Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert Curve
Here we are now at the middle of the fourth large part of this talk.Pepe Deluxeget nowheremore quotes

pi: exciting


EMBO Practical Course: Bioinformatics and Genome Analysis, 5–17 June 2017.


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2017 Pi Day art imagines the digits of Pi as a star catalogue with constellations of extinct animals and plants. The work is featured in the article Pi in the Sky at the Scientific American SA Visual blog.

`\pi` Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants


Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong.

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
—Horace

This year: creatures that don't exist, but once did, in the skies.

And a poem Of Black Body.

This year's `\pi` day song is Exploration by Karminsky Experience Inc. Why? Because "you never know what you'll find on an exploration".

create myths and contribute!

Want to contribute to the mythology behind the constellations in the `\pi` in the sky? Many already have a story, but others still need one. Please submit your stories!

The `\pi` star chart has 80 constellations. Many of them have stories to tell—look up and listen.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A basic render of the `\pi` star chart in plate carrée projection, with focus on the constellations. (zoom)

I would love to have a complete mythology for each constellation. Please submit your stories!

contributions

Camptor — Veronica Falconeri

dramatis personae—the constellations

The symbols beside the constellation index indicate which hemisphere the constellation can be found (◓ north, ◒ south or ● both). The first 25 brightest stars in the constellation are also listed, along with their apparent magnitude, longitude and latitude.


1 ●
ALAOTRA (Ala)
Alaotra grebe
(Tachybaptus rufolavatus)
✝ 1985-2010

Alaotra is frustrated that Tadorna seems to get all the attention. Often confused for a duck, Alaotra would love you to know that she's in fact a grebe. She's very proud of this fact, despite of being prone to falls due to some biomechanical issues having to do with foot placement.

Shape: 3/57 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 166.8, -0.2
β
2.3 160.7, 10.8
γ
2.5 163.3, 4.5
δ
3.0 164.9, -0.4
ε
3.4 172.9, 4.8
ζ
3.6 178.0, 7.0
η
3.7 174.2, 9.9
θ
3.8 176.9, -2.5
ι
3.8 160.8, 10.3
κ
4.0 168.7, 2.7
λ
4.1 179.8, -0.7
μ
4.1 162.2, 3.3
ν
4.2 166.3, 3.7
ξ
4.3 163.9, 3.3
ο
4.3 177.6, 4.9
π
4.3 163.3, 4.9
ρ
4.3 163.5, 10.0
ς
4.3 174.4, 4.2
σ
4.5 159.1, 12.5
τ
4.7 160.2, 9.2
υ
4.8 173.7, -0.7
φ
5.0 177.0, 6.6
χ
5.0 172.4, 0.4
ψ
5.1 168.4, -0.5
ω
5.1 163.7, -1.2

2 ◓
ALLOPERLA (All)
Robert's Stonefly
(Alloperla roberti)
✝ ?

Shape: 4/42 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -82.0, 55.3
β
2.8 -89.2, 64.1
γ
3.0 -87.0, 72.1
δ
3.3 -82.1, 59.2
ε
3.5 -83.7, 73.7
ζ
3.6 -94.1, 54.9
η
3.7 -89.0, 69.0
θ
3.7 -83.5, 60.1
ι
3.9 -85.1, 68.6
κ
3.9 -85.4, 54.4
λ
3.9 -84.5, 81.5
μ
4.0 -88.8, 57.1
ν
4.0 -81.2, 58.8
ξ
4.3 -89.1, 62.9
ο
4.3 -83.4, 67.9
π
4.4 -89.3, 52.8
ρ
4.5 -78.9, 68.1
ς
4.8 -87.7, 72.1
σ
4.9 -93.7, 79.6
τ
5.0 -84.9, 58.5
υ
5.0 -85.4, 67.4
φ
5.1 -88.3, 55.4
χ
5.3 -83.2, 55.5
ψ
5.5 -90.6, 54.6
ω
6.2 -94.6, 77.4

3 ◓
APLONIS (Apl)
mysterious bird of Ulieta
(Aplonis ulietensis)
✝ 1774-1850

Shape: 2/21 stars, 1 edges.

α
1.0 25.9, 60.0
β
1.2 15.0, 71.6
γ
3.7 28.1, 65.4
δ
3.8 16.9, 72.0
ε
4.5 14.6, 72.2
ζ
4.5 18.6, 69.2
η
4.6 17.6, 73.5
θ
4.7 25.0, 63.4
ι
5.1 3.5, 75.4
κ
5.1 2.6, 53.8
λ
5.3 24.3, 71.4
μ
5.5 13.0, 76.2
ν
5.5 21.2, 60.3
ξ
5.6 29.1, 75.1
ο
6.0 18.0, 66.7
π
6.2 6.7, 56.3
ρ
6.2 2.9, 59.6
ς
6.4 15.2, 56.2
σ
7.1 22.0, 60.1
τ
7.1 23.4, 58.4
υ
7.1 10.2, 63.7

4 ●
ARAUCARIA (Ara)
Araucaria
(Araucaria mirabilis)
✝ middle Jurassic

Araucaria is truly a marvel. She is so large, in fact, that the constellation only shows the canopy and does not include the tree trunk—which was known to reach a height of 100 m. Araucaria offers plenty of protection and has many flying friends all around, including Urania, Moho and WhĒkau. Just a little further are the ducks (and a grebe), Camptor, Mariana, Tadorna and Alaotra. They would love to visit Araucaria but worry that they are too heavy to perch on her branches.

Shape: 8/1232 stars, 8 edges.

α
-0.4 143.3, 5.3
β
0.5 120.1, 17.0
γ
1.4 148.3, 4.7
δ
1.7 138.1, 12.7
ε
1.7 143.6, 5.3
ζ
1.8 129.1, 27.3
η
1.8 138.7, 4.7
θ
2.0 137.1, 17.3
ι
2.2 127.3, 19.1
κ
2.4 132.7, 16.6
λ
2.4 123.3, 18.8
μ
2.7 148.8, 7.0
ν
2.8 118.3, 17.2
ξ
3.0 146.0, 13.3
ο
3.0 130.1, 4.9
π
3.1 135.0, 19.7
ρ
3.1 136.5, 8.3
ς
3.3 129.4, 5.2
σ
3.3 134.4, 29.5
τ
3.4 140.5, 13.9
υ
3.4 122.4, 13.1
φ
3.5 126.5, 15.0
χ
3.5 130.5, 18.1
ψ
3.6 127.6, 19.5
ω
3.6 129.4, 20.0

5 ◒
ARCHAEAMPHORA (Archaea)
Archaeamphora
(Archaeamphora longicervia)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 7/1838 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.9 87.6,-18.5
β
2.1 79.1,-26.6
γ
2.4 95.8,-20.0
δ
2.5 92.1,-19.9
ε
2.5 76.4,-26.0
ζ
2.6 96.4, -8.8
η
2.9 86.0,-13.9
θ
3.0 92.7,-23.4
ι
3.1 83.8,-18.8
κ
3.1 94.7,-11.7
λ
3.2 89.0, -8.0
μ
3.4 83.4, -7.4
ν
3.4 80.9, -8.8
ξ
3.4 92.0, -0.1
ο
3.5 96.8,-19.8
π
3.5 78.3,-12.1
ρ
3.6 84.4,-30.2
ς
3.6 92.8,-30.1
σ
3.7 83.7,-15.0
τ
3.7 81.3, -4.3
υ
3.7 80.5, -6.0
φ
3.7 91.9, -6.0
χ
3.7 79.6,-19.2
ψ
3.7 92.3, -8.2
ω
3.8 92.4, -9.8

6 ◒
ARCHAEFRUCTUS (Archaef)
-
(Archaefructus eoflora)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 5/1019 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -97.9,-21.1
β
2.7 -103.1,-31.8
γ
2.8 -81.4,-15.6
δ
2.8 -98.5,-28.8
ε
2.8 -94.8,-18.9
ζ
3.0 -83.7,-19.1
η
3.1 -109.8,-37.8
θ
3.1 -88.7,-12.9
ι
3.1 -102.8,-21.5
κ
3.2 -88.5,-17.9
λ
3.2 -98.4,-35.1
μ
3.2 -97.6,-19.4
ν
3.2 -90.2,-20.3
ξ
3.2 -84.4,-10.7
ο
3.4 -81.7,-26.7
π
3.5 -102.5,-29.4
ρ
3.5 -103.5,-34.5
ς
3.6 -93.9,-28.6
σ
3.6 -103.2,-22.7
τ
3.6 -92.4,-23.2
υ
3.6 -108.2,-23.7
φ
3.7 -105.7,-29.6
χ
3.7 -92.2,-23.2
ψ
3.8 -100.6,-29.7
ω
3.9 -106.0,-35.2

7 ◓
ARCHAEOPTERYX (Archaeo)
Urvogel
(Archaeopteryx lithographica)
✝ late Jurassic

Shape: 14/2287 stars, 14 edges.

α
2.0 148.1, 37.2
β
2.3 144.0, 23.2
γ
2.4 142.3, 75.2
δ
2.4 130.6, 42.8
ε
2.6 126.7, 37.9
ζ
2.9 139.2, 79.0
η
3.0 135.2, 45.1
θ
3.2 151.4, 43.9
ι
3.3 145.2, 63.2
κ
3.4 125.2, 43.7
λ
3.4 135.4, 34.8
μ
3.4 144.7, 67.3
ν
3.4 144.4, 57.8
ξ
3.5 142.5, 42.3
ο
3.5 148.0, 32.6
π
3.6 117.4, 51.9
ρ
3.6 131.7, 47.5
ς
3.7 149.8, 26.0
σ
3.7 143.1, 34.8
τ
3.8 127.9, 43.6
υ
3.8 138.5, 31.5
φ
3.8 123.0, 38.9
χ
3.8 140.5, 27.4
ψ
3.8 152.9, 49.2
ω
4.0 146.5, 58.4

8 ◓
ARDEA (Ard)
Bennu heron
(Ardea bennuides)
✝ Holocene

Urged by Camelops, Ardea is trying to beat Aepyornis and be the first to see beyond the sky. It looks like she may be winning, but Camelops knows its a futile pursuit. Only he knows what is beyond the sky.

Shape: 9/1768 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.6 -149.2, 81.4
β
2.0 -160.2, 53.3
γ
2.0 -169.6, 52.9
δ
2.1 -162.1, 33.7
ε
2.1 -172.7, 22.1
ζ
2.4 -159.3, 60.5
η
2.4 -161.8, 61.3
θ
2.5 -166.7, 58.1
ι
2.7 -168.7, 56.0
κ
2.8 -169.2, 31.0
λ
3.0 -155.9, 79.2
μ
3.0 -179.7, 57.2
ν
3.0 -151.8, 61.1
ξ
3.3 -147.5, 66.8
ο
3.4 -176.4, 39.8
π
3.4 -162.3, 38.3
ρ
3.5 -172.8, 36.2
ς
3.6 -168.7, 37.1
σ
3.7 -148.8, 70.2
τ
3.7 -174.0, 31.7
υ
3.7 -178.4, 43.5
φ
3.7 -162.3, 45.3
χ
3.7 -167.5, 48.5
ψ
3.7 -169.4, 47.3
ω
3.8 -156.5, 64.2

9 ◓
ARGENTAVIS (Arg)
magnificent silver bird
(Argentavis magnificens)
✝ late Miocene

Argentavis is a big bird in the big sky. There are many stories of his feud with Pelagornis, who spreads his wings in the southern hemisphere — both insist that they have the biggest wing span.

Shape: 5/69 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 64.9, 27.1
β
2.8 68.8, 26.7
γ
3.0 69.2, 33.4
δ
3.1 55.6, 30.2
ε
3.5 65.1, 41.7
ζ
3.5 55.1, 35.4
η
3.5 63.4, 26.3
θ
3.5 71.7, 43.2
ι
3.7 58.2, 35.7
κ
3.8 71.1, 43.2
λ
3.8 71.0, 41.9
μ
3.9 65.0, 26.8
ν
4.0 58.2, 41.5
ξ
4.0 53.3, 25.1
ο
4.0 68.9, 40.9
π
4.0 65.9, 29.4
ρ
4.2 61.2, 28.5
ς
4.2 72.2, 32.9
σ
4.2 71.2, 29.8
τ
4.3 64.3, 32.6
υ
4.3 65.4, 23.7
φ
4.3 67.4, 31.9
χ
4.3 62.4, 25.2
ψ
4.4 69.0, 35.8
ω
4.4 60.1, 21.4

10 ◓
AUROCHS (Aur)
Aurochs
(Bos primigenius)
✝ 1627

Runs in the vast plains of the north together with Mammuthus and Quagga.

Shape: 7/62 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.8 63.3, 66.1
β
2.9 50.6, 49.8
γ
2.9 69.3, 58.4
δ
3.1 61.0, 59.1
ε
3.2 40.8, 60.8
ζ
3.3 34.5, 52.9
η
3.5 65.4, 61.1
θ
3.6 63.8, 47.3
ι
3.7 50.1, 49.1
κ
3.7 62.2, 58.3
λ
3.8 68.8, 59.8
μ
3.8 39.8, 63.8
ν
3.8 46.5, 40.0
ξ
3.9 64.0, 66.5
ο
4.1 32.1, 50.9
π
4.2 30.9, 53.1
ρ
4.3 55.8, 60.7
ς
4.3 40.3, 46.0
σ
4.4 33.3, 58.5
τ
4.5 56.1, 56.9
υ
4.6 57.9, 61.4
φ
4.7 57.9, 48.0
χ
4.7 42.7, 34.7
ψ
4.7 67.4, 59.1
ω
4.8 61.0, 47.1

11 ◒
BASILOSAURUS (Bas)
king lizard
(Basilosaurus cetoides)
✝ late Eocene

The king lizard dives into the depths of the sky at the very tip of the south hemisphere. Some say that he is chasing the South star, `\alpha` Basilosaurus.

Shape: 3/61 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.8 180.0,-88.1
β
3.3 -166.2,-86.7
γ
3.3 -168.1,-66.1
δ
3.4 -118.3,-74.7
ε
3.6 -138.6,-70.5
ζ
3.6 -2.9,-85.6
η
3.6 -171.5,-78.3
θ
3.6 -78.3,-85.5
ι
3.7 -166.7,-70.0
κ
3.7 2.0,-81.0
λ
3.7 179.3,-80.9
μ
3.8 -4.9,-86.5
ν
3.8 -65.7,-84.9
ξ
4.0 58.5,-85.2
ο
4.1 -140.2,-87.3
π
4.2 90.8,-86.0
ρ
4.2 -29.5,-86.8
ς
4.3 -175.5,-77.0
σ
4.3 62.4,-80.9
τ
4.5 -139.5,-70.5
υ
4.5 -120.2,-73.4
φ
4.6 -141.2,-74.7
χ
4.7 -153.7,-69.7
ψ
5.0 -125.1,-70.0
ω
5.0 90.0,-85.7

12 ◓
BOLYERIA (Bol)
Round Island Burrowing boa
(Bolyeria multocarinata)
✝ 1975

Shape: 5/602 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.7 -108.2, 43.1
β
2.9 -116.2, 40.8
γ
3.1 -102.1, 36.4
δ
3.5 -110.0, 32.0
ε
3.6 -109.5, 39.0
ζ
3.6 -117.5, 33.5
η
3.6 -104.9, 46.7
θ
3.9 -116.9, 38.9
ι
3.9 -112.5, 35.7
κ
4.0 -120.2, 41.3
λ
4.0 -116.7, 32.2
μ
4.1 -109.3, 36.8
ν
4.2 -116.5, 46.4
ξ
4.2 -113.1, 32.2
ο
4.3 -103.4, 31.8
π
4.3 -119.9, 37.6
ρ
4.3 -117.1, 39.6
ς
4.3 -110.8, 40.6
σ
4.5 -117.9, 43.0
τ
4.5 -100.0, 39.3
υ
4.5 -107.3, 39.1
φ
4.6 -122.4, 30.5
χ
4.6 -114.3, 33.2
ψ
4.6 -101.8, 41.8
ω
4.7 -109.0, 34.7

13 ◓
BRON (Bro)
thunder lizard
(Brontosaurus excelsus)
✝ late Jurassic

It's hard to be bigger than Bron. He must always pay attention not to step on his frolicking friend Compsognathus, who seeks to find protection in Bron's shadow. Some believe that if Bron stretches his neck, he can look above the sky! But don't tell Ardea this—she's in a contest with Aepyornis to be the first!

Shape: 12/5230 stars, 11 edges.

α
1.3 -139.4, 27.3
β
1.6 -104.6, 13.8
γ
1.8 -167.0, 8.5
δ
2.0 -80.3, 1.0
ε
2.0 -123.1, 25.8
ζ
2.4 -62.3, 8.1
η
2.4 -109.5, 20.5
θ
2.5 -123.5, 17.8
ι
2.6 -94.8, 13.5
κ
2.6 -107.7, 7.0
λ
2.7 -133.7, 20.4
μ
2.8 -170.6, 13.2
ν
2.9 -125.4, 12.4
ξ
2.9 -174.0, 7.6
ο
2.9 -127.0, 25.8
π
3.0 -159.1, 22.4
ρ
3.0 -92.0, 5.9
ς
3.0 -100.7, 12.5
σ
3.0 -111.8, 27.5
τ
3.0 -108.9, 9.8
υ
3.1 -111.2, 23.9
φ
3.1 -111.0, 12.7
χ
3.1 -147.7, 28.6
ψ
3.1 -61.8,-13.0
ω
3.2 -169.8, 7.6

14 ◓
CAMELOPS (Came)
Camelops
(Camelops kansanus)
✝ late Pliocene to early Holocene

Camelops played a cruel joke on Ardea and Aepyornis, asking them to try to look beyond the sky. Both think they have the longest neck, so they're still trying!

Shape: 6/1789 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.5 -146.6, 37.9
β
2.9 -136.6, 37.6
γ
3.0 -124.9, 57.9
δ
3.0 -153.9, 42.7
ε
3.0 -132.1, 36.7
ζ
3.3 -154.5, 44.8
η
3.3 -133.9, 49.7
θ
3.3 -127.6, 60.2
ι
3.4 -130.3, 36.8
κ
3.4 -142.0, 53.2
λ
3.6 -138.4, 47.4
μ
3.6 -129.2, 64.1
ν
3.6 -149.4, 42.2
ξ
3.7 -124.8, 38.1
ο
3.7 -148.8, 43.4
π
3.7 -151.6, 46.1
ρ
3.8 -126.3, 44.9
ς
3.8 -127.3, 43.0
σ
3.9 -151.5, 53.3
τ
3.9 -144.8, 65.8
υ
3.9 -137.0, 50.2
φ
3.9 -136.5, 42.1
χ
3.9 -134.8, 36.8
ψ
4.0 -152.5, 35.0
ω
4.0 -133.1, 40.2

15 ◓
CAMPTOR (Camp)
Labrador duck
(Camptorhynchus labradorius)
✝ 1878

Camptor flew long and far to find a pond without ducks on Earth, but could find no such pond. So she chose longest journey, and flew to settle in the sky.

Shape: 3/570 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 160.1, 21.1
β
2.5 178.3, 27.0
γ
2.5 174.1, 11.8
δ
2.6 172.1, 10.8
ε
2.7 157.7, 22.5
ζ
2.7 167.3, 34.6
η
2.9 170.9, 32.2
θ
2.9 179.5, 24.0
ι
3.2 171.4, 20.4
κ
3.4 177.4, 25.4
λ
3.4 161.5, 22.3
μ
3.5 173.9, 14.4
ν
3.6 168.2, 21.7
ξ
3.6 160.1, 28.0
ο
3.7 179.4, 30.1
π
3.7 163.9, 13.1
ρ
3.8 157.4, 34.2
ς
3.8 170.5, 29.5
σ
3.8 160.8, 22.8
τ
3.9 177.1, 7.9
υ
3.9 161.9, 34.4
φ
3.9 179.8, 24.6
χ
4.0 174.7, 21.0
ψ
4.0 178.3, 14.5
ω
4.0 159.7, 31.4

16 ◓
CARACARA (Car)
Guadalupe caracara
(Caracara lutosa)
✝ 1900 or 1903

Shape: 4/7 stars, 4 edges.

α
3.7 47.9, 72.0
β
3.7 44.3, 75.1
γ
3.8 45.8, 68.8
δ
3.9 41.5, 72.0
ε
4.8 43.9, 71.7
ζ
5.5 54.3, 75.2
η
6.3 43.8, 73.2

17 ●
CERVUS (Cer)
Eastern elk
(Cervus canadensis canadensis)
✝ 1 September 1877

The last elk was shot in Pennsylvania. Oops.

Shape: 6/296 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.3 30.9,-20.2
β
1.5 18.3, -9.6
γ
1.7 18.1, 4.2
δ
2.1 32.1,-10.8
ε
2.4 17.8, -2.0
ζ
2.9 28.1,-12.0
η
3.1 35.8, 1.2
θ
3.1 34.5, -1.4
ι
3.2 30.1,-23.1
κ
3.2 21.4, 8.4
λ
3.4 24.7, -0.9
μ
3.4 24.2, -2.8
ν
3.4 22.9,-20.7
ξ
3.5 19.7,-25.0
ο
3.6 19.9, -5.2
π
3.6 34.8, 3.7
ρ
3.6 26.8, 2.1
ς
3.6 22.1,-13.5
σ
3.7 16.0, 18.6
τ
3.7 23.2, 15.2
υ
3.7 30.5, 6.9
φ
3.7 28.2,-16.4
χ
3.8 18.6, 13.7
ψ
3.8 19.1,-11.0
ω
3.9 28.3, 7.4

18 ◓
COMPSOGNATHUS (Com)
Compsognathus
(Compsognathus longipes)
✝ late Jurassic

The tiniest of dinosaurs, Compsognathus hides in the protection of Bron's shadow.

Shape: 2/190 stars, 1 edges.

α
3.6 -103.2, 25.8
β
4.2 -102.6, 26.1
γ
4.3 -97.6, 29.4
δ
4.3 -98.2, 27.5
ε
4.3 -103.4, 27.1
ζ
4.7 -99.7, 26.2
η
4.7 -100.8, 26.2
θ
4.8 -101.7, 25.0
ι
4.8 -103.8, 27.0
κ
4.9 -101.1, 23.8
λ
5.1 -100.3, 22.6
μ
5.1 -98.1, 24.1
ν
5.2 -98.6, 23.3
ξ
5.2 -100.4, 23.5
ο
5.2 -106.0, 29.2
π
5.3 -98.0, 22.8
ρ
5.3 -102.8, 28.6
ς
5.3 -99.2, 24.0
σ
5.4 -97.6, 27.9
τ
5.4 -98.7, 29.2
υ
5.4 -105.0, 26.3
φ
5.5 -106.7, 24.1
χ
5.5 -103.0, 26.6
ψ
5.5 -104.6, 24.4
ω
5.5 -100.5, 22.6

19 ◒
COOKSONIA (Coo)
-
(Cooksonia bohemica)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 5/364 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.2 -63.4,-48.9
β
1.9 -53.2,-57.7
γ
2.3 -59.2,-53.5
δ
2.5 -57.2,-56.0
ε
2.6 -58.7,-61.9
ζ
2.6 -64.6,-67.4
η
2.9 -59.4,-46.5
θ
3.1 -68.3,-49.7
ι
3.2 -63.6,-47.7
κ
3.2 -64.7,-53.3
λ
3.2 -65.7,-48.2
μ
3.4 -58.7,-45.2
ν
3.5 -68.5,-48.3
ξ
3.6 -46.3,-58.4
ο
3.7 -67.7,-58.8
π
3.7 -47.2,-58.9
ρ
3.8 -48.6,-74.0
ς
3.9 -54.7,-57.5
σ
3.9 -54.5,-50.0
τ
4.0 -52.4,-71.4
υ
4.1 -50.5,-58.2
φ
4.1 -57.9,-44.0
χ
4.1 -61.5,-73.0
ψ
4.1 -67.1,-60.6
ω
4.2 -57.5,-50.9

20 ◒
COPEPTERYX (Cop)
Copepteryx
(Copepteryx titan)
✝ late Oligocene

Shape: 6/57 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.5 162.7,-30.0
β
0.8 161.2,-44.6
γ
1.6 174.6,-29.1
δ
1.6 172.9,-54.4
ε
1.8 176.6,-43.7
ζ
2.3 178.4,-14.9
η
2.4 158.8,-39.3
θ
2.8 174.9,-37.6
ι
3.0 163.2,-51.6
κ
3.0 166.3,-57.6
λ
3.0 158.6,-33.0
μ
3.2 160.1,-24.9
ν
3.3 158.2,-33.3
ξ
3.3 168.1,-49.5
ο
3.4 176.2,-52.9
π
3.4 172.5,-57.4
ρ
3.4 174.4,-43.1
ς
3.5 175.6,-17.8
σ
3.5 173.9,-31.4
τ
3.6 157.1,-25.4
υ
3.7 170.9,-29.9
φ
3.8 174.6,-30.2
χ
4.1 164.6,-31.0
ψ
4.1 178.6,-37.7
ω
4.2 167.5,-32.4

21 ◒
CORVINA (Cor)
Kosrae starling
(Aplonis corvina)
✝ mid 19th century

Shape: 3/82 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.4 124.9,-21.3
β
2.9 123.6,-17.2
γ
3.2 117.9,-15.7
δ
3.4 117.1,-23.2
ε
3.5 116.9,-20.6
ζ
3.8 120.1,-12.5
η
3.9 128.4,-24.6
θ
3.9 124.3,-14.0
ι
3.9 115.0,-18.3
κ
4.0 119.7,-21.5
λ
4.0 125.4,-21.9
μ
4.1 129.7,-14.6
ν
4.1 124.4,-18.3
ξ
4.2 123.1,-22.0
ο
4.2 126.8,-20.4
π
4.3 121.2,-20.0
ρ
4.3 121.6,-18.0
ς
4.3 120.4,-20.6
σ
4.4 127.0,-19.7
τ
4.4 123.6,-24.1
υ
4.4 114.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 117.0,-13.5
χ
4.6 119.5,-21.1
ψ
4.6 119.1,-14.6
ω
4.6 125.9,-20.2

22 ◒
CUPIDO (Cup)
Heath hen
(Tympanuchus cupido cupido)
✝ 1932

Shape: 4/1164 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 58.8,-21.1
β
2.7 62.9,-27.9
γ
2.7 73.8,-18.1
δ
3.2 60.1,-13.1
ε
3.2 57.8,-21.1
ζ
3.3 57.6,-28.5
η
3.4 64.2,-22.1
θ
3.6 65.7,-10.7
ι
3.8 72.5,-12.1
κ
3.8 59.5,-16.4
λ
3.9 66.5,-12.1
μ
3.9 66.7,-18.7
ν
3.9 69.5,-28.3
ξ
4.0 70.1,-18.0
ο
4.0 60.3,-14.0
π
4.2 72.5,-18.0
ρ
4.2 64.0,-14.0
ς
4.3 70.0,-18.1
σ
4.3 63.8,-24.4
τ
4.3 59.7, -8.9
υ
4.4 63.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 60.7,-19.9
χ
4.4 63.8,-12.0
ψ
4.5 63.8,-16.5
ω
4.6 63.4,-27.9

23 ◒
CYLINDRASPIS (Cyl)
Giant tortoise
(Cylindraspis indica)
✝ 1795

Ever since meeting Pinta, they've been fast (and slow) friends.

Shape: 4/233 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.1 27.7,-67.6
β
1.6 14.9,-61.4
γ
2.1 15.3,-71.4
δ
2.8 16.9,-75.3
ε
2.9 28.7,-69.5
ζ
3.0 28.2,-76.3
η
3.1 16.5,-61.4
θ
3.2 19.4,-56.6
ι
3.4 21.0,-67.8
κ
3.4 18.6,-77.3
λ
3.5 20.6,-62.1
μ
3.6 29.0,-65.2
ν
3.8 38.7,-62.0
ξ
3.8 5.3,-76.3
ο
3.9 29.6,-75.1
π
4.1 33.1,-66.5
ρ
4.2 15.4,-64.4
ς
4.2 31.9,-62.1
σ
4.3 30.0,-61.0
τ
4.3 16.1,-69.1
υ
4.3 31.5,-79.1
φ
4.3 32.5,-57.2
χ
4.3 32.2,-58.0
ψ
4.4 24.2,-77.5
ω
4.5 11.0,-63.7

24 ◒
DEINOCHEIRUS (Dei)
-
(Deinocheirus mirificus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 5/47 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.6 -130.4,-49.4
β
2.8 -124.9,-52.7
γ
2.8 -142.5,-51.2
δ
2.8 -144.4,-45.5
ε
2.9 -119.5,-51.6
ζ
3.1 -119.6,-47.6
η
3.5 -136.6,-52.8
θ
3.6 -132.1,-61.3
ι
3.6 -127.6,-65.5
κ
3.6 -131.4,-56.3
λ
3.7 -135.2,-54.2
μ
3.7 -138.2,-48.9
ν
3.8 -125.5,-49.5
ξ
4.4 -126.7,-57.9
ο
4.4 -117.3,-49.1
π
4.7 -140.8,-61.2
ρ
4.7 -142.3,-56.2
ς
4.7 -117.2,-45.9
σ
4.7 -124.0,-58.9
τ
4.8 -119.5,-50.5
υ
4.8 -146.1,-67.1
φ
4.8 -135.5,-63.7
χ
5.1 -141.9,-60.8
ψ
5.3 -136.6,-50.6
ω
5.3 -113.5,-51.2

25 ◓
DESMODUS (Des)
Giant Vampire Bat
(Desmodus draculae)
✝ Pleistocene or early Holocene

It is thought that each night Desmodus flies up against the dome of the sky, looking for a way to escape.

Shape: 3/122 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 -72.9, 70.4
β
2.8 29.1, 77.7
γ
3.4 -58.5, 71.8
δ
3.5 60.5, 88.1
ε
3.6 -167.3, 70.3
ζ
3.6 23.6, 79.4
η
3.6 108.0, 82.9
θ
3.7 -132.9, 71.2
ι
3.8 -141.7, 76.6
κ
3.8 -175.7, 71.0
λ
3.9 -106.4, 87.6
μ
3.9 30.8, 83.5
ν
4.0 -126.8, 75.8
ξ
4.0 -94.9, 84.7
ο
4.0 170.4, 88.4
π
4.1 -178.1, 73.5
ρ
4.1 98.0, 85.8
ς
4.2 -137.3, 74.1
σ
4.2 168.0, 83.9
τ
4.2 -167.7, 68.5
υ
4.2 108.8, 83.3
φ
4.3 -164.9, 70.1
χ
4.3 -124.1, 75.6
ψ
4.3 126.3, 85.2
ω
4.4 160.0, 77.3

26 ◓
ECTOPISTES (Ect)
Passenger pigeon
(Ectopistes migratorius)
✝ 1 September 1914

The last pidgeon, Martha, died in 1914 at the Cincinanati zoo. What a place to leave the earth from, eh?

Shape: 3/33 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.4 -28.5, 59.8
β
2.0 -19.7, 76.4
γ
2.7 -11.0, 68.1
δ
3.0 -34.3, 63.4
ε
3.2 -32.2, 73.3
ζ
3.3 -21.8, 64.7
η
3.5 -25.5, 62.4
θ
3.5 -6.2, 66.0
ι
3.5 -12.7, 56.1
κ
3.8 2.2, 73.5
λ
4.1 -10.4, 57.7
μ
4.2 -4.8, 77.3
ν
4.3 -15.0, 55.7
ξ
4.3 -10.6, 63.4
ο
4.3 -10.1, 76.5
π
4.5 -6.2, 65.6
ρ
4.5 -1.6, 61.1
ς
4.9 -12.5, 54.3
σ
5.1 -18.1, 53.0
τ
5.1 -29.3, 65.2
υ
5.2 -21.3, 69.4
φ
5.2 -16.9, 55.7
χ
5.4 -26.5, 55.9
ψ
5.5 -7.1, 64.6
ω
5.6 -29.3, 70.0

27 ●
GLYPTODON (Gly)
Glyptodon
(Glyptodon clavipes)
✝ Pleistocene

The Glyptodon is very slowly crossing from the south to the north hemisphere to play with Bron and Compsognathus. Will he make it?

Shape: 7/332 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.4 -140.9, 0.9
β
2.4 -123.4, 0.6
γ
2.8 -126.9,-13.6
δ
2.8 -114.0, -5.3
ε
2.9 -134.8, 4.8
ζ
2.9 -128.9, 4.7
η
2.9 -137.4,-10.0
θ
3.0 -135.7,-14.2
ι
3.0 -142.1, 6.0
κ
3.1 -141.4,-14.0
λ
3.1 -138.0, -9.7
μ
3.1 -121.1,-11.0
ν
3.6 -112.7, -6.6
ξ
3.6 -137.3, 3.0
ο
3.8 -126.6, -5.1
π
3.8 -122.3, -7.3
ρ
3.8 -141.4, -1.7
ς
3.8 -113.2, 4.5
σ
3.8 -138.7,-12.3
τ
3.9 -124.4, 4.8
υ
3.9 -127.3, 1.6
φ
4.0 -120.8, -0.1
χ
4.1 -129.0,-11.2
ψ
4.1 -118.9,-12.4
ω
4.1 -114.1, -3.1

28 ◓
HIPPOTRAGUS (Hip)
Bluebuck
(Hippotragus niger)
✝ 1799-1800

Shape: 7/437 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.9 78.0, 32.5
β
1.6 80.8, 29.4
γ
2.3 80.1, 36.0
δ
2.3 85.2, 19.5
ε
2.7 74.7, 32.0
ζ
2.8 84.6, 37.3
η
3.0 79.3, 29.5
θ
3.3 71.5, 21.1
ι
3.4 76.8, 19.4
κ
3.4 76.8, 41.0
λ
3.6 70.8, 15.4
μ
3.6 93.1, 37.0
ν
3.7 72.8, 22.8
ξ
3.7 72.6, 41.3
ο
3.7 81.2, 19.5
π
3.8 88.2, 33.4
ρ
3.9 80.4, 20.1
ς
3.9 83.5, 29.2
σ
4.0 83.0, 23.1
τ
4.0 75.4, 12.3
υ
4.0 84.9, 35.7
φ
4.1 87.5, 43.2
χ
4.1 72.1, 12.8
ψ
4.1 73.7, 39.1
ω
4.2 81.0, 11.8

29 ◒
HOOPOE (Hoo)
hoopoe starling
(Fregilupus varius)
✝ 1850s

Shape: 3/73 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 100.5,-25.4
β
3.2 103.9,-30.5
γ
3.3 109.6,-27.5
δ
3.9 100.9,-28.9
ε
3.9 99.5,-25.1
ζ
4.0 110.1,-20.8
η
4.0 104.6,-32.2
θ
4.1 109.0,-27.0
ι
4.1 109.3,-30.7
κ
4.3 108.2,-22.5
λ
4.5 104.6,-27.2
μ
4.6 103.6,-23.7
ν
4.7 100.7,-19.9
ξ
4.8 100.1,-29.8
ο
4.8 108.5,-17.6
π
4.8 101.1,-27.9
ρ
4.8 106.4,-23.6
ς
4.8 110.2,-29.4
σ
4.8 107.2,-22.1
τ
4.8 104.6,-24.6
υ
4.9 102.7,-27.6
φ
4.9 100.3,-22.9
χ
5.0 104.8,-18.2
ψ
5.0 103.8,-23.9
ω
5.1 102.7,-32.0

30 ◒
HUIA (Hui)
Huia
(Heteralocha acutirostris)
✝ 1907

Shape: 3/53 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.2 -108.0,-14.9
β
3.4 -105.8,-13.9
γ
3.4 -106.2,-12.0
δ
3.5 -106.4,-13.8
ε
3.8 -107.8,-10.4
ζ
4.1 -106.7,-13.8
η
4.1 -106.9,-19.7
θ
4.3 -107.1,-11.7
ι
4.4 -107.6,-19.3
κ
4.5 -107.7,-13.7
λ
4.7 -109.9,-11.6
μ
4.8 -108.4,-17.6
ν
4.8 -105.4,-14.2
ξ
4.9 -106.7,-15.6
ο
5.0 -106.8,-13.3
π
5.1 -103.4,-11.7
ρ
5.1 -109.8,-10.8
ς
5.1 -104.6,-10.1
σ
5.2 -106.9,-13.6
τ
5.2 -105.2,-17.4
υ
5.3 -105.7,-11.7
φ
5.4 -105.3,-19.6
χ
5.5 -102.6,-15.8
ψ
5.5 -108.9,-11.3
ω
5.5 -106.5,-14.1

31 ◓
HYDRODAMALIS (Hyd)
Steller's sea cow
(Hydrodamalis gigas)
✝ 1768

Shape: 4/72 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 -51.1, 19.5
β
2.6 -42.5, 16.6
γ
2.7 -50.6, 25.5
δ
2.7 -29.5, 38.6
ε
3.0 -30.6, 27.8
ζ
3.0 -53.4, 30.8
η
3.2 -49.6, 34.1
θ
3.4 -33.5, 30.8
ι
3.5 -40.9, 37.1
κ
3.5 -47.6, 19.7
λ
3.5 -49.3, 32.1
μ
3.6 -43.7, 35.2
ν
3.6 -34.2, 32.4
ξ
3.6 -52.9, 22.4
ο
3.8 -56.7, 31.9
π
3.8 -43.8, 17.0
ρ
3.9 -43.8, 20.2
ς
3.9 -49.4, 29.6
σ
4.0 -53.1, 41.8
τ
4.0 -40.9, 24.3
υ
4.0 -33.0, 51.9
φ
4.1 -48.0, 22.8
χ
4.1 -31.6, 36.0
ψ
4.1 -45.0, 17.9
ω
4.1 -44.3, 20.2

32 ●
IBEX (Ibe)
Pyrenean ibex
(Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica))
✝ 2000

Shape: 6/817 stars, 6 edges.

α
1.5 -43.2,-21.3
β
2.0 -53.4, 6.2
γ
2.0 -49.2, -4.5
δ
2.2 -41.2,-12.1
ε
2.5 -53.4,-16.6
ζ
2.5 -55.7, -3.2
η
2.8 -56.9,-10.2
θ
2.8 -55.0, -9.0
ι
3.3 -45.0,-12.2
κ
3.5 -42.4,-12.2
λ
3.6 -46.7, -7.9
μ
3.7 -46.8,-13.9
ν
3.8 -49.7, -7.4
ξ
3.8 -54.4, 0.6
ο
3.9 -41.1,-20.6
π
4.0 -49.3,-14.6
ρ
4.0 -56.3, -8.6
ς
4.0 -49.9, 7.6
σ
4.0 -48.1,-15.9
τ
4.1 -44.9,-27.1
υ
4.1 -50.5, -6.9
φ
4.1 -53.6,-13.4
χ
4.1 -40.4,-14.5
ψ
4.2 -50.0,-25.9
ω
4.2 -57.4,-21.9

33 ◓
INCILIUS (Inc)
Golden toad
(Incilius periglenes)
✝ 15 May 1989

Toads are studied by herpetologists. I'd love to be one just so that I can say that word at a party.

Shape: 4/106 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 -107.3, 61.0
β
2.6 -108.6, 56.1
γ
2.7 -118.9, 56.6
δ
3.3 -112.9, 61.9
ε
3.6 -117.5, 56.4
ζ
3.7 -110.4, 47.5
η
3.8 -112.7, 60.7
θ
3.8 -113.0, 49.2
ι
3.8 -113.4, 65.5
κ
3.8 -113.7, 55.1
λ
4.0 -108.0, 63.6
μ
4.1 -119.3, 60.3
ν
4.2 -107.6, 49.0
ξ
4.4 -112.2, 49.8
ο
4.5 -117.4, 66.0
π
4.6 -113.2, 48.4
ρ
4.7 -121.4, 51.5
ς
4.7 -116.9, 52.9
σ
4.7 -120.1, 48.2
τ
4.7 -109.9, 49.6
υ
4.7 -114.6, 49.7
φ
4.7 -121.2, 54.5
χ
4.8 -113.7, 58.7
ψ
4.8 -114.2, 62.5
ω
4.8 -116.1, 49.2

34 ◓
KELENKEN (Kel)
Terror bird
(Kelenken guillermoi)
✝ Miocene

Shape: 5/48 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.6 10.9, 14.0
β
1.9 9.0, 27.4
γ
2.2 -4.6, 17.4
δ
2.4 9.4, 18.3
ε
2.7 13.8, 26.3
ζ
2.9 -0.6, 12.1
η
3.1 11.2, 22.4
θ
3.3 15.0, 25.6
ι
3.4 1.3, 25.0
κ
3.5 5.8, 7.7
λ
3.7 8.9, 20.3
μ
3.8 4.6, 29.2
ν
3.8 -7.4, 20.0
ξ
3.8 1.4, 9.5
ο
4.1 13.7, 17.6
π
4.2 2.1, 15.5
ρ
4.5 3.9, 18.4
ς
4.6 1.9, 21.9
σ
4.6 3.9, 27.4
τ
4.8 -4.7, 22.1
υ
4.8 10.4, 29.8
φ
4.9 -1.0, 10.2
χ
5.1 -3.0, 8.1
ψ
5.2 13.3, 20.5
ω
5.2 3.1, 12.4

35 ◒
KIMBETOPSALIS (Kim)
-
(Kimbetopsalis simmonsae)
✝ middle Puercan

Shape: 8/2155 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.2 34.3,-48.0
β
1.4 33.6,-31.4
γ
1.4 79.6,-47.0
δ
1.6 58.0,-41.7
ε
2.1 89.4,-37.1
ζ
2.3 63.5,-37.8
η
2.3 79.6,-39.4
θ
2.4 59.8,-32.4
ι
2.6 36.9,-42.6
κ
2.7 40.7,-35.7
λ
2.7 73.1,-45.3
μ
2.9 45.6,-32.4
ν
2.9 30.9,-41.4
ξ
3.4 31.3,-28.9
ο
3.4 89.1,-39.8
π
3.4 44.6,-26.6
ρ
3.4 43.4,-44.2
ς
3.5 55.2,-31.5
σ
3.6 42.5,-30.8
τ
3.6 40.8,-40.0
υ
3.6 63.9,-37.2
φ
3.7 55.0,-25.7
χ
3.8 42.0,-32.4
ψ
3.8 37.6,-30.4
ω
3.9 50.2,-38.2

36 ●
KLEKOWSKII (Kle)
Colossus penguin
(Palaeeudyptes klekowskii)
✝ late Eocene

Shape: 5/714 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 46.2, 3.2
β
1.5 57.7, 14.2
γ
1.8 53.1, -9.6
δ
1.8 38.3, 13.3
ε
2.1 45.6, 11.4
ζ
2.5 48.5,-13.8
η
2.6 52.7, 18.4
θ
2.7 42.5, 0.0
ι
2.8 46.4, 10.7
κ
2.8 49.8,-12.5
λ
2.9 54.1, -5.8
μ
3.0 36.6, 16.1
ν
3.1 39.6,-15.1
ξ
3.2 51.7, 3.6
ο
3.3 48.8, 8.5
π
3.4 53.1, 7.2
ρ
3.5 47.3, 15.7
ς
3.5 48.3,-10.8
σ
3.6 36.5, 9.3
τ
3.6 67.4, 10.3
υ
3.6 65.2, 13.5
φ
3.7 67.5, 15.2
χ
3.8 52.1, 13.6
ψ
3.8 58.1, 17.1
ω
3.8 54.9,-22.9

37 ◒
LEPIDODENDRON (Lep)
Scale tree
(Lepidodendron)
✝ Carboniferous

Shape: 6/1028 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 -19.4,-47.6
β
2.6 -24.8,-50.1
γ
2.9 -21.9,-44.0
δ
2.9 -24.5,-38.8
ε
2.9 -34.2,-44.1
ζ
3.0 -37.6,-41.3
η
3.1 -43.0,-52.1
θ
3.2 -44.7,-40.0
ι
3.4 -30.0,-42.2
κ
3.6 -37.9,-48.5
λ
3.7 -28.2,-40.8
μ
3.9 -18.6,-56.8
ν
4.0 -33.8,-42.1
ξ
4.0 -36.0,-51.0
ο
4.0 -33.7,-38.5
π
4.0 -39.9,-38.2
ρ
4.1 -43.8,-40.7
ς
4.1 -20.8,-54.6
σ
4.1 -33.9,-42.5
τ
4.2 -25.8,-48.7
υ
4.2 -28.8,-39.3
φ
4.3 -36.1,-56.3
χ
4.3 -23.8,-51.5
ψ
4.4 -33.6,-56.2
ω
4.4 -30.4,-48.5

38 ◓
MALPAISOMYS (Mal)
Lava mouse
(Malpaisomys insularis)
✝ ?

Not much is known about when Malpaisomys became extinct. Some think it's when humans and dogs arrived on the Canary islands. Malpaisomys worries that because of his small size, nobody cares.

Shape: 3/38 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.4 123.7, 78.1
β
2.8 120.5, 71.0
γ
2.8 124.0, 77.7
δ
3.5 127.5, 74.1
ε
3.7 126.3, 79.5
ζ
3.7 125.7, 81.3
η
3.7 113.1, 74.3
θ
3.8 113.6, 74.5
ι
3.8 119.5, 71.6
κ
4.1 116.8, 74.7
λ
4.1 132.6, 76.6
μ
4.2 121.2, 73.2
ν
4.3 114.7, 77.7
ξ
4.5 132.0, 69.9
ο
4.6 124.4, 70.2
π
4.7 129.0, 69.3
ρ
4.8 119.4, 71.9
ς
4.8 118.7, 66.2
σ
4.9 130.6, 65.3
τ
5.4 112.6, 68.5
υ
5.6 130.4, 64.3
φ
5.6 131.5, 82.4
χ
5.7 112.7, 68.0
ψ
5.8 121.8, 70.9
ω
5.8 129.3, 66.6

39 ◓
MAMMUTHUS (Mam)
Woolly mammoth
(Mammuthus primigenius)
✝ Pleistocene, early Holocene

Shape: 8/69 stars, 7 edges.

α
-0.7 13.6, 33.6
β
0.6 26.5, 31.5
γ
1.7 19.3, 41.5
δ
1.9 36.3, 37.6
ε
2.3 7.2, 34.4
ζ
2.5 24.6, 46.6
η
2.6 33.6, 46.1
θ
2.9 13.0, 35.9
ι
3.0 34.2, 33.9
κ
3.0 5.0, 51.1
λ
3.1 21.5, 20.4
μ
3.1 30.2, 46.3
ν
3.2 7.6, 37.1
ξ
3.2 -3.9, 43.0
ο
3.3 29.8, 43.9
π
3.3 33.0, 27.3
ρ
3.3 25.6, 46.0
ς
3.5 19.6, 47.2
σ
3.6 24.2, 33.8
τ
3.7 7.3, 33.5
υ
3.8 5.3, 45.5
φ
4.0 18.2, 51.1
χ
4.2 6.1, 42.5
ψ
4.4 -1.8, 40.9
ω
4.4 -0.6, 39.4

40 ●
MARIANA (Mar)
Mariana mallard
(Anas oustaleti)
✝ 1981

Shape: 3/17 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.7 157.8, -4.1
β
3.5 155.8, -2.1
γ
4.0 154.1, -3.4
δ
4.0 155.4, -0.3
ε
4.1 155.9, -2.7
ζ
4.3 159.4, 0.4
η
4.8 154.8, -1.1
θ
4.9 153.4, 0.6
ι
5.1 154.1, -2.1
κ
5.2 157.5, 4.2
λ
5.8 153.1, -0.7
μ
5.9 158.9, -1.5
ν
6.0 152.6, -6.6
ξ
6.1 157.4, 0.9
ο
6.2 155.5, 2.3
π
6.6 152.7, -4.7
ρ
7.0 156.0, -7.2

41 ◒
MEGALODON (Megal)
Giant shark
(Carcharodon Megalodon)
✝ early miocene, late Pliocene

One word: terrifying. More words: endlessly chasing Tecopa. The megalodon possesses the brightest star in the sky.

Shape: 4/20 stars, 4 edges.

α
-2.0 127.3,-65.2
β
2.9 129.9,-74.5
γ
2.9 148.7,-74.0
δ
3.0 134.5,-62.4
ε
3.3 128.0,-66.4
ζ
3.7 136.4,-74.1
η
3.9 120.4,-67.1
θ
4.2 131.4,-69.0
ι
4.6 140.6,-75.0
κ
4.8 145.4,-72.0
λ
4.9 146.5,-77.1
μ
4.9 135.1,-68.5
ν
5.0 120.8,-76.0
ξ
5.4 127.6,-69.5
ο
5.8 125.0,-77.4
π
5.9 132.1,-74.1
ρ
6.0 121.6,-75.9
ς
6.3 146.0,-68.3
σ
6.5 132.3,-62.7
τ
6.9 139.5,-77.0

42 ◒
MEGANEURA (Megan)
Giant dragonfly
(Meganeura brongniarti)
✝ late Carboniferous

Shape: 5/122 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 -81.4,-71.5
β
2.0 -97.1,-83.7
γ
2.2 -113.2,-61.9
δ
2.5 -90.5,-57.6
ε
2.7 -104.2,-57.2
ζ
3.1 -93.9,-79.9
η
3.2 -107.8,-68.1
θ
3.2 -107.9,-80.4
ι
3.3 -107.3,-77.8
κ
3.4 -76.9,-71.1
λ
3.5 -91.8,-65.3
μ
3.5 -101.5,-78.4
ν
3.6 -92.8,-59.1
ξ
3.6 -108.1,-75.7
ο
3.6 -96.6,-75.1
π
3.6 -79.4,-55.8
ρ
3.6 -90.2,-66.2
ς
3.8 -90.8,-52.8
σ
3.8 -89.3,-66.0
τ
3.8 -90.6,-62.0
υ
3.9 -104.2,-58.6
φ
3.9 -112.1,-79.0
χ
4.0 -114.5,-69.0
ψ
4.0 -84.6,-56.7
ω
4.1 -115.6,-62.8

43 ◓
MINMI (Min)
Minmi
(Minmi paravertebra)
✝ early Cretaceous

The Minmi is actually much larger than his name suggests. He really wants you to know that.

Shape: 5/749 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.8 87.9, 7.3
β
2.3 89.9, 7.9
γ
2.5 76.6, 6.0
δ
2.7 87.0, 7.2
ε
2.7 93.4, 7.5
ζ
3.1 95.9, 5.7
η
3.3 86.5, 2.3
θ
3.6 79.2, 8.3
ι
3.6 94.6, 6.3
κ
3.7 79.7, 5.7
λ
3.7 84.7, 8.1
μ
3.8 95.8, 9.9
ν
4.1 80.0, 7.1
ξ
4.2 93.8, 0.3
ο
4.2 76.1, 4.3
π
4.2 98.7, 2.8
ρ
4.3 78.0, 1.7
ς
4.3 78.9, 7.2
σ
4.3 84.7, 8.1
τ
4.4 97.3, 4.4
υ
4.4 77.6, 2.1
φ
4.4 78.4, 7.7
χ
4.5 76.1, 5.4
ψ
4.5 76.5, 8.4
ω
4.5 98.1, 3.4

44 ◓
MOA (Moa)
Moa
(Dinornis novaezealandiae)
✝ Miocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/60 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -17.2, 27.0
β
1.0 -25.6, 22.4
γ
1.6 -21.0, 17.5
δ
1.8 -10.9, 34.4
ε
1.9 -11.9, 45.0
ζ
2.0 -23.0, 43.6
η
2.6 -9.5, 35.4
θ
2.6 -23.4, 26.2
ι
2.8 -33.0, 20.6
κ
3.0 -14.3, 17.8
λ
3.0 -7.6, 35.2
μ
3.2 -8.5, 40.0
ν
3.3 -19.6, 48.5
ξ
3.3 -8.8, 44.9
ο
3.4 -16.8, 29.5
π
3.5 -17.6, 49.5
ρ
3.5 -16.9, 37.1
ς
3.7 -32.9, 24.9
σ
3.8 -21.4, 40.6
τ
3.8 -25.0, 16.9
υ
4.1 -28.5, 23.9
φ
4.1 -21.0, 23.6
χ
4.5 -12.8, 16.4
ψ
4.5 -10.1, 42.4
ω
4.6 -23.2, 18.1

45 ◒
MOHO (Moh)
ʻōʻō
(Moho braccatus)
✝ 1987

The ʻōʻō has all its letters with diacriticals. This makes the whēkau jealous. They haven't talked since.

Shape: 6/70 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 135.0, -7.0
β
2.6 131.3,-10.0
γ
3.1 130.1, -5.5
δ
3.4 135.9, -7.8
ε
3.5 129.3, -4.6
ζ
3.8 141.4,-19.0
η
4.0 143.0, -2.7
θ
4.0 135.5,-10.0
ι
4.0 136.3,-10.4
κ
4.0 132.2,-11.1
λ
4.1 134.1, -9.0
μ
4.1 128.3,-10.1
ν
4.1 138.6, -7.6
ξ
4.1 136.5, -7.5
ο
4.1 132.9, -6.2
π
4.2 143.7, -5.7
ρ
4.2 135.5,-15.6
ς
4.4 141.6,-17.4
σ
4.4 141.7,-10.3
τ
4.4 140.1,-10.4
υ
4.5 137.5,-12.2
φ
4.6 132.3, -7.5
χ
4.7 134.1, -7.9
ψ
4.8 134.3, -9.4
ω
4.8 134.8,-13.4

46 ◓
NESIOTA (Nes)
St Helena Olive
(Nesiota elliptica)
✝ 2003

I frankly hate olives and there's no end to my pleasure in throwing olives at the sky.

Shape: 4/784 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.8 116.4, 37.4
β
2.8 112.3, 25.9
γ
2.9 117.3, 30.7
δ
3.4 105.5, 29.0
ε
3.4 112.5, 23.4
ζ
3.5 115.9, 34.5
η
3.6 112.5, 36.9
θ
4.0 104.4, 23.0
ι
4.1 111.4, 33.1
κ
4.2 110.4, 29.8
λ
4.2 108.4, 33.2
μ
4.3 102.5, 23.2
ν
4.3 119.4, 23.5
ξ
4.3 115.1, 33.7
ο
4.4 118.3, 37.5
π
4.4 115.4, 36.3
ρ
4.5 119.0, 26.9
ς
4.6 103.4, 36.7
σ
4.6 109.4, 37.4
τ
4.6 109.2, 32.7
υ
4.6 117.3, 35.6
φ
4.7 102.9, 36.6
χ
4.7 106.6, 28.2
ψ
4.7 115.7, 36.3
ω
4.8 103.9, 26.4

47 ◒
O'AHU 'AKEPA (Oah)
O'ahu 'akepa
(Loxops wolstenholmei)
✝ 1990s

Like Pipilo, the O'ahu 'akepa is the only other multi-part constellation. Here, a pair of akepas are chatting and spreading rumors about Tadorna.

Shape: 4/30 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.3 150.9, -4.2
β
2.6 151.7,-13.5
γ
3.1 148.9, -9.1
δ
3.7 148.2,-12.2
ε
3.7 152.9,-16.5
ζ
3.8 152.8, -9.6
η
3.9 145.9, -7.0
θ
4.2 149.0,-11.2
ι
4.3 149.9,-15.6
κ
4.3 147.3,-13.2
λ
4.6 149.7, -1.2
μ
4.8 147.7, -7.3
ν
4.8 153.8,-18.9
ξ
4.9 152.5,-15.8
ο
5.0 147.1, -5.4
π
5.1 148.0,-10.5
ρ
5.2 148.5, -4.1
ς
5.2 150.8, -2.3
σ
5.5 145.7,-11.2
τ
5.6 147.0, -9.4
υ
5.7 148.5,-14.4
φ
5.9 152.4, -8.4
χ
6.1 150.4, -1.2
ψ
6.2 151.2, -6.9
ω
6.2 146.8, -3.9

48 ◒
PALAEOALDROVANDA (Pal)
-
(Palaeoaldrovanda splendens)
✝ late Cretaceous

Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Xerces is seen flying nearby. He must be careful.

Shape: 3/121 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.0 1.0,-44.3
β
3.4 2.1,-38.5
γ
3.6 6.9,-39.5
δ
3.9 4.7,-42.1
ε
4.1 2.5,-37.8
ζ
4.1 2.1,-40.7
η
4.7 2.7,-43.6
θ
4.8 6.7,-41.6
ι
4.9 1.7,-44.7
κ
5.1 1.5,-42.0
λ
5.1 4.7,-44.7
μ
5.1 0.9,-42.0
ν
5.1 2.2,-43.3
ξ
5.1 0.5,-40.1
ο
5.4 3.0,-44.2
π
5.6 3.4,-43.4
ρ
5.7 6.2,-38.4
ς
5.7 5.8,-39.6
σ
5.8 2.6,-38.4
τ
5.8 4.0,-42.5
υ
5.9 6.1,-38.7
φ
6.0 1.9,-38.7
χ
6.0 4.2,-43.6
ψ
6.2 3.5,-44.4
ω
6.2 1.4,-38.9

49 ●
PECATONICA (Pec)
Pecatonica River mayfly
(Acanthametropus pecatonica)
✝ -

The mayfly loves to pester Raphus, the Dodo bird. He is too worried about guarding his eggs to pay attention to Pecatonica, though.

Shape: 4/58 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.3 3.9, -2.1
β
3.1 1.0, -1.4
γ
3.3 4.0, -7.2
δ
3.5 4.7, 6.2
ε
3.5 14.1, -0.2
ζ
3.7 6.1, 5.4
η
3.8 2.2, -6.7
θ
4.1 1.4, 6.9
ι
4.2 11.4, -3.1
κ
4.2 1.1, -9.7
λ
4.3 14.1, 6.5
μ
4.3 11.9, 1.8
ν
4.6 4.7, 6.0
ξ
4.6 12.3, -2.2
ο
4.6 3.7, -3.5
π
4.8 -3.6, -0.6
ρ
4.8 8.3, 3.3
ς
4.8 2.7, 5.5
σ
5.0 8.1, 6.1
τ
5.0 6.7, -1.8
υ
5.1 3.3, -1.3
φ
5.2 8.0, -1.0
χ
5.2 7.7, -6.3
ψ
5.4 -2.3, -6.3
ω
5.6 7.6, -9.9

50 ◒
PELAGORNIS (Pel)
Pelagornis
(Pelagornis sandersi)
✝ upper Oligocene

He can barely fit in the southern skies. With a wingspan of over 5 meters, he is certain that he is the biggest bird in the sky. However, Argentavis of the northern hemisphere disagrees.

Shape: 6/192 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.4 74.8,-55.9
β
2.7 92.1,-47.9
γ
3.1 60.2,-50.6
δ
3.3 49.0,-48.0
ε
3.4 83.7,-51.3
ζ
3.4 67.3,-52.6
η
3.5 81.6,-50.7
θ
3.7 86.6,-53.6
ι
4.1 58.6,-51.6
κ
4.3 85.9,-53.3
λ
4.3 77.7,-57.0
μ
4.4 50.6,-48.6
ν
4.4 70.2,-51.2
ξ
4.5 84.8,-54.3
ο
4.6 90.4,-48.8
π
4.6 55.4,-51.2
ρ
4.7 60.3,-51.9
ς
4.7 76.5,-51.8
σ
4.7 89.9,-56.3
τ
4.7 60.1,-45.5
υ
4.8 65.0,-49.2
φ
4.8 56.3,-46.2
χ
4.9 74.0,-50.4
ψ
4.9 72.4,-50.5
ω
4.9 67.6,-50.3

51 ◒
PHELSUMA (Phe)
Rodrigues day gecko
(Phelsuma edwardnewtoni)
✝ late 1800s?

The Phelsuma was described as unafraid of humans and said to be tame and happy to eat fruit from your hand. Lessons to be learned here?

Shape: 10/131 stars, 10 edges.

α
0.5 -121.9,-33.4
β
1.1 -160.8,-36.7
γ
1.4 -128.5,-26.2
δ
1.4 -151.1,-41.5
ε
1.5 -177.8,-36.5
ζ
1.5 -156.1,-32.5
η
1.8 -131.8,-43.7
θ
1.8 -137.6,-30.2
ι
2.0 -148.0,-31.3
κ
2.0 -178.0,-55.0
λ
2.1 -167.1,-33.7
μ
2.1 -140.1,-27.1
ν
2.3 -177.6,-42.4
ξ
2.6 -143.7,-32.1
ο
2.7 -153.2,-29.1
π
2.8 -137.2,-27.4
ρ
3.0 -111.4,-31.8
ς
3.1 -157.5,-31.9
σ
3.3 -153.6,-33.1
τ
3.3 -144.3,-28.6
υ
3.3 -141.6,-31.9
φ
3.4 -167.7,-48.4
χ
3.4 -166.6,-53.8
ψ
3.5 -132.3,-40.5
ω
3.5 -161.7,-48.0

52 ◓
PINGUINUS (Ping)
Great auk
(Pinguinus impennis)
✝ 1852

Shape: 3/88 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.0 -70.5, 55.1
β
1.5 -68.3, 57.7
γ
2.6 -75.9, 52.3
δ
2.8 -71.9, 38.9
ε
2.9 -67.6, 36.3
ζ
3.5 -65.0, 47.1
η
3.5 -75.4, 32.0
θ
3.5 -75.2, 38.8
ι
3.6 -63.6, 48.5
κ
3.8 -61.0, 47.5
λ
3.8 -70.8, 36.0
μ
3.9 -75.6, 32.2
ν
3.9 -70.6, 32.4
ξ
3.9 -60.9, 44.1
ο
4.0 -74.5, 39.9
π
4.0 -69.1, 50.6
ρ
4.0 -73.1, 33.1
ς
4.0 -68.4, 39.2
σ
4.1 -74.6, 40.0
τ
4.1 -60.8, 35.7
υ
4.1 -57.9, 30.8
φ
4.2 -74.3, 54.3
χ
4.2 -72.7, 36.0
ψ
4.2 -67.7, 31.2
ω
4.3 -70.2, 63.6

53 ◵
PINTA (Pint)
Pinta Island tortoise
(Chelonoidis abingdonii)
✝ 24 June 2012

The last of its kind, a male named Lonesome George, died in 2012.

Shape: 5/402 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -32.6,-64.5
β
1.9 -39.5,-74.1
γ
2.0 -5.6,-63.5
δ
2.3 -4.8,-54.5
ε
2.5 -2.1,-74.5
ζ
3.1 -16.6,-61.4
η
3.4 -6.9,-69.2
θ
3.6 -19.7,-64.4
ι
3.6 -12.5,-65.5
κ
3.6 -43.5,-68.9
λ
3.6 -1.3,-67.5
μ
3.7 -30.0,-76.8
ν
3.8 -32.2,-67.9
ξ
3.8 -17.1,-76.7
ο
4.0 -14.3,-61.5
π
4.1 -11.3,-59.0
ρ
4.2 -29.4,-69.7
ς
4.2 -42.2,-64.8
σ
4.2 -6.6,-66.7
τ
4.3 2.1,-63.6
υ
4.3 -10.3,-53.7
φ
4.4 -36.5,-71.8
χ
4.4 0.4,-79.0
ψ
4.4 -15.9,-61.5
ω
4.4 -8.7,-56.0

54 ●
PIPILO (Pip)
Bermuda towhee
(Pipilo naufragus)
✝ Pleistocene, Holocene

A rare flocking constellation. Thef towhees cross hemispheres and keep the Glyptodon company.

Shape: 44/261 stars, 22 edges.

α
2.9 -137.7,-20.1
β
3.0 -165.7,-13.7
γ
3.0 -168.1,-29.1
δ
3.0 -157.3,-18.6
ε
3.0 -147.3,-23.0
ζ
3.1 -123.5,-21.5
η
3.1 -176.5, -2.9
θ
3.1 -169.8,-28.5
ι
3.1 -149.3,-21.6
κ
3.1 -162.6,-13.4
λ
3.1 -172.9, -9.0
μ
3.1 -172.4,-23.2
ν
3.2 -178.1,-25.6
ξ
3.2 -170.7, -9.0
ο
3.3 -159.1,-21.5
π
3.4 -171.9,-19.7
ρ
3.4 -176.0, 1.9
ς
3.5 -140.9, 11.1
σ
3.5 -178.9,-24.7
τ
3.5 -178.5,-12.7
υ
3.5 -166.3,-18.1
φ
3.6 -152.2, 3.1
χ
3.6 -144.1, 10.7
ψ
3.6 -157.5, -5.7
ω
3.6 -143.4, -2.1

55 ●
PLEOROTUS (Ple)
Pleorotus
(Pleorotus braueri)
✝ 1894

Shape: 5/406 stars, 5 edges.

α
3.2 59.4, 1.1
β
3.2 60.1, -3.6
γ
3.3 74.9, -6.7
δ
3.6 65.7, -3.7
ε
3.7 63.0, -3.6
ζ
3.8 65.8, 2.2
η
3.8 71.9, 2.3
θ
3.8 64.0, 1.2
ι
3.9 70.5, 3.2
κ
4.0 71.3, 1.5
λ
4.2 67.6, 4.4
μ
4.2 66.5, -3.8
ν
4.2 62.2, -5.2
ξ
4.3 70.6, -6.7
ο
4.3 68.8, -4.9
π
4.3 60.4, 3.3
ρ
4.4 72.4, 2.8
ς
4.5 70.8, -2.3
σ
4.5 69.3, 8.9
τ
4.5 62.2, 2.0
υ
4.7 60.6, 4.5
φ
4.7 69.2, 9.4
χ
4.7 67.6, -3.8
ψ
4.7 65.9, 5.3
ω
4.7 65.3, 6.1

56 ◓
PLUCHEA (Plu)
Pluchea
(Pluchea glutinosa)
✝ 19th century

Shape: 4/652 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.4 104.3, 15.1
β
1.4 99.0, 17.4
γ
1.6 110.6, 15.4
δ
2.1 103.7, 18.4
ε
2.6 110.6, 15.8
ζ
3.3 103.7, 11.7
η
3.7 112.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 113.2, 19.6
ι
3.7 98.5, 20.8
κ
3.8 111.2, 15.6
λ
3.9 107.3, 13.5
μ
4.0 102.0, 10.6
ν
4.0 101.6, 18.6
ξ
4.0 114.9, 16.5
ο
4.0 111.0, 13.3
π
4.1 97.7, 21.3
ρ
4.1 110.1, 19.0
ς
4.1 111.0, 19.7
σ
4.2 109.8, 22.4
τ
4.2 107.1, 11.7
υ
4.3 105.8, 19.7
φ
4.4 110.1, 19.5
χ
4.5 104.0, 14.3
ψ
4.5 114.2, 20.0
ω
4.5 102.5, 13.6

57 ◓
PO'OULI (Poo)
po'o-uli
(Melamprosops phaeosoma)
✝ 2004?

The last sighting of a pair of po'ouli was in 2004 and now again, in the sky of pi.

Shape: 4/145 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.8 107.1, 43.5
β
2.2 103.0, 45.9
γ
2.6 101.5, 40.0
δ
2.8 97.7, 42.5
ε
3.2 107.7, 52.6
ζ
3.2 106.1, 53.5
η
3.2 111.4, 40.9
θ
3.5 106.1, 38.8
ι
3.6 98.4, 52.1
κ
3.7 97.5, 44.4
λ
4.0 99.5, 40.9
μ
4.1 108.4, 54.3
ν
4.3 106.4, 47.8
ξ
4.3 112.4, 54.3
ο
4.3 102.8, 39.4
π
4.4 101.2, 52.2
ρ
4.4 99.9, 42.1
ς
4.4 105.2, 46.1
σ
4.5 106.3, 51.5
τ
4.6 112.4, 54.1
υ
4.6 107.6, 54.8
φ
4.7 111.0, 48.2
χ
4.7 99.0, 48.9
ψ
4.7 110.5, 38.0
ω
4.7 100.8, 42.9

58 ◒
PORZANA (Por)
Laysan rail
(Porzana palmeri)
✝ 1944

Tiny guys in the corner.

Shape: 2/7 stars, 1 edges.

α
2.7 169.3,-60.9
β
4.8 168.6,-63.1
γ
5.5 173.0,-77.9
δ
5.8 161.0,-72.5
ε
5.8 171.5,-76.4
ζ
6.4 159.9,-68.0
η
7.2 166.3,-62.4

59 ◒
PTERODACTYL (Pte)
Winged finger
(Pterodactylus antiquus)
✝ early Tithonian

Shape: 9/1676 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.7 6.2,-53.6
β
2.8 -26.3,-32.8
γ
2.9 -30.0,-26.2
δ
3.1 -34.6,-30.9
ε
3.2 -5.1,-43.4
ζ
3.3 -36.3,-22.8
η
3.4 -12.9,-42.5
θ
3.5 -17.3,-44.6
ι
3.6 11.0,-56.7
κ
3.6 -28.0,-35.9
λ
3.6 8.3,-59.1
μ
3.6 -18.0,-27.6
ν
3.6 -3.6,-48.7
ξ
3.7 -28.0,-35.6
ο
3.7 -21.6,-30.5
π
3.9 2.6,-49.1
ρ
3.9 -32.7,-29.5
ς
4.0 -11.0,-37.1
σ
4.0 -34.2,-34.6
τ
4.0 -26.0,-30.7
υ
4.0 -22.5,-30.4
φ
4.0 -31.9,-27.4
χ
4.1 -28.5,-33.0
ψ
4.1 -36.7,-22.7
ω
4.2 8.2,-63.5

60 ◓
QUAGGA (Qua)
Quagga
(Equus quagga quagga)
✝ 1883

Comical and uncertain of its stripes, Quagga is often seen asking Aurochs for his advice.

Shape: 6/139 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.8 73.0, 74.4
β
1.3 97.7, 60.3
γ
1.9 76.9, 55.4
δ
2.1 93.3, 77.0
ε
2.6 72.5, 52.3
ζ
2.7 90.6, 49.5
η
2.8 91.7, 74.8
θ
3.1 100.3, 74.9
ι
3.3 65.6, 78.2
κ
3.5 97.4, 50.5
λ
3.7 88.7, 55.0
μ
3.7 77.0, 55.7
ν
3.7 102.7, 69.8
ξ
3.7 103.9, 73.6
ο
3.8 95.3, 74.0
π
3.8 66.2, 74.0
ρ
3.9 99.3, 71.5
ς
3.9 79.3, 46.7
σ
3.9 91.4, 51.2
τ
4.0 68.3, 74.2
υ
4.0 93.4, 59.2
φ
4.1 84.9, 63.2
χ
4.1 111.3, 59.4
ψ
4.1 70.0, 66.3
ω
4.2 106.5, 60.3

61 ●
RAPHUS (Rap)
Dodo bird
(Raphus cucullatus)
✝ Holocene

Raphus is guarding his eggs—the clusters of stars just south of β Raphus (the second brightest star in the constellation) while pestered by Pecatonica.

Shape: 5/358 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.3 -23.6,-21.3
β
1.5 -27.7, 0.8
γ
1.8 -9.5,-14.7
δ
2.0 -37.5, 3.5
ε
2.3 -10.0, -6.2
ζ
2.8 -30.1, -7.4
η
2.8 -23.1, -1.6
θ
2.9 -28.8, -6.8
ι
2.9 -36.3, -7.7
κ
3.0 -19.1, 12.0
λ
3.2 -29.0, 7.7
μ
3.3 -38.3, -0.2
ν
3.4 -29.2, -7.7
ξ
3.4 -35.9,-19.4
ο
3.4 -21.5, -7.4
π
3.4 -39.0, 10.7
ρ
3.4 -36.1, -7.0
ς
3.5 -25.3,-21.4
σ
3.5 -35.1, 5.7
τ
3.5 -16.4, -5.9
υ
3.5 -20.2, -5.5
φ
3.5 -36.9, 1.5
χ
3.5 -36.6,-15.9
ψ
3.5 -23.3, -6.9
ω
3.6 -16.6,-14.9

62 ◒
RHYNIA (Rhy)
Rhynia
(Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 3/12 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 147.9,-54.4
β
2.6 160.0,-57.4
γ
3.2 157.4,-61.3
δ
3.3 158.7,-59.6
ε
3.6 146.2,-56.3
ζ
3.7 142.4,-61.6
η
4.8 153.1,-53.5
θ
5.5 152.9,-63.0
ι
5.6 142.5,-57.7
κ
5.6 143.5,-54.0
λ
6.4 145.4,-61.5
μ
6.5 155.4,-54.6

63 ◒
RODHOCETUS (Rod)
-
(Rodhocetus kasrani)
✝ Lutetian

Fleeing from the giant Megalodon, Rodhocetus was an early whale that possessed land mammal characteristics. Some say that he managed to escape from Megalodon and lived out his life on the land, never returning to the sea.

Shape: 6/44 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 96.7,-59.6
β
2.1 130.3,-51.7
γ
2.3 110.4,-54.7
δ
2.4 122.6,-57.0
ε
2.8 103.1,-51.5
ζ
2.9 116.2,-60.0
η
3.4 107.0,-58.8
θ
3.5 97.5,-47.7
ι
3.7 124.9,-53.5
κ
3.8 109.9,-54.9
λ
4.0 110.6,-49.2
μ
4.2 127.0,-52.2
ν
4.3 98.9,-50.5
ξ
4.3 117.8,-51.7
ο
4.4 130.1,-52.6
π
4.6 108.9,-59.5
ρ
4.7 95.6,-51.2
ς
4.9 104.4,-55.5
σ
5.0 100.3,-53.8
τ
5.0 106.1,-53.5
υ
5.2 111.5,-48.5
φ
5.3 100.0,-51.9
χ
5.3 101.5,-58.5
ψ
5.4 137.7,-57.3
ω
5.4 130.4,-58.2

64 ◒
SILPHIUM (Sil)
laserwort
(Ferula tingitana)
✝ 2,000 years ago

The last known stalk was given to Emperor Nero. As stories, some have said that he used Silphium as kindle to a larger fire.

Shape: 3/8 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 115.9,-50.1
β
2.9 114.5,-52.0
γ
3.1 116.2,-51.2
δ
3.9 113.9,-52.8
ε
4.1 114.8,-51.3
ζ
4.5 113.1,-50.5
η
5.0 114.9,-50.8
θ
5.6 114.9,-50.9

65 ◒
SIVATHERIUM (Siv)
Shiva's beast
(Sivatherium giganteum)
✝ Pliocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/577 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -4.3,-39.4
β
2.3 -2.4,-22.7
γ
2.7 10.0,-28.9
δ
2.8 5.9,-31.0
ε
3.1 9.1,-30.2
ζ
3.1 13.4,-17.1
η
3.2 0.8,-18.7
θ
3.2 13.3,-26.4
ι
3.2 4.2,-16.2
κ
3.3 4.8,-23.1
λ
3.5 2.1,-33.6
μ
3.5 -6.6,-21.5
ν
3.5 14.3,-10.8
ξ
3.5 -4.8,-39.8
ο
3.5 11.1,-24.7
π
3.5 -2.4,-16.7
ρ
3.5 9.3,-14.7
ς
3.6 -4.4,-31.0
σ
3.8 8.1,-15.3
τ
3.8 -0.3,-15.0
υ
3.8 -1.1,-35.6
φ
3.9 -6.2,-13.8
χ
4.0 6.2,-28.6
ψ
4.1 5.0,-12.2
ω
4.1 13.0,-11.7

66 ◒
SPELAEA (Spe)
Eurasian cave lion
(Panthera leo spelaea)
✝ 12,400 years ago

Shape: 6/202 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.7 61.9,-55.7
β
1.3 80.6,-65.7
γ
1.6 47.3,-57.3
δ
2.4 70.5,-71.4
ε
2.8 53.0,-66.2
ζ
3.1 43.5,-60.4
η
3.1 40.3,-76.6
θ
3.3 65.7,-67.3
ι
3.6 86.9,-59.8
κ
3.7 60.8,-72.8
λ
3.8 91.5,-63.8
μ
3.8 78.9,-59.9
ν
3.8 66.0,-72.5
ξ
3.8 82.4,-71.8
ο
3.9 80.7,-58.1
π
3.9 62.9,-77.0
ρ
3.9 77.6,-59.9
ς
3.9 67.3,-68.9
σ
3.9 41.5,-63.9
τ
4.0 68.1,-75.7
υ
4.0 59.2,-75.4
φ
4.1 41.3,-58.8
χ
4.1 76.4,-61.4
ψ
4.1 85.9,-57.9
ω
4.2 74.0,-68.4

67 ◒
SWAMPHEN (Swa)
Réunion swamphen
(Porphyrio coerulescens)
✝ 18th century

Swamphen is delighted to have a diacritical mark in its name, a characteristic shared only by the whēkau, who resides in the northern hemisphere and the ʻōʻō (Moho braccatus) who lives just to the north.

Shape: 3/19 stars, 2 edges.

α
3.1 106.3,-75.2
β
3.4 95.3,-70.7
γ
3.5 101.6,-76.1
δ
4.0 95.2,-65.2
ε
4.7 117.2,-80.0
ζ
4.8 96.7,-74.5
η
4.9 115.9,-69.2
θ
4.9 114.3,-67.0
ι
5.0 106.1,-65.7
κ
5.1 109.8,-71.0
λ
5.2 117.9,-69.9
μ
5.3 95.0,-67.7
ν
5.8 95.3,-65.5
ξ
6.3 114.9,-70.5
ο
6.6 114.5,-72.9
π
6.7 105.5,-65.1
ρ
6.7 114.5,-71.1
ς
6.8 99.2,-66.9
σ
7.1 115.3,-67.3

68 ◒
TADORNA (Tad)
Crested shelduck
(Tadorna cristata)
✝ ?

Rumor has it Tadorna may have snuck into the sky without permission—while not seen since the 1960’s, some say the duck isn’t extinct.

Shape: 3/31 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 162.9, -8.7
β
2.3 162.6,-11.2
γ
2.5 164.7, -5.7
δ
2.8 163.8,-12.8
ε
3.4 166.0, -6.0
ζ
3.6 168.8, -5.3
η
3.7 174.1, -7.1
θ
3.7 168.5,-17.1
ι
3.8 158.7,-14.7
κ
4.3 179.6,-11.2
λ
4.7 162.0, -7.2
μ
4.8 168.2, -5.7
ν
4.8 178.4,-12.3
ξ
4.8 160.7,-14.2
ο
4.8 162.1,-18.0
π
4.9 169.0,-13.3
ρ
5.1 162.0,-17.3
ς
5.4 165.3, -6.4
σ
5.8 179.8,-11.4
τ
5.8 156.1, -9.3
υ
5.9 158.8,-14.2
φ
6.0 158.7,-18.2
χ
6.0 169.3, -6.0
ψ
6.0 161.4, -8.5
ω
6.1 169.8, -3.1

69 ◒
TECOPA (Tec)
Tecopa pupfish
(Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae)
✝ 1979

Tecopa can tolerate heat, which allows him to escape from Megalodon, who will not chase Tecopa through the hot springs.

Shape: 4/100 stars, 3 edges.

α
0.4 102.1,-41.8
β
0.6 108.9,-43.2
γ
1.2 122.3,-37.8
δ
1.2 96.7,-32.2
ε
2.4 98.6,-43.5
ζ
2.6 110.2,-41.0
η
2.8 110.9,-34.7
θ
2.9 126.4,-40.2
ι
3.1 119.0,-33.0
κ
3.2 105.2,-34.3
λ
3.4 112.6,-36.6
μ
3.6 101.2,-42.9
ν
3.6 97.0,-33.0
ξ
3.6 104.0,-33.0
ο
3.7 102.5,-43.0
π
3.7 107.9,-40.5
ρ
3.7 100.2,-41.7
ς
3.8 120.1,-41.8
σ
3.9 113.1,-37.3
τ
4.1 97.8,-47.2
υ
4.2 105.6,-44.8
φ
4.2 116.4,-32.5
χ
4.2 115.2,-28.5
ψ
4.2 96.6,-31.4
ω
4.3 111.8,-44.7

70 ◒
THYLACINE (Thy)
Tasmanian tiger
(Thylacinus cynocephalus)
✝ 1936

The last of its kind was shot by Willem Dafoe in the movie The Hunter. To this day, the Thylacine can be seen screaming in the sky.

Shape: 10/2205 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.4 -74.9,-29.9
β
1.5 -61.7,-28.9
γ
2.0 -88.6,-47.6
δ
2.3 -95.4,-50.1
ε
2.5 -65.8,-32.6
ζ
3.2 -63.4,-41.6
η
3.2 -83.9,-30.8
θ
3.2 -59.7,-28.1
ι
3.2 -77.0,-48.1
κ
3.4 -58.1,-25.3
λ
3.4 -80.9,-51.5
μ
3.4 -53.4,-32.6
ν
3.4 -71.8,-19.5
ξ
3.4 -71.3,-20.6
ο
3.5 -106.1,-51.6
π
3.5 -53.8,-31.0
ρ
3.6 -85.3,-37.5
ς
3.7 -59.4,-22.0
σ
3.7 -69.6,-20.6
τ
3.7 -74.3,-43.1
υ
3.8 -56.1,-33.5
φ
3.9 -83.8,-46.3
χ
3.9 -81.6,-32.0
ψ
3.9 -89.9,-31.8
ω
3.9 -94.1,-44.6

71 ●
TRAVERSIA (Tra)
Stephens Island wren
(Traversia lyalli)
✝ 1895?

Shape: 3/481 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.8 -92.3, -3.3
β
3.4 -99.8, 0.5
γ
3.9 -98.9, -5.9
δ
3.9 -97.0, -6.5
ε
3.9 -101.7, -8.0
ζ
4.2 -92.6, -2.9
η
4.3 -101.1, 0.1
θ
4.4 -97.9, -5.4
ι
4.4 -96.6, -0.9
κ
4.5 -90.8, -8.3
λ
4.5 -98.6, -3.8
μ
4.5 -95.6, -7.1
ν
4.6 -94.5, -5.7
ξ
4.6 -92.6, 1.2
ο
4.6 -97.3, -1.4
π
4.7 -93.6, -3.8
ρ
4.7 -101.3, -3.4
ς
4.7 -93.9, -4.7
σ
4.7 -91.0, 1.3
τ
4.8 -97.6, -7.3
υ
4.8 -95.9, -2.5
φ
4.9 -91.3, -9.7
χ
4.9 -97.3, -7.7
ψ
4.9 -92.5, -5.0
ω
4.9 -93.9, -5.5

72 ◓
TREX (Tre)
Tyrant lizard
(Tyrannosaurus rex)
✝ late Cretaceous

Trex is unhappy because he's such a tiny constellation -- he's barely eaten!

Shape: 5/40 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -47.2, 45.4
β
2.6 -53.3, 48.4
γ
2.8 -40.8, 53.5
δ
2.9 -42.3, 64.0
ε
3.1 -42.8, 53.6
ζ
3.4 -45.1, 58.3
η
3.4 -42.1, 50.5
θ
3.5 -57.8, 60.9
ι
3.9 -39.5, 51.9
κ
3.9 -54.3, 47.0
λ
4.0 -45.0, 55.0
μ
4.3 -44.7, 64.8
ν
4.5 -41.8, 58.4
ξ
4.6 -36.6, 58.2
ο
4.6 -43.9, 48.9
π
4.7 -59.8, 63.6
ρ
4.7 -54.5, 43.9
ς
4.8 -42.3, 54.9
σ
4.9 -43.9, 60.9
τ
5.2 -42.0, 45.9
υ
5.4 -53.1, 66.3
φ
5.5 -58.6, 48.1
χ
5.5 -55.1, 49.9
ψ
5.5 -56.6, 46.4
ω
5.6 -36.3, 58.8

73 ◒
TROODON (Tro)
Troodon
(Troodon formosus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 6/71 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.0 131.1,-35.9
β
2.1 124.4,-29.9
γ
2.3 151.0,-23.3
δ
2.6 143.2,-28.3
ε
2.9 140.3,-20.6
ζ
2.9 135.5,-45.1
η
3.0 142.5,-22.4
θ
3.1 154.3,-39.0
ι
3.4 138.3,-39.6
κ
3.4 147.7,-34.7
λ
3.4 146.3,-40.7
μ
3.6 129.3,-31.7
ν
3.6 136.8,-31.5
ξ
3.6 145.7,-21.6
ο
3.6 150.1,-39.7
π
3.6 133.8,-49.2
ρ
3.7 143.9,-26.5
ς
3.7 132.4,-20.8
σ
3.8 125.3,-33.8
τ
3.8 144.5,-31.2
υ
3.8 126.1,-27.4
φ
3.8 130.2,-22.3
χ
3.9 151.8,-27.5
ψ
3.9 147.3,-49.0
ω
4.0 145.5,-37.4

74 ●
URANIA (Ura)
Sloane's urania
(Urania sloanus)
✝ 1894-1908

Shape: 6/751 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 110.8, 7.1
β
1.6 112.9, -4.5
γ
2.1 122.1, 0.2
δ
2.5 123.8, -8.4
ε
2.5 120.6, 6.4
ζ
2.5 118.1, -8.1
η
2.5 116.4, 6.6
θ
2.8 123.6, -9.8
ι
2.9 115.8,-11.8
κ
2.9 124.3,-11.1
λ
3.0 103.2,-14.9
μ
3.1 115.0, 5.1
ν
3.2 115.0,-10.5
ξ
3.5 102.7, -8.1
ο
3.6 107.2, -4.9
π
3.6 109.3, -1.0
ρ
3.7 114.7,-11.2
ς
3.7 103.7,-14.8
σ
3.8 102.6, 4.4
τ
3.9 115.7, 8.0
υ
4.0 120.5, -7.2
φ
4.1 110.0, 2.9
χ
4.1 103.2,-17.4
ψ
4.1 123.4, 4.2
ω
4.2 120.4, 4.1

75 ◓
URSUS (Urs)
Cave bear
(Ursus spelaeus)
✝ 24,000 years ago

Shape: 7/462 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.3 -76.5, 26.5
β
0.7 -84.8, 24.8
γ
2.3 -64.6, 19.6
δ
2.7 -66.6, 23.7
ε
2.7 -69.1, 26.5
ζ
2.9 -84.4, 15.3
η
2.9 -87.5, 22.0
θ
3.0 -61.4, 22.2
ι
3.0 -84.9, 22.4
κ
3.2 -57.8, 23.1
λ
3.2 -93.4, 16.5
μ
3.3 -64.0, 25.3
ν
3.3 -76.1, 18.9
ξ
3.3 -87.8, 15.6
ο
3.3 -60.7, 25.7
π
3.4 -90.6, 23.1
ρ
3.4 -86.3, 22.6
ς
3.4 -60.3, 23.6
σ
3.4 -68.2, 16.6
τ
3.4 -76.7, 18.4
υ
3.5 -89.2, 24.3
φ
3.6 -90.1, 20.4
χ
3.7 -85.2, 15.1
ψ
3.8 -72.7, 28.3
ω
3.8 -79.7, 16.7

76 ◓
VALERIANELLA (Val)
Varianella
(Varianella affinis)
✝ ?

Some members of the genus are not extinct and enjoy being called "corn salad" even though they have never seen a salad.

Shape: 4/1313 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 167.6, 58.4
β
2.1 168.0, 68.4
γ
2.5 178.5, 38.4
δ
2.9 166.3, 42.4
ε
2.9 171.1, 43.8
ζ
3.0 168.5, 50.6
η
3.0 157.4, 60.5
θ
3.2 180.0, 62.4
ι
3.3 170.8, 58.2
κ
3.4 158.3, 35.4
λ
3.4 167.1, 72.6
μ
3.5 161.5, 74.2
ν
3.5 161.5, 54.5
ξ
3.5 170.8, 59.8
ο
3.5 157.3, 46.2
π
3.5 164.3, 67.1
ρ
3.6 156.2, 46.5
ς
3.7 169.7, 46.0
σ
3.7 172.5, 52.8
τ
3.7 157.9, 68.3
υ
3.8 163.2, 37.4
φ
3.8 160.3, 54.0
χ
3.9 175.2, 46.6
ψ
3.9 171.0, 50.0
ω
4.0 156.3, 43.9

77 ◓
WHĒKAU (Whe)
Laughing owl
(Sceloglaux albifacies)
✝ 1914

Some say that whēkau can still be heard. Perhaps the joke is on us?

Shape: 3/57 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.7 152.8, 12.5
β
3.0 151.2, 12.4
γ
3.2 157.7, 17.2
δ
3.6 153.7, 8.3
ε
3.6 150.4, 13.8
ζ
3.8 156.5, 15.1
η
4.3 158.8, 14.6
θ
4.3 156.4, 8.8
ι
4.3 153.2, 7.3
κ
4.5 159.8, 15.8
λ
4.5 156.9, 16.8
μ
4.5 154.2, 9.2
ν
4.6 155.4, 13.8
ξ
4.8 152.0, 15.9
ο
4.8 152.5, 17.0
π
4.8 156.4, 11.3
ρ
4.9 159.0, 18.6
ς
4.9 156.4, 12.1
σ
5.0 156.0, 18.7
τ
5.2 156.6, 8.6
υ
5.2 156.4, 19.7
φ
5.2 156.3, 5.5
χ
5.3 156.9, 18.6
ψ
5.3 157.4, 11.5
ω
5.3 159.7, 15.6

78 ◒
XERCES (Xer)
Xerces blue
(Glaucopsyche xerces)
✝ 1941

Brilliant blue butterfly in the dark blue sky. Xerces is the only thing that is bluer than the sky itself. Some say that butterflies are flying flowers and Xerces is never far from Palaeoaldrovanda. He must be careful though. Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Nobody wants to take that chance.

Shape: 8/1299 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.1 21.9,-51.9
β
2.4 8.1,-44.3
γ
2.6 13.0,-45.1
δ
2.6 26.7,-46.1
ε
2.8 18.6,-36.0
ζ
2.9 15.4,-40.4
η
2.9 20.5,-42.7
θ
3.1 19.3,-49.0
ι
3.2 9.3,-35.4
κ
3.7 21.4,-43.6
λ
3.8 9.6,-48.5
μ
3.8 25.2,-28.7
ν
3.9 16.0,-25.5
ξ
3.9 28.9,-38.3
ο
4.0 29.8,-43.0
π
4.0 21.1,-50.8
ρ
4.1 20.4,-25.3
ς
4.1 25.6,-44.5
σ
4.1 11.3,-36.5
τ
4.1 9.4,-42.8
υ
4.2 19.8,-26.4
φ
4.2 27.4,-29.9
χ
4.2 16.5,-26.2
ψ
4.3 17.0,-54.0
ω
4.3 14.7,-39.9

79 ◓
YERSINIA (Yer)
Black death
(Yersinia pestis)
✝ ?

Don't let Yersinia's small size fool you. The Black Death may be the smallest creature in the sky, but she'll liquify your insides before you can memorize the 80 constellations. Perhaps out of all the creatures in the sky, this is the one we're happy to see go. But, because it's small, you can never be quite sure Yersinia isn't extinct but merely hiding. Or waiting.

Shape: 3/418 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.7 95.5, 20.2
β
2.8 94.7, 19.1
γ
3.1 93.0, 18.8
δ
3.3 91.4, 19.8
ε
3.3 93.3, 22.1
ζ
3.3 91.8, 18.3
η
3.6 93.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 97.0, 12.9
ι
4.0 91.0, 16.7
κ
4.0 95.6, 17.8
λ
4.1 90.6, 15.5
μ
4.1 92.7, 15.4
ν
4.2 91.7, 18.5
ξ
4.3 97.5, 23.2
ο
4.4 88.6, 22.9
π
4.4 94.9, 23.3
ρ
4.5 89.5, 20.9
ς
4.5 96.6, 11.8
σ
4.6 91.7, 20.6
τ
4.6 92.0, 14.6
υ
4.7 89.2, 20.7
φ
4.7 97.4, 11.6
χ
4.8 92.2, 25.8
ψ
4.9 92.3, 27.7
ω
4.9 95.3, 13.1

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news + thoughts

Classification and regression trees

Fri 28-07-2017
Decision trees are a powerful but simple prediction method.

Decision trees classify data by splitting it along the predictor axes into partitions with homogeneous values of the dependent variable. Unlike logistic or linear regression, CART does not develop a prediction equation. Instead, data are predicted by a series of binary decisions based on the boundaries of the splits. Decision trees are very effective and the resulting rules are readily interpreted.

Trees can be built using different metrics that measure how well the splits divide up the data classes: Gini index, entropy or misclassification error.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Classification and decision trees. (read)

When the predictor variable is quantitative and not categorical, regression trees are used. Here, the data are still split but now the predictor variable is estimated by the average within the split boundaries. Tree growth can be controlled using the complexity parameter, a measure of the relative improvement of each new split.

Individual trees can be very sensitive to minor changes in the data and even better prediction can be achieved by exploiting this variability. Using ensemble methods, we can grow multiple trees from the same data.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2017) Points of Significance: Classification and regression trees. Nature Methods 14:757–758.

Background reading

Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of Significance: Logistic regression. Nature Methods 13:541-542.

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of Significance: Multiple Linear Regression Nature Methods 12:1103-1104.

Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of Significance: Classifier evaluation. Nature Methods 13:603-604.

Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of Significance: Model Selection and Overfitting. Nature Methods 13:703-704.

Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of Significance: Regularization. Nature Methods 13:803-804.

...more about the Points of Significance column

Personal Oncogenomics Program 5 Year Anniversary Art

Wed 26-07-2017

The artwork was created in collaboration with my colleagues at the Genome Sciences Center to celebrate the 5 year anniversary of the Personalized Oncogenomics Program (POG).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
5 Years of Personalized Oncogenomics Program at Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre. The poster shows 545 cancer cases. (left) Cases ordered chronologically by case number. (right) Cases grouped by diagnosis (tissue type) and then by similarity within group.

The Personal Oncogenomics Program (POG) is a collaborative research study including many BC Cancer Agency oncologists, pathologists and other clinicians along with Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre with support from BC Cancer Foundation.

The aim of the program is to sequence, analyze and compare the genome of each patient's cancer—the entire DNA and RNA inside tumor cells— in order to understand what is enabling it to identify less toxic and more effective treatment options.

Principal component analysis

Thu 06-07-2017
PCA helps you interpret your data, but it will not always find the important patterns.

Principal component analysis (PCA) simplifies the complexity in high-dimensional data by reducing its number of dimensions.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Principal component analysis. (read)

To retain trend and patterns in the reduced representation, PCA finds linear combinations of canonical dimensions that maximize the variance of the projection of the data.

PCA is helpful in visualizing high-dimensional data and scatter plots based on 2-dimensional PCA can reveal clusters.

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of Significance: Principal component analysis. Nature Methods 14:641–642.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of Significance: Clustering. Nature Methods 14:545–546.

...more about the Points of Significance column

`k` index: a weightlighting and Crossfit performance measure

Wed 07-06-2017

Similar to the `h` index in publishing, the `k` index is a measure of fitness performance.

To achieve a `k` index for a movement you must perform `k` unbroken reps at `k`% 1RM.

The expected value for the `k` index is probably somewhere in the range of `k = 26` to `k=35`, with higher values progressively more difficult to achieve.

In my `k` index introduction article I provide detailed explanation, rep scheme table and WOD example.

Dark Matter of the English Language—the unwords

Wed 07-06-2017

I've applied the char-rnn recurrent neural network to generate new words, names of drugs and countries.

The effect is intriguing and facetious—yes, those are real words.

But these are not: necronology, abobionalism, gabdologist, and nonerify.

These places only exist in the mind: Conchar and Pobacia, Hzuuland, New Kain, Rabibus and Megee Islands, Sentip and Sitina, Sinistan and Urzenia.

And these are the imaginary afflictions of the imagination: ictophobia, myconomascophobia, and talmatomania.

And these, of the body: ophalosis, icabulosis, mediatopathy and bellotalgia.

Want to name your baby? Or someone else's baby? Try Ginavietta Xilly Anganelel or Ferandulde Hommanloco Kictortick.

When taking new therapeutics, never mix salivac and labromine. And don't forget that abadarone is best taken on an empty stomach.

And nothing increases the chance of getting that grant funded than proposing the study of a new –ome! We really need someone to looking into the femome and manome.

Dark Matter of the Genome—the nullomers

Wed 31-05-2017

An exploration of things that are missing in the human genome. The nullomers.

Julia Herold, Stefan Kurtz and Robert Giegerich. Efficient computation of absent words in genomic sequences. BMC Bioinformatics (2008) 9:167