.5
κ
3.6 -43.5,-68.9
λ
3.6 -1.3,-67.5
μ
3.7 -30.0,-76.8
ν
3.8 -32.2,-67.9
ξ
3.8 -17.1,-76.7
ο
4.0 -14.3,-61.5
π
4.1 -11.3,-59.0
ρ
4.2 -29.4,-69.7
ς
4.2 -42.2,-64.8
σ
4.2 -6.6,-66.7
τ
4.3 2.1,-63.6
υ
4.3 -10.3,-53.7
φ
4.4 -36.5,-71.8
χ
4.4 0.4,-79.0
ψ
4.4 -15.9,-61.5
ω
4.4 -8.7,-56.0

54 ●
PIPILO (Pip)
Bermuda towhee
(Pipilo naufragus)
✝ Pleistocene, Holocene

A rare flocking constellation. These towhees cross hemispheres and keep the Glyptodon company.

Shape: 44/261 stars, 22 edges.

α
2.9 -137.7,-20.1
β
3.0 -165.7,-13.7
γ
3.0 -168.1,-29.1
δ
3.0 -157.3,-18.6
ε
3.0 -147.3,-23.0
ζ
3.1 -123.5,-21.5
η
3.1 -176.5, -2.9
θ
3.1 -169.8,-28.5
ι
3.1 -149.3,-21.6
κ
3.1 -162.6,-13.4
λ
3.1 -172.9, -9.0
μ
3.1 -172.4,-23.2
ν
3.2 -178.1,-25.6
ξ
3.2 -170.7, -9.0
ο
3.3 -159.1,-21.5
π
3.4 -171.9,-19.7
ρ
3.4 -176.0, 1.9
ς
3.5 -140.9, 11.1
σ
3.5 -178.9,-24.7
τ
3.5 -178.5,-12.7
υ
3.5 -166.3,-18.1
φ
3.6 -152.2, 3.1
χ
3.6 -144.1, 10.7
ψ
3.6 -157.5, -5.7
ω
3.6 -143.4, -2.1

55 ●
PLEOROTUS (Ple)
Pleorotus
(Pleorotus braueri)
✝ 1894

Shape: 5/406 stars, 5 edges.

α
3.2 59.4, 1.1
β
3.2 60.1, -3.6
γ
3.3 74.9, -6.7
δ
3.6 65.7, -3.7
ε
3.7 63.0, -3.6
ζ
3.8 65.8, 2.2
η
3.8 71.9, 2.3
θ
3.8 64.0, 1.2
ι
3.9 70.5, 3.2
κ
4.0 71.3, 1.5
λ
4.2 67.6, 4.4
μ
4.2 66.5, -3.8
ν
4.2 62.2, -5.2
ξ
4.3 70.6, -6.7
ο
4.3 68.8, -4.9
π
4.3 60.4, 3.3
ρ
4.4 72.4, 2.8
ς
4.5 70.8, -2.3
σ
4.5 69.3, 8.9
τ
4.5 62.2, 2.0
υ
4.7 60.6, 4.5
φ
4.7 69.2, 9.4
χ
4.7 67.6, -3.8
ψ
4.7 65.9, 5.3
ω
4.7 65.3, 6.1

56 ◓
PLUCHEA (Plu)
Pluchea
(Pluchea glutinosa)
✝ 19th century

Shape: 4/652 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.4 104.3, 15.1
β
1.4 99.0, 17.4
γ
1.6 110.6, 15.4
δ
2.1 103.7, 18.4
ε
2.6 110.6, 15.8
ζ
3.3 103.7, 11.7
η
3.7 112.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 113.2, 19.6
ι
3.7 98.5, 20.8
κ
3.8 111.2, 15.6
λ
3.9 107.3, 13.5
μ
4.0 102.0, 10.6
ν
4.0 101.6, 18.6
ξ
4.0 114.9, 16.5
ο
4.0 111.0, 13.3
π
4.1 97.7, 21.3
ρ
4.1 110.1, 19.0
ς
4.1 111.0, 19.7
σ
4.2 109.8, 22.4
τ
4.2 107.1, 11.7
υ
4.3 105.8, 19.7
φ
4.4 110.1, 19.5
χ
4.5 104.0, 14.3
ψ
4.5 114.2, 20.0
ω
4.5 102.5, 13.6

57 ◓
PO'OULI (Poo)
po'o-uli
(Melamprosops phaeosoma)
✝ 2004?

The last sighting of a pair of po'ouli was in 2004 and now again, in the sky of pi.

Shape: 4/145 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.8 107.1, 43.5
β
2.2 103.0, 45.9
γ
2.6 101.5, 40.0
δ
2.8 97.7, 42.5
ε
3.2 107.7, 52.6
ζ
3.2 106.1, 53.5
η
3.2 111.4, 40.9
θ
3.5 106.1, 38.8
ι
3.6 98.4, 52.1
κ
3.7 97.5, 44.4
λ
4.0 99.5, 40.9
μ
4.1 108.4, 54.3
ν
4.3 106.4, 47.8
ξ
4.3 112.4, 54.3
ο
4.3 102.8, 39.4
π
4.4 101.2, 52.2
ρ
4.4 99.9, 42.1
ς
4.4 105.2, 46.1
σ
4.5 106.3, 51.5
τ
4.6 112.4, 54.1
υ
4.6 107.6, 54.8
φ
4.7 111.0, 48.2
χ
4.7 99.0, 48.9
ψ
4.7 110.5, 38.0
ω
4.7 100.8, 42.9

58 ◒
PORZANA (Por)
Laysan rail
(Porzana palmeri)
✝ 1944

Tiny guys in the corner.

Shape: 2/7 stars, 1 edges.

α
2.7 169.3,-60.9
β
4.8 168.6,-63.1
γ
5.5 173.0,-77.9
δ
5.8 161.0,-72.5
ε
5.8 171.5,-76.4
ζ
6.4 159.9,-68.0
η
7.2 166.3,-62.4

59 ◒
PTERODACTYL (Pte)
Winged finger
(Pterodactylus antiquus)
✝ early Tithonian

Shape: 9/1676 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.7 6.2,-53.6
β
2.8 -26.3,-32.8
γ
2.9 -30.0,-26.2
δ
3.1 -34.6,-30.9
ε
3.2 -5.1,-43.4
ζ
3.3 -36.3,-22.8
η
3.4 -12.9,-42.5
θ
3.5 -17.3,-44.6
ι
3.6 11.0,-56.7
κ
3.6 -28.0,-35.9
λ
3.6 8.3,-59.1
μ
3.6 -18.0,-27.6
ν
3.6 -3.6,-48.7
ξ
3.7 -28.0,-35.6
ο
3.7 -21.6,-30.5
π
3.9 2.6,-49.1
ρ
3.9 -32.7,-29.5
ς
4.0 -11.0,-37.1
σ
4.0 -34.2,-34.6
τ
4.0 -26.0,-30.7
υ
4.0 -22.5,-30.4
φ
4.0 -31.9,-27.4
χ
4.1 -28.5,-33.0
ψ
4.1 -36.7,-22.7
ω
4.2 8.2,-63.5

60 ◓
QUAGGA (Qua)
Quagga
(Equus quagga quagga)
✝ 1883

Comical and uncertain of its stripes, Quagga is often seen asking Aurochs for his advice.

Shape: 6/139 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.8 73.0, 74.4
β
1.3 97.7, 60.3
γ
1.9 76.9, 55.4
δ
2.1 93.3, 77.0
ε
2.6 72.5, 52.3
ζ
2.7 90.6, 49.5
η
2.8 91.7, 74.8
θ
3.1 100.3, 74.9
ι
3.3 65.6, 78.2
κ
3.5 97.4, 50.5
λ
3.7 88.7, 55.0
μ
3.7 77.0, 55.7
ν
3.7 102.7, 69.8
ξ
3.7 103.9, 73.6
ο
3.8 95.3, 74.0
π
3.8 66.2, 74.0
ρ
3.9 99.3, 71.5
ς
3.9 79.3, 46.7
σ
3.9 91.4, 51.2
τ
4.0 68.3, 74.2
υ
4.0 93.4, 59.2
φ
4.1 84.9, 63.2
χ
4.1 111.3, 59.4
ψ
4.1 70.0, 66.3
ω
4.2 106.5, 60.3

61 ●
RAPHUS (Rap)
Dodo bird
(Raphus cucullatus)
✝ Holocene

Raphus is guarding his eggs—the clusters of stars just south of β Raphus (the second brightest star in the constellation) while pestered by Pecatonica.

Shape: 5/358 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.3 -23.6,-21.3
β
1.5 -27.7, 0.8
γ
1.8 -9.5,-14.7
δ
2.0 -37.5, 3.5
ε
2.3 -10.0, -6.2
ζ
2.8 -30.1, -7.4
η
2.8 -23.1, -1.6
θ
2.9 -28.8, -6.8
ι
2.9 -36.3, -7.7
κ
3.0 -19.1, 12.0
λ
3.2 -29.0, 7.7
μ
3.3 -38.3, -0.2
ν
3.4 -29.2, -7.7
ξ
3.4 -35.9,-19.4
ο
3.4 -21.5, -7.4
π
3.4 -39.0, 10.7
ρ
3.4 -36.1, -7.0
ς
3.5 -25.3,-21.4
σ
3.5 -35.1, 5.7
τ
3.5 -16.4, -5.9
υ
3.5 -20.2, -5.5
φ
3.5 -36.9, 1.5
χ
3.5 -36.6,-15.9
ψ
3.5 -23.3, -6.9
ω
3.6 -16.6,-14.9

62 ◒
RHYNIA (Rhy)
Rhynia
(Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 3/12 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 147.9,-54.4
β
2.6 160.0,-57.4
γ
3.2 157.4,-61.3
δ
3.3 158.7,-59.6
ε
3.6 146.2,-56.3
ζ
3.7 142.4,-61.6
η
4.8 153.1,-53.5
θ
5.5 152.9,-63.0
ι
5.6 142.5,-57.7
κ
5.6 143.5,-54.0
λ
6.4 145.4,-61.5
μ
6.5 155.4,-54.6

63 ◒
RODHOCETUS (Rod)
-
(Rodhocetus kasrani)
✝ Lutetian

Fleeing from the giant Megalodon, Rodhocetus was an early whale that possessed land mammal characteristics. Some say that he managed to escape from Megalodon and lived out his life on the land, never returning to the sea.

Shape: 6/44 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 96.7,-59.6
β
2.1 130.3,-51.7
γ
2.3 110.4,-54.7
δ
2.4 122.6,-57.0
ε
2.8 103.1,-51.5
ζ
2.9 116.2,-60.0
η
3.4 107.0,-58.8
θ
3.5 97.5,-47.7
ι
3.7 124.9,-53.5
κ
3.8 109.9,-54.9
λ
4.0 110.6,-49.2
μ
4.2 127.0,-52.2
ν
4.3 98.9,-50.5
ξ
4.3 117.8,-51.7
ο
4.4 130.1,-52.6
π
4.6 108.9,-59.5
ρ
4.7 95.6,-51.2
ς
4.9 104.4,-55.5
σ
5.0 100.3,-53.8
τ
5.0 106.1,-53.5
υ
5.2 111.5,-48.5
φ
5.3 100.0,-51.9
χ
5.3 101.5,-58.5
ψ
5.4 137.7,-57.3
ω
5.4 130.4,-58.2

64 ◒
SILPHIUM (Sil)
laserwort
(Ferula tingitana)
✝ 2,000 years ago

The last known stalk was given to Emperor Nero. As stories, some have said that he used Silphium as kindle to a larger fire.

Shape: 3/8 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 115.9,-50.1
β
2.9 114.5,-52.0
γ
3.1 116.2,-51.2
δ
3.9 113.9,-52.8
ε
4.1 114.8,-51.3
ζ
4.5 113.1,-50.5
η
5.0 114.9,-50.8
θ
5.6 114.9,-50.9

65 ◒
SIVATHERIUM (Siv)
Shiva's beast
(Sivatherium giganteum)
✝ Pliocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/577 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -4.3,-39.4
β
2.3 -2.4,-22.7
γ
2.7 10.0,-28.9
δ
2.8 5.9,-31.0
ε
3.1 9.1,-30.2
ζ
3.1 13.4,-17.1
η
3.2 0.8,-18.7
θ
3.2 13.3,-26.4
ι
3.2 4.2,-16.2
κ
3.3 4.8,-23.1
λ
3.5 2.1,-33.6
μ
3.5 -6.6,-21.5
ν
3.5 14.3,-10.8
ξ
3.5 -4.8,-39.8
ο
3.5 11.1,-24.7
π
3.5 -2.4,-16.7
ρ
3.5 9.3,-14.7
ς
3.6 -4.4,-31.0
σ
3.8 8.1,-15.3
τ
3.8 -0.3,-15.0
υ
3.8 -1.1,-35.6
φ
3.9 -6.2,-13.8
χ
4.0 6.2,-28.6
ψ
4.1 5.0,-12.2
ω
4.1 13.0,-11.7

66 ◒
SPELAEA (Spe)
Eurasian cave lion
(Panthera leo spelaea)
✝ 12,400 years ago

Shape: 6/202 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.7 61.9,-55.7
β
1.3 80.6,-65.7
γ
1.6 47.3,-57.3
δ
2.4 70.5,-71.4
ε
2.8 53.0,-66.2
ζ
3.1 43.5,-60.4
η
3.1 40.3,-76.6
θ
3.3 65.7,-67.3
ι
3.6 86.9,-59.8
κ
3.7 60.8,-72.8
λ
3.8 91.5,-63.8
μ
3.8 78.9,-59.9
ν
3.8 66.0,-72.5
ξ
3.8 82.4,-71.8
ο
3.9 80.7,-58.1
π
3.9 62.9,-77.0
ρ
3.9 77.6,-59.9
ς
3.9 67.3,-68.9
σ
3.9 41.5,-63.9
τ
4.0 68.1,-75.7
υ
4.0 59.2,-75.4
φ
4.1 41.3,-58.8
χ
4.1 76.4,-61.4
ψ
4.1 85.9,-57.9
ω
4.2 74.0,-68.4

67 ◒
SWAMPHEN (Swa)
Réunion swamphen
(Porphyrio coerulescens)
✝ 18th century

Swamphen is delighted to have a diacritical mark in its name, a characteristic shared only by the whēkau, who resides in the northern hemisphere and the ʻōʻō (Moho braccatus) who lives just to the north.

Shape: 3/19 stars, 2 edges.

α
3.1 106.3,-75.2
β
3.4 95.3,-70.7
γ
3.5 101.6,-76.1
δ
4.0 95.2,-65.2
ε
4.7 117.2,-80.0
ζ
4.8 96.7,-74.5
η
4.9 115.9,-69.2
θ
4.9 114.3,-67.0
ι
5.0 106.1,-65.7
κ
5.1 109.8,-71.0
λ
5.2 117.9,-69.9
μ
5.3 95.0,-67.7
ν
5.8 95.3,-65.5
ξ
6.3 114.9,-70.5
ο
6.6 114.5,-72.9
π
6.7 105.5,-65.1
ρ
6.7 114.5,-71.1
ς
6.8 99.2,-66.9
σ
7.1 115.3,-67.3

68 ◒
TADORNA (Tad)
Crested shelduck
(Tadorna cristata)
✝ ?

Rumor has it Tadorna may have snuck into the sky without permission—while not seen since the 1960’s, some say the duck isn’t extinct.

Shape: 3/31 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 162.9, -8.7
β
2.3 162.6,-11.2
γ
2.5 164.7, -5.7
δ
2.8 163.8,-12.8
ε
3.4 166.0, -6.0
ζ
3.6 168.8, -5.3
η
3.7 174.1, -7.1
θ
3.7 168.5,-17.1
ι
3.8 158.7,-14.7
κ
4.3 179.6,-11.2
λ
4.7 162.0, -7.2
μ
4.8 168.2, -5.7
ν
4.8 178.4,-12.3
ξ
4.8 160.7,-14.2
ο
4.8 162.1,-18.0
π
4.9 169.0,-13.3
ρ
5.1 162.0,-17.3
ς
5.4 165.3, -6.4
σ
5.8 179.8,-11.4
τ
5.8 156.1, -9.3
υ
5.9 158.8,-14.2
φ
6.0 158.7,-18.2
χ
6.0 169.3, -6.0
ψ
6.0 161.4, -8.5
ω
6.1 169.8, -3.1

69 ◒
TECOPA (Tec)
Tecopa pupfish
(Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae)
✝ 1979

Tecopa can tolerate heat, which allows him to escape from Megalodon, who will not chase Tecopa through the hot springs.

Shape: 4/100 stars, 3 edges.

α
0.4 102.1,-41.8
β
0.6 108.9,-43.2
γ
1.2 122.3,-37.8
δ
1.2 96.7,-32.2
ε
2.4 98.6,-43.5
ζ
2.6 110.2,-41.0
η
2.8 110.9,-34.7
θ
2.9 126.4,-40.2
ι
3.1 119.0,-33.0
κ
3.2 105.2,-34.3
λ
3.4 112.6,-36.6
μ
3.6 101.2,-42.9
ν
3.6 97.0,-33.0
ξ
3.6 104.0,-33.0
ο
3.7 102.5,-43.0
π
3.7 107.9,-40.5
ρ
3.7 100.2,-41.7
ς
3.8 120.1,-41.8
σ
3.9 113.1,-37.3
τ
4.1 97.8,-47.2
υ
4.2 105.6,-44.8
φ
4.2 116.4,-32.5
χ
4.2 115.2,-28.5
ψ
4.2 96.6,-31.4
ω
4.3 111.8,-44.7

70 ◒
THYLACINE (Thy)
Tasmanian tiger
(Thylacinus cynocephalus)
✝ 1936

The last of its kind was shot by Willem Dafoe in the movie The Hunter. To this day, the Thylacine can be seen screaming in the sky.

Shape: 10/2205 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.4 -74.9,-29.9
β
1.5 -61.7,-28.9
γ
2.0 -88.6,-47.6
δ
2.3 -95.4,-50.1
ε
2.5 -65.8,-32.6
ζ
3.2 -63.4,-41.6
η
3.2 -83.9,-30.8
θ
3.2 -59.7,-28.1
ι
3.2 -77.0,-48.1
κ
3.4 -58.1,-25.3
λ
3.4 -80.9,-51.5
μ
3.4 -53.4,-32.6
ν
3.4 -71.8,-19.5
ξ
3.4 -71.3,-20.6
ο
3.5 -106.1,-51.6
π
3.5 -53.8,-31.0
ρ
3.6 -85.3,-37.5
ς
3.7 -59.4,-22.0
σ
3.7 -69.6,-20.6
τ
3.7 -74.3,-43.1
υ
3.8 -56.1,-33.5
φ
3.9 -83.8,-46.3
χ
3.9 -81.6,-32.0
ψ
3.9 -89.9,-31.8
ω
3.9 -94.1,-44.6

71 ●
TRAVERSIA (Tra)
Stephens Island wren
(Traversia lyalli)
✝ 1895?

Shape: 3/481 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.8 -92.3, -3.3
β
3.4 -99.8, 0.5
γ
3.9 -98.9, -5.9
δ
3.9 -97.0, -6.5
ε
3.9 -101.7, -8.0
ζ
4.2 -92.6, -2.9
η
4.3 -101.1, 0.1
θ
4.4 -97.9, -5.4
ι
4.4 -96.6, -0.9
κ
4.5 -90.8, -8.3
λ
4.5 -98.6, -3.8
μ
4.5 -95.6, -7.1
ν
4.6 -94.5, -5.7
ξ
4.6 -92.6, 1.2
ο
4.6 -97.3, -1.4
π
4.7 -93.6, -3.8
ρ
4.7 -101.3, -3.4
ς
4.7 -93.9, -4.7
σ
4.7 -91.0, 1.3
τ
4.8 -97.6, -7.3
υ
4.8 -95.9, -2.5
φ
4.9 -91.3, -9.7
χ
4.9 -97.3, -7.7
ψ
4.9 -92.5, -5.0
ω
4.9 -93.9, -5.5

72 ◓
TREX (Tre)
Tyrant lizard
(Tyrannosaurus rex)
✝ late Cretaceous

Trex is unhappy because he's such a tiny constellation -- he's barely eaten!

Shape: 5/40 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -47.2, 45.4
β
2.6 -53.3, 48.4
γ
2.8 -40.8, 53.5
δ
2.9 -42.3, 64.0
ε
3.1 -42.8, 53.6
ζ
3.4 -45.1, 58.3
η
3.4 -42.1, 50.5
θ
3.5 -57.8, 60.9
ι
3.9 -39.5, 51.9
κ
3.9 -54.3, 47.0
λ
4.0 -45.0, 55.0
μ
4.3 -44.7, 64.8
ν
4.5 -41.8, 58.4
ξ
4.6 -36.6, 58.2
ο
4.6 -43.9, 48.9
π
4.7 -59.8, 63.6
ρ
4.7 -54.5, 43.9
ς
4.8 -42.3, 54.9
σ
4.9 -43.9, 60.9
τ
5.2 -42.0, 45.9
υ
5.4 -53.1, 66.3
φ
5.5 -58.6, 48.1
χ
5.5 -55.1, 49.9
ψ
5.5 -56.6, 46.4
ω
5.6 -36.3, 58.8

73 ◒
TROODON (Tro)
Troodon
(Troodon formosus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 6/71 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.0 131.1,-35.9
β
2.1 124.4,-29.9
γ
2.3 151.0,-23.3
δ
2.6 143.2,-28.3
ε
2.9 140.3,-20.6
ζ
2.9 135.5,-45.1
η
3.0 142.5,-22.4
θ
3.1 154.3,-39.0
ι
3.4 138.3,-39.6
κ
3.4 147.7,-34.7
λ
3.4 146.3,-40.7
μ
3.6 129.3,-31.7
ν
3.6 136.8,-31.5
ξ
3.6 145.7,-21.6
ο
3.6 150.1,-39.7
π
3.6 133.8,-49.2
ρ
3.7 143.9,-26.5
ς
3.7 132.4,-20.8
σ
3.8 125.3,-33.8
τ
3.8 144.5,-31.2
υ
3.8 126.1,-27.4
φ
3.8 130.2,-22.3
χ
3.9 151.8,-27.5
ψ
3.9 147.3,-49.0
ω
4.0 145.5,-37.4

74 ●
URANIA (Ura)
Sloane's urania
(Urania sloanus)
✝ 1894-1908

Shape: 6/751 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 110.8, 7.1
β
1.6 112.9, -4.5
γ
2.1 122.1, 0.2
δ
2.5 123.8, -8.4
ε
2.5 120.6, 6.4
ζ
2.5 118.1, -8.1
η
2.5 116.4, 6.6
θ
2.8 123.6, -9.8
ι
2.9 115.8,-11.8
κ
2.9 124.3,-11.1
λ
3.0 103.2,-14.9
μ
3.1 115.0, 5.1
ν
3.2 115.0,-10.5
ξ
3.5 102.7, -8.1
ο
3.6 107.2, -4.9
π
3.6 109.3, -1.0
ρ
3.7 114.7,-11.2
ς
3.7 103.7,-14.8
σ
3.8 102.6, 4.4
τ
3.9 115.7, 8.0
υ
4.0 120.5, -7.2
φ
4.1 110.0, 2.9
χ
4.1 103.2,-17.4
ψ
4.1 123.4, 4.2
ω
4.2 120.4, 4.1

75 ◓
URSUS (Urs)
Cave bear
(Ursus spelaeus)
✝ 24,000 years ago

Shape: 7/462 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.3 -76.5, 26.5
β
0.7 -84.8, 24.8
γ
2.3 -64.6, 19.6
δ
2.7 -66.6, 23.7
ε
2.7 -69.1, 26.5
ζ
2.9 -84.4, 15.3
η
2.9 -87.5, 22.0
θ
3.0 -61.4, 22.2
ι
3.0 -84.9, 22.4
κ
3.2 -57.8, 23.1
λ
3.2 -93.4, 16.5
μ
3.3 -64.0, 25.3
ν
3.3 -76.1, 18.9
ξ
3.3 -87.8, 15.6
ο
3.3 -60.7, 25.7
π
3.4 -90.6, 23.1
ρ
3.4 -86.3, 22.6
ς
3.4 -60.3, 23.6
σ
3.4 -68.2, 16.6
τ
3.4 -76.7, 18.4
υ
3.5 -89.2, 24.3
φ
3.6 -90.1, 20.4
χ
3.7 -85.2, 15.1
ψ
3.8 -72.7, 28.3
ω
3.8 -79.7, 16.7

76 ◓
VALERIANELLA (Val)
Varianella
(Varianella affinis)
✝ ?

Some members of the genus are not extinct and enjoy being called "corn salad" even though they have never seen a salad.

Shape: 4/1313 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 167.6, 58.4
β
2.1 168.0, 68.4
γ
2.5 178.5, 38.4
δ
2.9 166.3, 42.4
ε
2.9 171.1, 43.8
ζ
3.0 168.5, 50.6
η
3.0 157.4, 60.5
θ
3.2 180.0, 62.4
ι
3.3 170.8, 58.2
κ
3.4 158.3, 35.4
λ
3.4 167.1, 72.6
μ
3.5 161.5, 74.2
ν
3.5 161.5, 54.5
ξ
3.5 170.8, 59.8
ο
3.5 157.3, 46.2
π
3.5 164.3, 67.1
ρ
3.6 156.2, 46.5
ς
3.7 169.7, 46.0
σ
3.7 172.5, 52.8
τ
3.7 157.9, 68.3
υ
3.8 163.2, 37.4
φ
3.8 160.3, 54.0
χ
3.9 175.2, 46.6
ψ
3.9 171.0, 50.0
ω
4.0 156.3, 43.9

77 ◓
WHĒKAU (Whe)
Laughing owl
(Sceloglaux albifacies)
✝ 1914

Some say that whēkau can still be heard. Perhaps the joke is on us?

Shape: 3/57 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.7 152.8, 12.5
β
3.0 151.2, 12.4
γ
3.2 157.7, 17.2
δ
3.6 153.7, 8.3
ε
3.6 150.4, 13.8
ζ
3.8 156.5, 15.1
η
4.3 158.8, 14.6
θ
4.3 156.4, 8.8
ι
4.3 153.2, 7.3
κ
4.5 159.8, 15.8
λ
4.5 156.9, 16.8
μ
4.5 154.2, 9.2
ν
4.6 155.4, 13.8
ξ
4.8 152.0, 15.9
ο
4.8 152.5, 17.0
π
4.8 156.4, 11.3
ρ
4.9 159.0, 18.6
ς
4.9 156.4, 12.1
σ
5.0 156.0, 18.7
τ
5.2 156.6, 8.6
υ
5.2 156.4, 19.7
φ
5.2 156.3, 5.5
χ
5.3 156.9, 18.6
ψ
5.3 157.4, 11.5
ω
5.3 159.7, 15.6

78 ◒
XERCES (Xer)
Xerces blue
(Glaucopsyche xerces)
✝ 1941

Brilliant blue butterfly in the dark blue sky. Xerces is the only thing that is bluer than the sky itself. Some say that butterflies are flying flowers and Xerces is never far from Palaeoaldrovanda. He must be careful though. Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Nobody wants to take that chance.

Shape: 8/1299 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.1 21.9,-51.9
β
2.4 8.1,-44.3
γ
2.6 13.0,-45.1
δ
2.6 26.7,-46.1
ε
2.8 18.6,-36.0
ζ
2.9 15.4,-40.4
η
2.9 20.5,-42.7
θ
3.1 19.3,-49.0
ι
3.2 9.3,-35.4
κ
3.7 21.4,-43.6
λ
3.8 9.6,-48.5
μ
3.8 25.2,-28.7
ν
3.9 16.0,-25.5
ξ
3.9 28.9,-38.3
ο
4.0 29.8,-43.0
π
4.0 21.1,-50.8
ρ
4.1 20.4,-25.3
ς
4.1 25.6,-44.5
σ
4.1 11.3,-36.5
τ
4.1 9.4,-42.8
υ
4.2 19.8,-26.4
φ
4.2 27.4,-29.9
χ
4.2 16.5,-26.2
ψ
4.3 17.0,-54.0
ω
4.3 14.7,-39.9

79 ◓
YERSINIA (Yer)
Black death
(Yersinia pestis)
✝ ?

Don't let Yersinia's small size fool you. The Black Death may be the smallest creature in the sky, but she'll liquify your insides before you can memorize the 80 constellations. Perhaps out of all the creatures in the sky, this is the one we're happy to see go. But, because it's small, you can never be quite sure Yersinia isn't extinct but merely hiding. Or waiting.

Shape: 3/418 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.7 95.5, 20.2
β
2.8 94.7, 19.1
γ
3.1 93.0, 18.8
δ
3.3 91.4, 19.8
ε
3.3 93.3, 22.1
ζ
3.3 91.8, 18.3
η
3.6 93.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 97.0, 12.9
ι
4.0 91.0, 16.7
κ
4.0 95.6, 17.8
λ
4.1 90.6, 15.5
μ
4.1 92.7, 15.4
ν
4.2 91.7, 18.5
ξ
4.3 97.5, 23.2
ο
4.4 88.6, 22.9
π
4.4 94.9, 23.3
ρ
4.5 89.5, 20.9
ς
4.5 96.6, 11.8
σ
4.6 91.7, 20.6
τ
4.6 92.0, 14.6
υ
4.7 89.2, 20.7
φ
4.7 97.4, 11.6
χ
4.8 92.2, 25.8
ψ
4.9 92.3, 27.7
ω
4.9 95.3, 13.1

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics

Thu 18-06-2020

Realistic models of epidemics account for latency, loss of immunity, births and deaths.

We continue with our discussion about epidemic models and show how births, deaths and loss of immunity can create epidemic waves—a periodic fluctuation in the fraction of population that is infected.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. (read)

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore epidemic waves and introduces the idea of the phase plane, a compact way to understand the evolution of an epidemic over its entire course.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. Nature Methods 17:557–558.

Background reading

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

Gene Machines

Fri 05-06-2020

Shifting soundscapes, textures and rhythmic loops produced by laboratory machines.

In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Segue was commissioned to create an original composition based on audio recordings from the GSC's laboratory equipment, robots and computers—to make “music” from the noise they produce.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gene Machines by Segue. Now available on vinyl.

Virus Mutations Reveal How COVID-19 Really Spread

Mon 01-06-2020

Genetic sequences of the coronavirus tell story of when the virus arrived in each country and where it came from.

Our graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the June 2020 issue shows a phylogenetic tree based on a snapshot of the data model from Nextstrain as of 31 March 2020.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Virus Mutations Reveal How COVID-19 Really Spread. Text by Mark Fischetti (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: Nextstrain (enabled by data from GISAID).

Cover of Nature Cancer April 2020

Mon 27-04-2020

Our design on the cover of Nature Cancer's April 2020 issue shows mutation spectra of patients from the POG570 cohort of 570 individuals with advanced metastatic cancer.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Each ellipse system represents the mutation spectrum of an individual patient. Individual ellipses in the system correspond to the number of base changes in a given class and are layered by mutation count. Ellipse angle is controlled by the proportion of mutations in a class within the sample and its size is determined by a sigmoid mapping of mutation count scaled within the layer. The opacity of each system represents the duration since the diagnosis of advanced disease. (read more)

The cover design accompanies our report in the issue Pleasance, E., Titmuss, E., Williamson, L. et al. (2020) Pan-cancer analysis of advanced patient tumors reveals interactions between therapy and genomic landscapes. Nat Cancer 1:452–468.

Modeling infectious epidemics

Tue 16-06-2020

Every day sadder and sadder news of its increase. In the City died this week 7496; and of them, 6102 of the plague. But it is feared that the true number of the dead this week is near 10,000 ....
—Samuel Pepys, 1665

This month, we begin a series of columns on epidemiological models. We start with the basic SIR model, which models the spread of an infection between three groups in a population: susceptible, infected and recovered.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (read)

We discuss conditions under which an outbreak occurs, estimates of spread characteristics and the effects that mitigation can play on disease trajectories. We show the trends that arise when "flattenting the curve" by decreasing `R_0`.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (read)

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore how the model curves change with parameters such as infectious period, basic reproduction number and vaccination level.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

The Outbreak Poems

Sat 04-04-2020

I'm writing poetry daily to put my feelings into words more often during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Tears decline
the
plural of sad.
Souls look out
from
dark eye windows.

Read the poems and learn what a piku is.