Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert Curve
I'm not real and I deny I won't heal unless I cry.Cocteau Twinslet it gomore quotes

In Silico Flurries: Computing a world of snow. Scientific American. 23 December 2017


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2018 Pi Day art celebrates the 30th anniversary of `\pi` day and connects friends stitching road maps from around the world. Pack a sandwich and let's go!

`\pi` Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants


Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day shrinks the world and celebrates road trips by stitching streets from around the world together. In this version, we look at the boonies, burbs and boutique of `\pi` by drawing progressively denser patches of streets. Let's go places.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong.

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
—Horace

This year: creatures that don't exist, but once did, in the skies.

And a poem Of Black Body.

This year's `\pi` day song is Exploration by Karminsky Experience Inc. Why? Because "you never know what you'll find on an exploration".

If you like space, you'll love my the 12,000 billion light-year map of clusters, superclusters and voids. Find the biggest nothings in Boötes and Eridanus.

create myths and contribute!

Want to contribute to the mythology behind the constellations in the `\pi` in the sky? Many already have a story, but others still need one. Please submit your stories!

The `\pi` star chart has 80 constellations. Many of them have stories to tell—look up and listen.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A basic render of the `\pi` star chart in plate carrée projection, with focus on the constellations. (zoom)

I would love to have a complete mythology for each constellation. Please submit your stories!

contributions

Camptor — Veronica Falconeri

dramatis personae—the constellations

The symbols beside the constellation index indicate which hemisphere the constellation can be found (◓ north, ◒ south or ● both). The first 25 brightest stars in the constellation are also listed, along with their apparent magnitude, longitude and latitude.


1 ●
ALAOTRA (Ala)
Alaotra grebe
(Tachybaptus rufolavatus)
✝ 1985-2010

Alaotra is frustrated that Tadorna seems to get all the attention. Often confused for a duck, Alaotra would love you to know that she's in fact a grebe. She's very proud of this fact, despite of being prone to falls due to some biomechanical issues having to do with foot placement.

Shape: 3/57 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 166.8, -0.2
β
2.3 160.7, 10.8
γ
2.5 163.3, 4.5
δ
3.0 164.9, -0.4
ε
3.4 172.9, 4.8
ζ
3.6 178.0, 7.0
η
3.7 174.2, 9.9
θ
3.8 176.9, -2.5
ι
3.8 160.8, 10.3
κ
4.0 168.7, 2.7
λ
4.1 179.8, -0.7
μ
4.1 162.2, 3.3
ν
4.2 166.3, 3.7
ξ
4.3 163.9, 3.3
ο
4.3 177.6, 4.9
π
4.3 163.3, 4.9
ρ
4.3 163.5, 10.0
ς
4.3 174.4, 4.2
σ
4.5 159.1, 12.5
τ
4.7 160.2, 9.2
υ
4.8 173.7, -0.7
φ
5.0 177.0, 6.6
χ
5.0 172.4, 0.4
ψ
5.1 168.4, -0.5
ω
5.1 163.7, -1.2

2 ◓
ALLOPERLA (All)
Robert's Stonefly
(Alloperla roberti)
✝ ?

Shape: 4/42 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -82.0, 55.3
β
2.8 -89.2, 64.1
γ
3.0 -87.0, 72.1
δ
3.3 -82.1, 59.2
ε
3.5 -83.7, 73.7
ζ
3.6 -94.1, 54.9
η
3.7 -89.0, 69.0
θ
3.7 -83.5, 60.1
ι
3.9 -85.1, 68.6
κ
3.9 -85.4, 54.4
λ
3.9 -84.5, 81.5
μ
4.0 -88.8, 57.1
ν
4.0 -81.2, 58.8
ξ
4.3 -89.1, 62.9
ο
4.3 -83.4, 67.9
π
4.4 -89.3, 52.8
ρ
4.5 -78.9, 68.1
ς
4.8 -87.7, 72.1
σ
4.9 -93.7, 79.6
τ
5.0 -84.9, 58.5
υ
5.0 -85.4, 67.4
φ
5.1 -88.3, 55.4
χ
5.3 -83.2, 55.5
ψ
5.5 -90.6, 54.6
ω
6.2 -94.6, 77.4

3 ◓
APLONIS (Apl)
mysterious bird of Ulieta
(Aplonis ulietensis)
✝ 1774-1850

Shape: 2/21 stars, 1 edges.

α
1.0 25.9, 60.0
β
1.2 15.0, 71.6
γ
3.7 28.1, 65.4
δ
3.8 16.9, 72.0
ε
4.5 14.6, 72.2
ζ
4.5 18.6, 69.2
η
4.6 17.6, 73.5
θ
4.7 25.0, 63.4
ι
5.1 3.5, 75.4
κ
5.1 2.6, 53.8
λ
5.3 24.3, 71.4
μ
5.5 13.0, 76.2
ν
5.5 21.2, 60.3
ξ
5.6 29.1, 75.1
ο
6.0 18.0, 66.7
π
6.2 6.7, 56.3
ρ
6.2 2.9, 59.6
ς
6.4 15.2, 56.2
σ
7.1 22.0, 60.1
τ
7.1 23.4, 58.4
υ
7.1 10.2, 63.7

4 ●
ARAUCARIA (Ara)
Araucaria
(Araucaria mirabilis)
✝ middle Jurassic

Araucaria is truly a marvel. She is so large, in fact, that the constellation only shows the canopy and does not include the tree trunk—which was known to reach a height of 100 m. Araucaria offers plenty of protection and has many flying friends all around, including Urania, Moho and WhĒkau. Just a little further are the ducks (and a grebe), Camptor, Mariana, Tadorna and Alaotra. They would love to visit Araucaria but worry that they are too heavy to perch on her branches.

Shape: 8/1232 stars, 8 edges.

α
-0.4 143.3, 5.3
β
0.5 120.1, 17.0
γ
1.4 148.3, 4.7
δ
1.7 138.1, 12.7
ε
1.7 143.6, 5.3
ζ
1.8 129.1, 27.3
η
1.8 138.7, 4.7
θ
2.0 137.1, 17.3
ι
2.2 127.3, 19.1
κ
2.4 132.7, 16.6
λ
2.4 123.3, 18.8
μ
2.7 148.8, 7.0
ν
2.8 118.3, 17.2
ξ
3.0 146.0, 13.3
ο
3.0 130.1, 4.9
π
3.1 135.0, 19.7
ρ
3.1 136.5, 8.3
ς
3.3 129.4, 5.2
σ
3.3 134.4, 29.5
τ
3.4 140.5, 13.9
υ
3.4 122.4, 13.1
φ
3.5 126.5, 15.0
χ
3.5 130.5, 18.1
ψ
3.6 127.6, 19.5
ω
3.6 129.4, 20.0

5 ◒
ARCHAEAMPHORA (Archaea)
Archaeamphora
(Archaeamphora longicervia)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 7/1838 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.9 87.6,-18.5
β
2.1 79.1,-26.6
γ
2.4 95.8,-20.0
δ
2.5 92.1,-19.9
ε
2.5 76.4,-26.0
ζ
2.6 96.4, -8.8
η
2.9 86.0,-13.9
θ
3.0 92.7,-23.4
ι
3.1 83.8,-18.8
κ
3.1 94.7,-11.7
λ
3.2 89.0, -8.0
μ
3.4 83.4, -7.4
ν
3.4 80.9, -8.8
ξ
3.4 92.0, -0.1
ο
3.5 96.8,-19.8
π
3.5 78.3,-12.1
ρ
3.6 84.4,-30.2
ς
3.6 92.8,-30.1
σ
3.7 83.7,-15.0
τ
3.7 81.3, -4.3
υ
3.7 80.5, -6.0
φ
3.7 91.9, -6.0
χ
3.7 79.6,-19.2
ψ
3.7 92.3, -8.2
ω
3.8 92.4, -9.8

6 ◒
ARCHAEFRUCTUS (Archaef)
-
(Archaefructus eoflora)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 5/1019 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -97.9,-21.1
β
2.7 -103.1,-31.8
γ
2.8 -81.4,-15.6
δ
2.8 -98.5,-28.8
ε
2.8 -94.8,-18.9
ζ
3.0 -83.7,-19.1
η
3.1 -109.8,-37.8
θ
3.1 -88.7,-12.9
ι
3.1 -102.8,-21.5
κ
3.2 -88.5,-17.9
λ
3.2 -98.4,-35.1
μ
3.2 -97.6,-19.4
ν
3.2 -90.2,-20.3
ξ
3.2 -84.4,-10.7
ο
3.4 -81.7,-26.7
π
3.5 -102.5,-29.4
ρ
3.5 -103.5,-34.5
ς
3.6 -93.9,-28.6
σ
3.6 -103.2,-22.7
τ
3.6 -92.4,-23.2
υ
3.6 -108.2,-23.7
φ
3.7 -105.7,-29.6
χ
3.7 -92.2,-23.2
ψ
3.8 -100.6,-29.7
ω
3.9 -106.0,-35.2

7 ◓
ARCHAEOPTERYX (Archaeo)
Urvogel
(Archaeopteryx lithographica)
✝ late Jurassic

Shape: 14/2287 stars, 14 edges.

α
2.0 148.1, 37.2
β
2.3 144.0, 23.2
γ
2.4 142.3, 75.2
δ
2.4 130.6, 42.8
ε
2.6 126.7, 37.9
ζ
2.9 139.2, 79.0
η
3.0 135.2, 45.1
θ
3.2 151.4, 43.9
ι
3.3 145.2, 63.2
κ
3.4 125.2, 43.7
λ
3.4 135.4, 34.8
μ
3.4 144.7, 67.3
ν
3.4 144.4, 57.8
ξ
3.5 142.5, 42.3
ο
3.5 148.0, 32.6
π
3.6 117.4, 51.9
ρ
3.6 131.7, 47.5
ς
3.7 149.8, 26.0
σ
3.7 143.1, 34.8
τ
3.8 127.9, 43.6
υ
3.8 138.5, 31.5
φ
3.8 123.0, 38.9
χ
3.8 140.5, 27.4
ψ
3.8 152.9, 49.2
ω
4.0 146.5, 58.4

8 ◓
ARDEA (Ard)
Bennu heron
(Ardea bennuides)
✝ Holocene

Urged by Camelops, Ardea is trying to beat Aepyornis and be the first to see beyond the sky. It looks like she may be winning, but Camelops knows its a futile pursuit. Only he knows what is beyond the sky.

Shape: 9/1768 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.6 -149.2, 81.4
β
2.0 -160.2, 53.3
γ
2.0 -169.6, 52.9
δ
2.1 -162.1, 33.7
ε
2.1 -172.7, 22.1
ζ
2.4 -159.3, 60.5
η
2.4 -161.8, 61.3
θ
2.5 -166.7, 58.1
ι
2.7 -168.7, 56.0
κ
2.8 -169.2, 31.0
λ
3.0 -155.9, 79.2
μ
3.0 -179.7, 57.2
ν
3.0 -151.8, 61.1
ξ
3.3 -147.5, 66.8
ο
3.4 -176.4, 39.8
π
3.4 -162.3, 38.3
ρ
3.5 -172.8, 36.2
ς
3.6 -168.7, 37.1
σ
3.7 -148.8, 70.2
τ
3.7 -174.0, 31.7
υ
3.7 -178.4, 43.5
φ
3.7 -162.3, 45.3
χ
3.7 -167.5, 48.5
ψ
3.7 -169.4, 47.3
ω
3.8 -156.5, 64.2

9 ◓
ARGENTAVIS (Arg)
magnificent silver bird
(Argentavis magnificens)
✝ late Miocene

Argentavis is a big bird in the big sky. There are many stories of his feud with Pelagornis, who spreads his wings in the southern hemisphere — both insist that they have the biggest wing span.

Shape: 5/69 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 64.9, 27.1
β
2.8 68.8, 26.7
γ
3.0 69.2, 33.4
δ
3.1 55.6, 30.2
ε
3.5 65.1, 41.7
ζ
3.5 55.1, 35.4
η
3.5 63.4, 26.3
θ
3.5 71.7, 43.2
ι
3.7 58.2, 35.7
κ
3.8 71.1, 43.2
λ
3.8 71.0, 41.9
μ
3.9 65.0, 26.8
ν
4.0 58.2, 41.5
ξ
4.0 53.3, 25.1
ο
4.0 68.9, 40.9
π
4.0 65.9, 29.4
ρ
4.2 61.2, 28.5
ς
4.2 72.2, 32.9
σ
4.2 71.2, 29.8
τ
4.3 64.3, 32.6
υ
4.3 65.4, 23.7
φ
4.3 67.4, 31.9
χ
4.3 62.4, 25.2
ψ
4.4 69.0, 35.8
ω
4.4 60.1, 21.4

10 ◓
AUROCHS (Aur)
Aurochs
(Bos primigenius)
✝ 1627

Runs in the vast plains of the north together with Mammuthus and Quagga.

Shape: 7/62 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.8 63.3, 66.1
β
2.9 50.6, 49.8
γ
2.9 69.3, 58.4
δ
3.1 61.0, 59.1
ε
3.2 40.8, 60.8
ζ
3.3 34.5, 52.9
η
3.5 65.4, 61.1
θ
3.6 63.8, 47.3
ι
3.7 50.1, 49.1
κ
3.7 62.2, 58.3
λ
3.8 68.8, 59.8
μ
3.8 39.8, 63.8
ν
3.8 46.5, 40.0
ξ
3.9 64.0, 66.5
ο
4.1 32.1, 50.9
π
4.2 30.9, 53.1
ρ
4.3 55.8, 60.7
ς
4.3 40.3, 46.0
σ
4.4 33.3, 58.5
τ
4.5 56.1, 56.9
υ
4.6 57.9, 61.4
φ
4.7 57.9, 48.0
χ
4.7 42.7, 34.7
ψ
4.7 67.4, 59.1
ω
4.8 61.0, 47.1

11 ◒
BASILOSAURUS (Bas)
king lizard
(Basilosaurus cetoides)
✝ late Eocene

The king lizard dives into the depths of the sky at the very tip of the south hemisphere. Some say that he is chasing the South star, `\alpha` Basilosaurus.

Shape: 3/61 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.8 180.0,-88.1
β
3.3 -166.2,-86.7
γ
3.3 -168.1,-66.1
δ
3.4 -118.3,-74.7
ε
3.6 -138.6,-70.5
ζ
3.6 -2.9,-85.6
η
3.6 -171.5,-78.3
θ
3.6 -78.3,-85.5
ι
3.7 -166.7,-70.0
κ
3.7 2.0,-81.0
λ
3.7 179.3,-80.9
μ
3.8 -4.9,-86.5
ν
3.8 -65.7,-84.9
ξ
4.0 58.5,-85.2
ο
4.1 -140.2,-87.3
π
4.2 90.8,-86.0
ρ
4.2 -29.5,-86.8
ς
4.3 -175.5,-77.0
σ
4.3 62.4,-80.9
τ
4.5 -139.5,-70.5
υ
4.5 -120.2,-73.4
φ
4.6 -141.2,-74.7
χ
4.7 -153.7,-69.7
ψ
5.0 -125.1,-70.0
ω
5.0 90.0,-85.7

12 ◓
BOLYERIA (Bol)
Round Island Burrowing boa
(Bolyeria multocarinata)
✝ 1975

Shape: 5/602 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.7 -108.2, 43.1
β
2.9 -116.2, 40.8
γ
3.1 -102.1, 36.4
δ
3.5 -110.0, 32.0
ε
3.6 -109.5, 39.0
ζ
3.6 -117.5, 33.5
η
3.6 -104.9, 46.7
θ
3.9 -116.9, 38.9
ι
3.9 -112.5, 35.7
κ
4.0 -120.2, 41.3
λ
4.0 -116.7, 32.2
μ
4.1 -109.3, 36.8
ν
4.2 -116.5, 46.4
ξ
4.2 -113.1, 32.2
ο
4.3 -103.4, 31.8
π
4.3 -119.9, 37.6
ρ
4.3 -117.1, 39.6
ς
4.3 -110.8, 40.6
σ
4.5 -117.9, 43.0
τ
4.5 -100.0, 39.3
υ
4.5 -107.3, 39.1
φ
4.6 -122.4, 30.5
χ
4.6 -114.3, 33.2
ψ
4.6 -101.8, 41.8
ω
4.7 -109.0, 34.7

13 ◓
BRON (Bro)
thunder lizard
(Brontosaurus excelsus)
✝ late Jurassic

It's hard to be bigger than Bron. He must always pay attention not to step on his frolicking friend Compsognathus, who seeks to find protection in Bron's shadow. Some believe that if Bron stretches his neck, he can look above the sky! But don't tell Ardea this—she's in a contest with Aepyornis to be the first!

Shape: 12/5230 stars, 11 edges.

α
1.3 -139.4, 27.3
β
1.6 -104.6, 13.8
γ
1.8 -167.0, 8.5
δ
2.0 -80.3, 1.0
ε
2.0 -123.1, 25.8
ζ
2.4 -62.3, 8.1
η
2.4 -109.5, 20.5
θ
2.5 -123.5, 17.8
ι
2.6 -94.8, 13.5
κ
2.6 -107.7, 7.0
λ
2.7 -133.7, 20.4
μ
2.8 -170.6, 13.2
ν
2.9 -125.4, 12.4
ξ
2.9 -174.0, 7.6
ο
2.9 -127.0, 25.8
π
3.0 -159.1, 22.4
ρ
3.0 -92.0, 5.9
ς
3.0 -100.7, 12.5
σ
3.0 -111.8, 27.5
τ
3.0 -108.9, 9.8
υ
3.1 -111.2, 23.9
φ
3.1 -111.0, 12.7
χ
3.1 -147.7, 28.6
ψ
3.1 -61.8,-13.0
ω
3.2 -169.8, 7.6

14 ◓
CAMELOPS (Came)
Camelops
(Camelops kansanus)
✝ late Pliocene to early Holocene

Camelops played a cruel joke on Ardea and Aepyornis, asking them to try to look beyond the sky. Both think they have the longest neck, so they're still trying!

Shape: 6/1789 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.5 -146.6, 37.9
β
2.9 -136.6, 37.6
γ
3.0 -124.9, 57.9
δ
3.0 -153.9, 42.7
ε
3.0 -132.1, 36.7
ζ
3.3 -154.5, 44.8
η
3.3 -133.9, 49.7
θ
3.3 -127.6, 60.2
ι
3.4 -130.3, 36.8
κ
3.4 -142.0, 53.2
λ
3.6 -138.4, 47.4
μ
3.6 -129.2, 64.1
ν
3.6 -149.4, 42.2
ξ
3.7 -124.8, 38.1
ο
3.7 -148.8, 43.4
π
3.7 -151.6, 46.1
ρ
3.8 -126.3, 44.9
ς
3.8 -127.3, 43.0
σ
3.9 -151.5, 53.3
τ
3.9 -144.8, 65.8
υ
3.9 -137.0, 50.2
φ
3.9 -136.5, 42.1
χ
3.9 -134.8, 36.8
ψ
4.0 -152.5, 35.0
ω
4.0 -133.1, 40.2

15 ◓
CAMPTOR (Camp)
Labrador duck
(Camptorhynchus labradorius)
✝ 1878

Camptor flew long and far to find a pond without ducks on Earth, but could find no such pond. So she chose longest journey, and flew to settle in the sky.

Shape: 3/570 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 160.1, 21.1
β
2.5 178.3, 27.0
γ
2.5 174.1, 11.8
δ
2.6 172.1, 10.8
ε
2.7 157.7, 22.5
ζ
2.7 167.3, 34.6
η
2.9 170.9, 32.2
θ
2.9 179.5, 24.0
ι
3.2 171.4, 20.4
κ
3.4 177.4, 25.4
λ
3.4 161.5, 22.3
μ
3.5 173.9, 14.4
ν
3.6 168.2, 21.7
ξ
3.6 160.1, 28.0
ο
3.7 179.4, 30.1
π
3.7 163.9, 13.1
ρ
3.8 157.4, 34.2
ς
3.8 170.5, 29.5
σ
3.8 160.8, 22.8
τ
3.9 177.1, 7.9
υ
3.9 161.9, 34.4
φ
3.9 179.8, 24.6
χ
4.0 174.7, 21.0
ψ
4.0 178.3, 14.5
ω
4.0 159.7, 31.4

16 ◓
CARACARA (Car)
Guadalupe caracara
(Caracara lutosa)
✝ 1900 or 1903

Shape: 4/7 stars, 4 edges.

α
3.7 47.9, 72.0
β
3.7 44.3, 75.1
γ
3.8 45.8, 68.8
δ
3.9 41.5, 72.0
ε
4.8 43.9, 71.7
ζ
5.5 54.3, 75.2
η
6.3 43.8, 73.2

17 ●
CERVUS (Cer)
Eastern elk
(Cervus canadensis canadensis)
✝ 1 September 1877

The last elk was shot in Pennsylvania. Oops.

Shape: 6/296 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.3 30.9,-20.2
β
1.5 18.3, -9.6
γ
1.7 18.1, 4.2
δ
2.1 32.1,-10.8
ε
2.4 17.8, -2.0
ζ
2.9 28.1,-12.0
η
3.1 35.8, 1.2
θ
3.1 34.5, -1.4
ι
3.2 30.1,-23.1
κ
3.2 21.4, 8.4
λ
3.4 24.7, -0.9
μ
3.4 24.2, -2.8
ν
3.4 22.9,-20.7
ξ
3.5 19.7,-25.0
ο
3.6 19.9, -5.2
π
3.6 34.8, 3.7
ρ
3.6 26.8, 2.1
ς
3.6 22.1,-13.5
σ
3.7 16.0, 18.6
τ
3.7 23.2, 15.2
υ
3.7 30.5, 6.9
φ
3.7 28.2,-16.4
χ
3.8 18.6, 13.7
ψ
3.8 19.1,-11.0
ω
3.9 28.3, 7.4

18 ◓
COMPSOGNATHUS (Com)
Compsognathus
(Compsognathus longipes)
✝ late Jurassic

The tiniest of dinosaurs, Compsognathus hides in the protection of Bron's shadow.

Shape: 2/190 stars, 1 edges.

α
3.6 -103.2, 25.8
β
4.2 -102.6, 26.1
γ
4.3 -97.6, 29.4
δ
4.3 -98.2, 27.5
ε
4.3 -103.4, 27.1
ζ
4.7 -99.7, 26.2
η
4.7 -100.8, 26.2
θ
4.8 -101.7, 25.0
ι
4.8 -103.8, 27.0
κ
4.9 -101.1, 23.8
λ
5.1 -100.3, 22.6
μ
5.1 -98.1, 24.1
ν
5.2 -98.6, 23.3
ξ
5.2 -100.4, 23.5
ο
5.2 -106.0, 29.2
π
5.3 -98.0, 22.8
ρ
5.3 -102.8, 28.6
ς
5.3 -99.2, 24.0
σ
5.4 -97.6, 27.9
τ
5.4 -98.7, 29.2
υ
5.4 -105.0, 26.3
φ
5.5 -106.7, 24.1
χ
5.5 -103.0, 26.6
ψ
5.5 -104.6, 24.4
ω
5.5 -100.5, 22.6

19 ◒
COOKSONIA (Coo)
-
(Cooksonia bohemica)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 5/364 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.2 -63.4,-48.9
β
1.9 -53.2,-57.7
γ
2.3 -59.2,-53.5
δ
2.5 -57.2,-56.0
ε
2.6 -58.7,-61.9
ζ
2.6 -64.6,-67.4
η
2.9 -59.4,-46.5
θ
3.1 -68.3,-49.7
ι
3.2 -63.6,-47.7
κ
3.2 -64.7,-53.3
λ
3.2 -65.7,-48.2
μ
3.4 -58.7,-45.2
ν
3.5 -68.5,-48.3
ξ
3.6 -46.3,-58.4
ο
3.7 -67.7,-58.8
π
3.7 -47.2,-58.9
ρ
3.8 -48.6,-74.0
ς
3.9 -54.7,-57.5
σ
3.9 -54.5,-50.0
τ
4.0 -52.4,-71.4
υ
4.1 -50.5,-58.2
φ
4.1 -57.9,-44.0
χ
4.1 -61.5,-73.0
ψ
4.1 -67.1,-60.6
ω
4.2 -57.5,-50.9

20 ◒
COPEPTERYX (Cop)
Copepteryx
(Copepteryx titan)
✝ late Oligocene

Shape: 6/57 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.5 162.7,-30.0
β
0.8 161.2,-44.6
γ
1.6 174.6,-29.1
δ
1.6 172.9,-54.4
ε
1.8 176.6,-43.7
ζ
2.3 178.4,-14.9
η
2.4 158.8,-39.3
θ
2.8 174.9,-37.6
ι
3.0 163.2,-51.6
κ
3.0 166.3,-57.6
λ
3.0 158.6,-33.0
μ
3.2 160.1,-24.9
ν
3.3 158.2,-33.3
ξ
3.3 168.1,-49.5
ο
3.4 176.2,-52.9
π
3.4 172.5,-57.4
ρ
3.4 174.4,-43.1
ς
3.5 175.6,-17.8
σ
3.5 173.9,-31.4
τ
3.6 157.1,-25.4
υ
3.7 170.9,-29.9
φ
3.8 174.6,-30.2
χ
4.1 164.6,-31.0
ψ
4.1 178.6,-37.7
ω
4.2 167.5,-32.4

21 ◒
CORVINA (Cor)
Kosrae starling
(Aplonis corvina)
✝ mid 19th century

Shape: 3/82 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.4 124.9,-21.3
β
2.9 123.6,-17.2
γ
3.2 117.9,-15.7
δ
3.4 117.1,-23.2
ε
3.5 116.9,-20.6
ζ
3.8 120.1,-12.5
η
3.9 128.4,-24.6
θ
3.9 124.3,-14.0
ι
3.9 115.0,-18.3
κ
4.0 119.7,-21.5
λ
4.0 125.4,-21.9
μ
4.1 129.7,-14.6
ν
4.1 124.4,-18.3
ξ
4.2 123.1,-22.0
ο
4.2 126.8,-20.4
π
4.3 121.2,-20.0
ρ
4.3 121.6,-18.0
ς
4.3 120.4,-20.6
σ
4.4 127.0,-19.7
τ
4.4 123.6,-24.1
υ
4.4 114.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 117.0,-13.5
χ
4.6 119.5,-21.1
ψ
4.6 119.1,-14.6
ω
4.6 125.9,-20.2

22 ◒
CUPIDO (Cup)
Heath hen
(Tympanuchus cupido cupido)
✝ 1932

Shape: 4/1164 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 58.8,-21.1
β
2.7 62.9,-27.9
γ
2.7 73.8,-18.1
δ
3.2 60.1,-13.1
ε
3.2 57.8,-21.1
ζ
3.3 57.6,-28.5
η
3.4 64.2,-22.1
θ
3.6 65.7,-10.7
ι
3.8 72.5,-12.1
κ
3.8 59.5,-16.4
λ
3.9 66.5,-12.1
μ
3.9 66.7,-18.7
ν
3.9 69.5,-28.3
ξ
4.0 70.1,-18.0
ο
4.0 60.3,-14.0
π
4.2 72.5,-18.0
ρ
4.2 64.0,-14.0
ς
4.3 70.0,-18.1
σ
4.3 63.8,-24.4
τ
4.3 59.7, -8.9
υ
4.4 63.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 60.7,-19.9
χ
4.4 63.8,-12.0
ψ
4.5 63.8,-16.5
ω
4.6 63.4,-27.9

23 ◒
CYLINDRASPIS (Cyl)
Giant tortoise
(Cylindraspis indica)
✝ 1795

Ever since meeting Pinta, they've been fast (and slow) friends.

Shape: 4/233 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.1 27.7,-67.6
β
1.6 14.9,-61.4
γ
2.1 15.3,-71.4
δ
2.8 16.9,-75.3
ε
2.9 28.7,-69.5
ζ
3.0 28.2,-76.3
η
3.1 16.5,-61.4
θ
3.2 19.4,-56.6
ι
3.4 21.0,-67.8
κ
3.4 18.6,-77.3
λ
3.5 20.6,-62.1
μ
3.6 29.0,-65.2
ν
3.8 38.7,-62.0
ξ
3.8 5.3,-76.3
ο
3.9 29.6,-75.1
π
4.1 33.1,-66.5
ρ
4.2 15.4,-64.4
ς
4.2 31.9,-62.1
σ
4.3 30.0,-61.0
τ
4.3 16.1,-69.1
υ
4.3 31.5,-79.1
φ
4.3 32.5,-57.2
χ
4.3 32.2,-58.0
ψ
4.4 24.2,-77.5
ω
4.5 11.0,-63.7

24 ◒
DEINOCHEIRUS (Dei)
-
(Deinocheirus mirificus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 5/47 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.6 -130.4,-49.4
β
2.8 -124.9,-52.7
γ
2.8 -142.5,-51.2
δ
2.8 -144.4,-45.5
ε
2.9 -119.5,-51.6
ζ
3.1 -119.6,-47.6
η
3.5 -136.6,-52.8
θ
3.6 -132.1,-61.3
ι
3.6 -127.6,-65.5
κ
3.6 -131.4,-56.3
λ
3.7 -135.2,-54.2
μ
3.7 -138.2,-48.9
ν
3.8 -125.5,-49.5
ξ
4.4 -126.7,-57.9
ο
4.4 -117.3,-49.1
π
4.7 -140.8,-61.2
ρ
4.7 -142.3,-56.2
ς
4.7 -117.2,-45.9
σ
4.7 -124.0,-58.9
τ
4.8 -119.5,-50.5
υ
4.8 -146.1,-67.1
φ
4.8 -135.5,-63.7
χ
5.1 -141.9,-60.8
ψ
5.3 -136.6,-50.6
ω
5.3 -113.5,-51.2

25 ◓
DESMODUS (Des)
Giant Vampire Bat
(Desmodus draculae)
✝ Pleistocene or early Holocene

It is thought that each night Desmodus flies up against the dome of the sky, looking for a way to escape.

Shape: 3/122 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 -72.9, 70.4
β
2.8 29.1, 77.7
γ
3.4 -58.5, 71.8
δ
3.5 60.5, 88.1
ε
3.6 -167.3, 70.3
ζ
3.6 23.6, 79.4
η
3.6 108.0, 82.9
θ
3.7 -132.9, 71.2
ι
3.8 -141.7, 76.6
κ
3.8 -175.7, 71.0
λ
3.9 -106.4, 87.6
μ
3.9 30.8, 83.5
ν
4.0 -126.8, 75.8
ξ
4.0 -94.9, 84.7
ο
4.0 170.4, 88.4
π
4.1 -178.1, 73.5
ρ
4.1 98.0, 85.8
ς
4.2 -137.3, 74.1
σ
4.2 168.0, 83.9
τ
4.2 -167.7, 68.5
υ
4.2 108.8, 83.3
φ
4.3 -164.9, 70.1
χ
4.3 -124.1, 75.6
ψ
4.3 126.3, 85.2
ω
4.4 160.0, 77.3

26 ◓
ECTOPISTES (Ect)
Passenger pigeon
(Ectopistes migratorius)
✝ 1 September 1914

The last pidgeon, Martha, died in 1914 at the Cincinanati zoo. What a place to leave the earth from, eh?

Shape: 3/33 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.4 -28.5, 59.8
β
2.0 -19.7, 76.4
γ
2.7 -11.0, 68.1
δ
3.0 -34.3, 63.4
ε
3.2 -32.2, 73.3
ζ
3.3 -21.8, 64.7
η
3.5 -25.5, 62.4
θ
3.5 -6.2, 66.0
ι
3.5 -12.7, 56.1
κ
3.8 2.2, 73.5
λ
4.1 -10.4, 57.7
μ
4.2 -4.8, 77.3
ν
4.3 -15.0, 55.7
ξ
4.3 -10.6, 63.4
ο
4.3 -10.1, 76.5
π
4.5 -6.2, 65.6
ρ
4.5 -1.6, 61.1
ς
4.9 -12.5, 54.3
σ
5.1 -18.1, 53.0
τ
5.1 -29.3, 65.2
υ
5.2 -21.3, 69.4
φ
5.2 -16.9, 55.7
χ
5.4 -26.5, 55.9
ψ
5.5 -7.1, 64.6
ω
5.6 -29.3, 70.0

27 ●
GLYPTODON (Gly)
Glyptodon
(Glyptodon clavipes)
✝ Pleistocene

The Glyptodon is very slowly crossing from the south to the north hemisphere to play with Bron and Compsognathus. Will he make it?

Shape: 7/332 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.4 -140.9, 0.9
β
2.4 -123.4, 0.6
γ
2.8 -126.9,-13.6
δ
2.8 -114.0, -5.3
ε
2.9 -134.8, 4.8
ζ
2.9 -128.9, 4.7
η
2.9 -137.4,-10.0
θ
3.0 -135.7,-14.2
ι
3.0 -142.1, 6.0
κ
3.1 -141.4,-14.0
λ
3.1 -138.0, -9.7
μ
3.1 -121.1,-11.0
ν
3.6 -112.7, -6.6
ξ
3.6 -137.3, 3.0
ο
3.8 -126.6, -5.1
π
3.8 -122.3, -7.3
ρ
3.8 -141.4, -1.7
ς
3.8 -113.2, 4.5
σ
3.8 -138.7,-12.3
τ
3.9 -124.4, 4.8
υ
3.9 -127.3, 1.6
φ
4.0 -120.8, -0.1
χ
4.1 -129.0,-11.2
ψ
4.1 -118.9,-12.4
ω
4.1 -114.1, -3.1

28 ◓
HIPPOTRAGUS (Hip)
Bluebuck
(Hippotragus niger)
✝ 1799-1800

Shape: 7/437 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.9 78.0, 32.5
β
1.6 80.8, 29.4
γ
2.3 80.1, 36.0
δ
2.3 85.2, 19.5
ε
2.7 74.7, 32.0
ζ
2.8 84.6, 37.3
η
3.0 79.3, 29.5
θ
3.3 71.5, 21.1
ι
3.4 76.8, 19.4
κ
3.4 76.8, 41.0
λ
3.6 70.8, 15.4
μ
3.6 93.1, 37.0
ν
3.7 72.8, 22.8
ξ
3.7 72.6, 41.3
ο
3.7 81.2, 19.5
π
3.8 88.2, 33.4
ρ
3.9 80.4, 20.1
ς
3.9 83.5, 29.2
σ
4.0 83.0, 23.1
τ
4.0 75.4, 12.3
υ
4.0 84.9, 35.7
φ
4.1 87.5, 43.2
χ
4.1 72.1, 12.8
ψ
4.1 73.7, 39.1
ω
4.2 81.0, 11.8

29 ◒
HOOPOE (Hoo)
hoopoe starling
(Fregilupus varius)
✝ 1850s

Shape: 3/73 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 100.5,-25.4
β
3.2 103.9,-30.5
γ
3.3 109.6,-27.5
δ
3.9 100.9,-28.9
ε
3.9 99.5,-25.1
ζ
4.0 110.1,-20.8
η
4.0 104.6,-32.2
θ
4.1 109.0,-27.0
ι
4.1 109.3,-30.7
κ
4.3 108.2,-22.5
λ
4.5 104.6,-27.2
μ
4.6 103.6,-23.7
ν
4.7 100.7,-19.9
ξ
4.8 100.1,-29.8
ο
4.8 108.5,-17.6
π
4.8 101.1,-27.9
ρ
4.8 106.4,-23.6
ς
4.8 110.2,-29.4
σ
4.8 107.2,-22.1
τ
4.8 104.6,-24.6
υ
4.9 102.7,-27.6
φ
4.9 100.3,-22.9
χ
5.0 104.8,-18.2
ψ
5.0 103.8,-23.9
ω
5.1 102.7,-32.0

30 ◒
HUIA (Hui)
Huia
(Heteralocha acutirostris)
✝ 1907

Shape: 3/53 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.2 -108.0,-14.9
β
3.4 -105.8,-13.9
γ
3.4 -106.2,-12.0
δ
3.5 -106.4,-13.8
ε
3.8 -107.8,-10.4
ζ
4.1 -106.7,-13.8
η
4.1 -106.9,-19.7
θ
4.3 -107.1,-11.7
ι
4.4 -107.6,-19.3
κ
4.5 -107.7,-13.7
λ
4.7 -109.9,-11.6
μ
4.8 -108.4,-17.6
ν
4.8 -105.4,-14.2
ξ
4.9 -106.7,-15.6
ο
5.0 -106.8,-13.3
π
5.1 -103.4,-11.7
ρ
5.1 -109.8,-10.8
ς
5.1 -104.6,-10.1
σ
5.2 -106.9,-13.6
τ
5.2 -105.2,-17.4
υ
5.3 -105.7,-11.7
φ
5.4 -105.3,-19.6
χ
5.5 -102.6,-15.8
ψ
5.5 -108.9,-11.3
ω
5.5 -106.5,-14.1

31 ◓
HYDRODAMALIS (Hyd)
Steller's sea cow
(Hydrodamalis gigas)
✝ 1768

Shape: 4/72 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 -51.1, 19.5
β
2.6 -42.5, 16.6
γ
2.7 -50.6, 25.5
δ
2.7 -29.5, 38.6
ε
3.0 -30.6, 27.8
ζ
3.0 -53.4, 30.8
η
3.2 -49.6, 34.1
θ
3.4 -33.5, 30.8
ι
3.5 -40.9, 37.1
κ
3.5 -47.6, 19.7
λ
3.5 -49.3, 32.1
μ
3.6 -43.7, 35.2
ν
3.6 -34.2, 32.4
ξ
3.6 -52.9, 22.4
ο
3.8 -56.7, 31.9
π
3.8 -43.8, 17.0
ρ
3.9 -43.8, 20.2
ς
3.9 -49.4, 29.6
σ
4.0 -53.1, 41.8
τ
4.0 -40.9, 24.3
υ
4.0 -33.0, 51.9
φ
4.1 -48.0, 22.8
χ
4.1 -31.6, 36.0
ψ
4.1 -45.0, 17.9
ω
4.1 -44.3, 20.2

32 ●
IBEX (Ibe)
Pyrenean ibex
(Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica))
✝ 2000

Shape: 6/817 stars, 6 edges.

α
1.5 -43.2,-21.3
β
2.0 -53.4, 6.2
γ
2.0 -49.2, -4.5
δ
2.2 -41.2,-12.1
ε
2.5 -53.4,-16.6
ζ
2.5 -55.7, -3.2
η
2.8 -56.9,-10.2
θ
2.8 -55.0, -9.0
ι
3.3 -45.0,-12.2
κ
3.5 -42.4,-12.2
λ
3.6 -46.7, -7.9
μ
3.7 -46.8,-13.9
ν
3.8 -49.7, -7.4
ξ
3.8 -54.4, 0.6
ο
3.9 -41.1,-20.6
π
4.0 -49.3,-14.6
ρ
4.0 -56.3, -8.6
ς
4.0 -49.9, 7.6
σ
4.0 -48.1,-15.9
τ
4.1 -44.9,-27.1
υ
4.1 -50.5, -6.9
φ
4.1 -53.6,-13.4
χ
4.1 -40.4,-14.5
ψ
4.2 -50.0,-25.9
ω
4.2 -57.4,-21.9

33 ◓
INCILIUS (Inc)
Golden toad
(Incilius periglenes)
✝ 15 May 1989

Toads are studied by herpetologists. I'd love to be one just so that I can say that word at a party.

Shape: 4/106 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 -107.3, 61.0
β
2.6 -108.6, 56.1
γ
2.7 -118.9, 56.6
δ
3.3 -112.9, 61.9
ε
3.6 -117.5, 56.4
ζ
3.7 -110.4, 47.5
η
3.8 -112.7, 60.7
θ
3.8 -113.0, 49.2
ι
3.8 -113.4, 65.5
κ
3.8 -113.7, 55.1
λ
4.0 -108.0, 63.6
μ
4.1 -119.3, 60.3
ν
4.2 -107.6, 49.0
ξ
4.4 -112.2, 49.8
ο
4.5 -117.4, 66.0
π
4.6 -113.2, 48.4
ρ
4.7 -121.4, 51.5
ς
4.7 -116.9, 52.9
σ
4.7 -120.1, 48.2
τ
4.7 -109.9, 49.6
υ
4.7 -114.6, 49.7
φ
4.7 -121.2, 54.5
χ
4.8 -113.7, 58.7
ψ
4.8 -114.2, 62.5
ω
4.8 -116.1, 49.2

34 ◓
KELENKEN (Kel)
Terror bird
(Kelenken guillermoi)
✝ Miocene

Shape: 5/48 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.6 10.9, 14.0
β
1.9 9.0, 27.4
γ
2.2 -4.6, 17.4
δ
2.4 9.4, 18.3
ε
2.7 13.8, 26.3
ζ
2.9 -0.6, 12.1
η
3.1 11.2, 22.4
θ
3.3 15.0, 25.6
ι
3.4 1.3, 25.0
κ
3.5 5.8, 7.7
λ
3.7 8.9, 20.3
μ
3.8 4.6, 29.2
ν
3.8 -7.4, 20.0
ξ
3.8 1.4, 9.5
ο
4.1 13.7, 17.6
π
4.2 2.1, 15.5
ρ
4.5 3.9, 18.4
ς
4.6 1.9, 21.9
σ
4.6 3.9, 27.4
τ
4.8 -4.7, 22.1
υ
4.8 10.4, 29.8
φ
4.9 -1.0, 10.2
χ
5.1 -3.0, 8.1
ψ
5.2 13.3, 20.5
ω
5.2 3.1, 12.4

35 ◒
KIMBETOPSALIS (Kim)
-
(Kimbetopsalis simmonsae)
✝ middle Puercan

Shape: 8/2155 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.2 34.3,-48.0
β
1.4 33.6,-31.4
γ
1.4 79.6,-47.0
δ
1.6 58.0,-41.7
ε
2.1 89.4,-37.1
ζ
2.3 63.5,-37.8
η
2.3 79.6,-39.4
θ
2.4 59.8,-32.4
ι
2.6 36.9,-42.6
κ
2.7 40.7,-35.7
λ
2.7 73.1,-45.3
μ
2.9 45.6,-32.4
ν
2.9 30.9,-41.4
ξ
3.4 31.3,-28.9
ο
3.4 89.1,-39.8
π
3.4 44.6,-26.6
ρ
3.4 43.4,-44.2
ς
3.5 55.2,-31.5
σ
3.6 42.5,-30.8
τ
3.6 40.8,-40.0
υ
3.6 63.9,-37.2
φ
3.7 55.0,-25.7
χ
3.8 42.0,-32.4
ψ
3.8 37.6,-30.4
ω
3.9 50.2,-38.2

36 ●
KLEKOWSKII (Kle)
Colossus penguin
(Palaeeudyptes klekowskii)
✝ late Eocene

Shape: 5/714 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 46.2, 3.2
β
1.5 57.7, 14.2
γ
1.8 53.1, -9.6
δ
1.8 38.3, 13.3
ε
2.1 45.6, 11.4
ζ
2.5 48.5,-13.8
η
2.6 52.7, 18.4
θ
2.7 42.5, 0.0
ι
2.8 46.4, 10.7
κ
2.8 49.8,-12.5
λ
2.9 54.1, -5.8
μ
3.0 36.6, 16.1
ν
3.1 39.6,-15.1
ξ
3.2 51.7, 3.6
ο
3.3 48.8, 8.5
π
3.4 53.1, 7.2
ρ
3.5 47.3, 15.7
ς
3.5 48.3,-10.8
σ
3.6 36.5, 9.3
τ
3.6 67.4, 10.3
υ
3.6 65.2, 13.5
φ
3.7 67.5, 15.2
χ
3.8 52.1, 13.6
ψ
3.8 58.1, 17.1
ω
3.8 54.9,-22.9

37 ◒
LEPIDODENDRON (Lep)
Scale tree
(Lepidodendron)
✝ Carboniferous

Shape: 6/1028 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 -19.4,-47.6
β
2.6 -24.8,-50.1
γ
2.9 -21.9,-44.0
δ
2.9 -24.5,-38.8
ε
2.9 -34.2,-44.1
ζ
3.0 -37.6,-41.3
η
3.1 -43.0,-52.1
θ
3.2 -44.7,-40.0
ι
3.4 -30.0,-42.2
κ
3.6 -37.9,-48.5
λ
3.7 -28.2,-40.8
μ
3.9 -18.6,-56.8
ν
4.0 -33.8,-42.1
ξ
4.0 -36.0,-51.0
ο
4.0 -33.7,-38.5
π
4.0 -39.9,-38.2
ρ
4.1 -43.8,-40.7
ς
4.1 -20.8,-54.6
σ
4.1 -33.9,-42.5
τ
4.2 -25.8,-48.7
υ
4.2 -28.8,-39.3
φ
4.3 -36.1,-56.3
χ
4.3 -23.8,-51.5
ψ
4.4 -33.6,-56.2
ω
4.4 -30.4,-48.5

38 ◓
MALPAISOMYS (Mal)
Lava mouse
(Malpaisomys insularis)
✝ ?

Not much is known about when Malpaisomys became extinct. Some think it's when humans and dogs arrived on the Canary islands. Malpaisomys worries that because of his small size, nobody cares.

Shape: 3/38 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.4 123.7, 78.1
β
2.8 120.5, 71.0
γ
2.8 124.0, 77.7
δ
3.5 127.5, 74.1
ε
3.7 126.3, 79.5
ζ
3.7 125.7, 81.3
η
3.7 113.1, 74.3
θ
3.8 113.6, 74.5
ι
3.8 119.5, 71.6
κ
4.1 116.8, 74.7
λ
4.1 132.6, 76.6
μ
4.2 121.2, 73.2
ν
4.3 114.7, 77.7
ξ
4.5 132.0, 69.9
ο
4.6 124.4, 70.2
π
4.7 129.0, 69.3
ρ
4.8 119.4, 71.9
ς
4.8 118.7, 66.2
σ
4.9 130.6, 65.3
τ
5.4 112.6, 68.5
υ
5.6 130.4, 64.3
φ
5.6 131.5, 82.4
χ
5.7 112.7, 68.0
ψ
5.8 121.8, 70.9
ω
5.8 129.3, 66.6

39 ◓
MAMMUTHUS (Mam)
Woolly mammoth
(Mammuthus primigenius)
✝ Pleistocene, early Holocene

Shape: 8/69 stars, 7 edges.

α
-0.7 13.6, 33.6
β
0.6 26.5, 31.5
γ
1.7 19.3, 41.5
δ
1.9 36.3, 37.6
ε
2.3 7.2, 34.4
ζ
2.5 24.6, 46.6
η
2.6 33.6, 46.1
θ
2.9 13.0, 35.9
ι
3.0 34.2, 33.9
κ
3.0 5.0, 51.1
λ
3.1 21.5, 20.4
μ
3.1 30.2, 46.3
ν
3.2 7.6, 37.1
ξ
3.2 -3.9, 43.0
ο
3.3 29.8, 43.9
π
3.3 33.0, 27.3
ρ
3.3 25.6, 46.0
ς
3.5 19.6, 47.2
σ
3.6 24.2, 33.8
τ
3.7 7.3, 33.5
υ
3.8 5.3, 45.5
φ
4.0 18.2, 51.1
χ
4.2 6.1, 42.5
ψ
4.4 -1.8, 40.9
ω
4.4 -0.6, 39.4

40 ●
MARIANA (Mar)
Mariana mallard
(Anas oustaleti)
✝ 1981

Shape: 3/17 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.7 157.8, -4.1
β
3.5 155.8, -2.1
γ
4.0 154.1, -3.4
δ
4.0 155.4, -0.3
ε
4.1 155.9, -2.7
ζ
4.3 159.4, 0.4
η
4.8 154.8, -1.1
θ
4.9 153.4, 0.6
ι
5.1 154.1, -2.1
κ
5.2 157.5, 4.2
λ
5.8 153.1, -0.7
μ
5.9 158.9, -1.5
ν
6.0 152.6, -6.6
ξ
6.1 157.4, 0.9
ο
6.2 155.5, 2.3
π
6.6 152.7, -4.7
ρ
7.0 156.0, -7.2

41 ◒
MEGALODON (Megal)
Giant shark
(Carcharodon Megalodon)
✝ early miocene, late Pliocene

One word: terrifying. More words: endlessly chasing Tecopa. The megalodon possesses the brightest star in the sky.

Shape: 4/20 stars, 4 edges.

α
-2.0 127.3,-65.2
β
2.9 129.9,-74.5
γ
2.9 148.7,-74.0
δ
3.0 134.5,-62.4
ε
3.3 128.0,-66.4
ζ
3.7 136.4,-74.1
η
3.9 120.4,-67.1
θ
4.2 131.4,-69.0
ι
4.6 140.6,-75.0
κ
4.8 145.4,-72.0
λ
4.9 146.5,-77.1
μ
4.9 135.1,-68.5
ν
5.0 120.8,-76.0
ξ
5.4 127.6,-69.5
ο
5.8 125.0,-77.4
π
5.9 132.1,-74.1
ρ
6.0 121.6,-75.9
ς
6.3 146.0,-68.3
σ
6.5 132.3,-62.7
τ
6.9 139.5,-77.0

42 ◒
MEGANEURA (Megan)
Giant dragonfly
(Meganeura brongniarti)
✝ late Carboniferous

Shape: 5/122 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 -81.4,-71.5
β
2.0 -97.1,-83.7
γ
2.2 -113.2,-61.9
δ
2.5 -90.5,-57.6
ε
2.7 -104.2,-57.2
ζ
3.1 -93.9,-79.9
η
3.2 -107.8,-68.1
θ
3.2 -107.9,-80.4
ι
3.3 -107.3,-77.8
κ
3.4 -76.9,-71.1
λ
3.5 -91.8,-65.3
μ
3.5 -101.5,-78.4
ν
3.6 -92.8,-59.1
ξ
3.6 -108.1,-75.7
ο
3.6 -96.6,-75.1
π
3.6 -79.4,-55.8
ρ
3.6 -90.2,-66.2
ς
3.8 -90.8,-52.8
σ
3.8 -89.3,-66.0
τ
3.8 -90.6,-62.0
υ
3.9 -104.2,-58.6
φ
3.9 -112.1,-79.0
χ
4.0 -114.5,-69.0
ψ
4.0 -84.6,-56.7
ω
4.1 -115.6,-62.8

43 ◓
MINMI (Min)
Minmi
(Minmi paravertebra)
✝ early Cretaceous

The Minmi is actually much larger than his name suggests. He really wants you to know that.

Shape: 5/749 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.8 87.9, 7.3
β
2.3 89.9, 7.9
γ
2.5 76.6, 6.0
δ
2.7 87.0, 7.2
ε
2.7 93.4, 7.5
ζ
3.1 95.9, 5.7
η
3.3 86.5, 2.3
θ
3.6 79.2, 8.3
ι
3.6 94.6, 6.3
κ
3.7 79.7, 5.7
λ
3.7 84.7, 8.1
μ
3.8 95.8, 9.9
ν
4.1 80.0, 7.1
ξ
4.2 93.8, 0.3
ο
4.2 76.1, 4.3
π
4.2 98.7, 2.8
ρ
4.3 78.0, 1.7
ς
4.3 78.9, 7.2
σ
4.3 84.7, 8.1
τ
4.4 97.3, 4.4
υ
4.4 77.6, 2.1
φ
4.4 78.4, 7.7
χ
4.5 76.1, 5.4
ψ
4.5 76.5, 8.4
ω
4.5 98.1, 3.4

44 ◓
MOA (Moa)
Moa
(Dinornis novaezealandiae)
✝ Miocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/60 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -17.2, 27.0
β
1.0 -25.6, 22.4
γ
1.6 -21.0, 17.5
δ
1.8 -10.9, 34.4
ε
1.9 -11.9, 45.0
ζ
2.0 -23.0, 43.6
η
2.6 -9.5, 35.4
θ
2.6 -23.4, 26.2
ι
2.8 -33.0, 20.6
κ
3.0 -14.3, 17.8
λ
3.0 -7.6, 35.2
μ
3.2 -8.5, 40.0
ν
3.3 -19.6, 48.5
ξ
3.3 -8.8, 44.9
ο
3.4 -16.8, 29.5
π
3.5 -17.6, 49.5
ρ
3.5 -16.9, 37.1
ς
3.7 -32.9, 24.9
σ
3.8 -21.4, 40.6
τ
3.8 -25.0, 16.9
υ
4.1 -28.5, 23.9
φ
4.1 -21.0, 23.6
χ
4.5 -12.8, 16.4
ψ
4.5 -10.1, 42.4
ω
4.6 -23.2, 18.1

45 ◒
MOHO (Moh)
ʻōʻō
(Moho braccatus)
✝ 1987

The ʻōʻō has all its letters with diacriticals. This makes the whēkau jealous. They haven't talked since.

Shape: 6/70 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 135.0, -7.0
β
2.6 131.3,-10.0
γ
3.1 130.1, -5.5
δ
3.4 135.9, -7.8
ε
3.5 129.3, -4.6
ζ
3.8 141.4,-19.0
η
4.0 143.0, -2.7
θ
4.0 135.5,-10.0
ι
4.0 136.3,-10.4
κ
4.0 132.2,-11.1
λ
4.1 134.1, -9.0
μ
4.1 128.3,-10.1
ν
4.1 138.6, -7.6
ξ
4.1 136.5, -7.5
ο
4.1 132.9, -6.2
π
4.2 143.7, -5.7
ρ
4.2 135.5,-15.6
ς
4.4 141.6,-17.4
σ
4.4 141.7,-10.3
τ
4.4 140.1,-10.4
υ
4.5 137.5,-12.2
φ
4.6 132.3, -7.5
χ
4.7 134.1, -7.9
ψ
4.8 134.3, -9.4
ω
4.8 134.8,-13.4

46 ◓
NESIOTA (Nes)
St Helena Olive
(Nesiota elliptica)
✝ 2003

I frankly hate olives and there's no end to my pleasure in throwing olives at the sky.

Shape: 4/784 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.8 116.4, 37.4
β
2.8 112.3, 25.9
γ
2.9 117.3, 30.7
δ
3.4 105.5, 29.0
ε
3.4 112.5, 23.4
ζ
3.5 115.9, 34.5
η
3.6 112.5, 36.9
θ
4.0 104.4, 23.0
ι
4.1 111.4, 33.1
κ
4.2 110.4, 29.8
λ
4.2 108.4, 33.2
μ
4.3 102.5, 23.2
ν
4.3 119.4, 23.5
ξ
4.3 115.1, 33.7
ο
4.4 118.3, 37.5
π
4.4 115.4, 36.3
ρ
4.5 119.0, 26.9
ς
4.6 103.4, 36.7
σ
4.6 109.4, 37.4
τ
4.6 109.2, 32.7
υ
4.6 117.3, 35.6
φ
4.7 102.9, 36.6
χ
4.7 106.6, 28.2
ψ
4.7 115.7, 36.3
ω
4.8 103.9, 26.4

47 ◒
O'AHU 'AKEPA (Oah)
O'ahu 'akepa
(Loxops wolstenholmei)
✝ 1990s

Like Pipilo, the O'ahu 'akepa is the only other multi-part constellation. Here, a pair of akepas are chatting and spreading rumors about Tadorna.

Shape: 4/30 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.3 150.9, -4.2
β
2.6 151.7,-13.5
γ
3.1 148.9, -9.1
δ
3.7 148.2,-12.2
ε
3.7 152.9,-16.5
ζ
3.8 152.8, -9.6
η
3.9 145.9, -7.0
θ
4.2 149.0,-11.2
ι
4.3 149.9,-15.6
κ
4.3 147.3,-13.2
λ
4.6 149.7, -1.2
μ
4.8 147.7, -7.3
ν
4.8 153.8,-18.9
ξ
4.9 152.5,-15.8
ο
5.0 147.1, -5.4
π
5.1 148.0,-10.5
ρ
5.2 148.5, -4.1
ς
5.2 150.8, -2.3
σ
5.5 145.7,-11.2
τ
5.6 147.0, -9.4
υ
5.7 148.5,-14.4
φ
5.9 152.4, -8.4
χ
6.1 150.4, -1.2
ψ
6.2 151.2, -6.9
ω
6.2 146.8, -3.9

48 ◒
PALAEOALDROVANDA (Pal)
-
(Palaeoaldrovanda splendens)
✝ late Cretaceous

Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Xerces is seen flying nearby. He must be careful.

Shape: 3/121 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.0 1.0,-44.3
β
3.4 2.1,-38.5
γ
3.6 6.9,-39.5
δ
3.9 4.7,-42.1
ε
4.1 2.5,-37.8
ζ
4.1 2.1,-40.7
η
4.7 2.7,-43.6
θ
4.8 6.7,-41.6
ι
4.9 1.7,-44.7
κ
5.1 1.5,-42.0
λ
5.1 4.7,-44.7
μ
5.1 0.9,-42.0
ν
5.1 2.2,-43.3
ξ
5.1 0.5,-40.1
ο
5.4 3.0,-44.2
π
5.6 3.4,-43.4
ρ
5.7 6.2,-38.4
ς
5.7 5.8,-39.6
σ
5.8 2.6,-38.4
τ
5.8 4.0,-42.5
υ
5.9 6.1,-38.7
φ
6.0 1.9,-38.7
χ
6.0 4.2,-43.6
ψ
6.2 3.5,-44.4
ω
6.2 1.4,-38.9

49 ●
PECATONICA (Pec)
Pecatonica River mayfly
(Acanthametropus pecatonica)
✝ -

The mayfly loves to pester Raphus, the Dodo bird. He is too worried about guarding his eggs to pay attention to Pecatonica, though.

Shape: 4/58 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.3 3.9, -2.1
β
3.1 1.0, -1.4
γ
3.3 4.0, -7.2
δ
3.5 4.7, 6.2
ε
3.5 14.1, -0.2
ζ
3.7 6.1, 5.4
η
3.8 2.2, -6.7
θ
4.1 1.4, 6.9
ι
4.2 11.4, -3.1
κ
4.2 1.1, -9.7
λ
4.3 14.1, 6.5
μ
4.3 11.9, 1.8
ν
4.6 4.7, 6.0
ξ
4.6 12.3, -2.2
ο
4.6 3.7, -3.5
π
4.8 -3.6, -0.6
ρ
4.8 8.3, 3.3
ς
4.8 2.7, 5.5
σ
5.0 8.1, 6.1
τ
5.0 6.7, -1.8
υ
5.1 3.3, -1.3
φ
5.2 8.0, -1.0
χ
5.2 7.7, -6.3
ψ
5.4 -2.3, -6.3
ω
5.6 7.6, -9.9

50 ◒
PELAGORNIS (Pel)
Pelagornis
(Pelagornis sandersi)
✝ upper Oligocene

He can barely fit in the southern skies. With a wingspan of over 5 meters, he is certain that he is the biggest bird in the sky. However, Argentavis of the northern hemisphere disagrees.

Shape: 6/192 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.4 74.8,-55.9
β
2.7 92.1,-47.9
γ
3.1 60.2,-50.6
δ
3.3 49.0,-48.0
ε
3.4 83.7,-51.3
ζ
3.4 67.3,-52.6
η
3.5 81.6,-50.7
θ
3.7 86.6,-53.6
ι
4.1 58.6,-51.6
κ
4.3 85.9,-53.3
λ
4.3 77.7,-57.0
μ
4.4 50.6,-48.6
ν
4.4 70.2,-51.2
ξ
4.5 84.8,-54.3
ο
4.6 90.4,-48.8
π
4.6 55.4,-51.2
ρ
4.7 60.3,-51.9
ς
4.7 76.5,-51.8
σ
4.7 89.9,-56.3
τ
4.7 60.1,-45.5
υ
4.8 65.0,-49.2
φ
4.8 56.3,-46.2
χ
4.9 74.0,-50.4
ψ
4.9 72.4,-50.5
ω
4.9 67.6,-50.3

51 ◒
PHELSUMA (Phe)
Rodrigues day gecko
(Phelsuma edwardnewtoni)
✝ late 1800s?

The Phelsuma was described as unafraid of humans and said to be tame and happy to eat fruit from your hand. Lessons to be learned here?

Shape: 10/131 stars, 10 edges.

α
0.5 -121.9,-33.4
β
1.1 -160.8,-36.7
γ
1.4 -128.5,-26.2
δ
1.4 -151.1,-41.5
ε
1.5 -177.8,-36.5
ζ
1.5 -156.1,-32.5
η
1.8 -131.8,-43.7
θ
1.8 -137.6,-30.2
ι
2.0 -148.0,-31.3
κ
2.0 -178.0,-55.0
λ
2.1 -167.1,-33.7
μ
2.1 -140.1,-27.1
ν
2.3 -177.6,-42.4
ξ
2.6 -143.7,-32.1
ο
2.7 -153.2,-29.1
π
2.8 -137.2,-27.4
ρ
3.0 -111.4,-31.8
ς
3.1 -157.5,-31.9
σ
3.3 -153.6,-33.1
τ
3.3 -144.3,-28.6
υ
3.3 -141.6,-31.9
φ
3.4 -167.7,-48.4
χ
3.4 -166.6,-53.8
ψ
3.5 -132.3,-40.5
ω
3.5 -161.7,-48.0

52 ◓
PINGUINUS (Ping)
Great auk
(Pinguinus impennis)
✝ 1852

Shape: 3/88 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.0 -70.5, 55.1
β
1.5 -68.3, 57.7
γ
2.6 -75.9, 52.3
δ
2.8 -71.9, 38.9
ε
2.9 -67.6, 36.3
ζ
3.5 -65.0, 47.1
η
3.5 -75.4, 32.0
θ
3.5 -75.2, 38.8
ι
3.6 -63.6, 48.5
κ
3.8 -61.0, 47.5
λ
3.8 -70.8, 36.0
μ
3.9 -75.6, 32.2
ν
3.9 -70.6, 32.4
ξ
3.9 -60.9, 44.1
ο
4.0 -74.5, 39.9
π
4.0 -69.1, 50.6
ρ
4.0 -73.1, 33.1
ς
4.0 -68.4, 39.2
σ
4.1 -74.6, 40.0
τ
4.1 -60.8, 35.7
υ
4.1 -57.9, 30.8
φ
4.2 -74.3, 54.3
χ
4.2 -72.7, 36.0
ψ
4.2 -67.7, 31.2
ω
4.3 -70.2, 63.6

53 ◵
PINTA (Pint)
Pinta Island tortoise
(Chelonoidis abingdonii)
✝ 24 June 2012

The last of its kind, a male named Lonesome George, died in 2012.

Shape: 5/402 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -32.6,-64.5
β
1.9 -39.5,-74.1
γ
2.0 -5.6,-63.5
δ
2.3 -4.8,-54.5
ε
2.5 -2.1,-74.5
ζ
3.1 -16.6,-61.4
η
3.4 -6.9,-69.2
θ
3.6 -19.7,-64.4
ι
3.6 -12.5,-65.5
κ
3.6 -43.5,-68.9
λ
3.6 -1.3,-67.5
μ
3.7 -30.0,-76.8
ν
3.8 -32.2,-67.9
ξ
3.8 -17.1,-76.7
ο
4.0 -14.3,-61.5
π
4.1 -11.3,-59.0
ρ
4.2 -29.4,-69.7
ς
4.2 -42.2,-64.8
σ
4.2 -6.6,-66.7
τ
4.3 2.1,-63.6
υ
4.3 -10.3,-53.7
φ
4.4 -36.5,-71.8
χ
4.4 0.4,-79.0
ψ
4.4 -15.9,-61.5
ω
4.4 -8.7,-56.0

54 ●
PIPILO (Pip)
Bermuda towhee
(Pipilo naufragus)
✝ Pleistocene, Holocene

A rare flocking constellation. These towhees cross hemispheres and keep the Glyptodon company.

Shape: 44/261 stars, 22 edges.

α
2.9 -137.7,-20.1
β
3.0 -165.7,-13.7
γ
3.0 -168.1,-29.1
δ
3.0 -157.3,-18.6
ε
3.0 -147.3,-23.0
ζ
3.1 -123.5,-21.5
η
3.1 -176.5, -2.9
θ
3.1 -169.8,-28.5
ι
3.1 -149.3,-21.6
κ
3.1 -162.6,-13.4
λ
3.1 -172.9, -9.0
μ
3.1 -172.4,-23.2
ν
3.2 -178.1,-25.6
ξ
3.2 -170.7, -9.0
ο
3.3 -159.1,-21.5
π
3.4 -171.9,-19.7
ρ
3.4 -176.0, 1.9
ς
3.5 -140.9, 11.1
σ
3.5 -178.9,-24.7
τ
3.5 -178.5,-12.7
υ
3.5 -166.3,-18.1
φ
3.6 -152.2, 3.1
χ
3.6 -144.1, 10.7
ψ
3.6 -157.5, -5.7
ω
3.6 -143.4, -2.1

55 ●
PLEOROTUS (Ple)
Pleorotus
(Pleorotus braueri)
✝ 1894

Shape: 5/406 stars, 5 edges.

α
3.2 59.4, 1.1
β
3.2 60.1, -3.6
γ
3.3 74.9, -6.7
δ
3.6 65.7, -3.7
ε
3.7 63.0, -3.6
ζ
3.8 65.8, 2.2
η
3.8 71.9, 2.3
θ
3.8 64.0, 1.2
ι
3.9 70.5, 3.2
κ
4.0 71.3, 1.5
λ
4.2 67.6, 4.4
μ
4.2 66.5, -3.8
ν
4.2 62.2, -5.2
ξ
4.3 70.6, -6.7
ο
4.3 68.8, -4.9
π
4.3 60.4, 3.3
ρ
4.4 72.4, 2.8
ς
4.5 70.8, -2.3
σ
4.5 69.3, 8.9
τ
4.5 62.2, 2.0
υ
4.7 60.6, 4.5
φ
4.7 69.2, 9.4
χ
4.7 67.6, -3.8
ψ
4.7 65.9, 5.3
ω
4.7 65.3, 6.1

56 ◓
PLUCHEA (Plu)
Pluchea
(Pluchea glutinosa)
✝ 19th century

Shape: 4/652 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.4 104.3, 15.1
β
1.4 99.0, 17.4
γ
1.6 110.6, 15.4
δ
2.1 103.7, 18.4
ε
2.6 110.6, 15.8
ζ
3.3 103.7, 11.7
η
3.7 112.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 113.2, 19.6
ι
3.7 98.5, 20.8
κ
3.8 111.2, 15.6
λ
3.9 107.3, 13.5
μ
4.0 102.0, 10.6
ν
4.0 101.6, 18.6
ξ
4.0 114.9, 16.5
ο
4.0 111.0, 13.3
π
4.1 97.7, 21.3
ρ
4.1 110.1, 19.0
ς
4.1 111.0, 19.7
σ
4.2 109.8, 22.4
τ
4.2 107.1, 11.7
υ
4.3 105.8, 19.7
φ
4.4 110.1, 19.5
χ
4.5 104.0, 14.3
ψ
4.5 114.2, 20.0
ω
4.5 102.5, 13.6

57 ◓
PO'OULI (Poo)
po'o-uli
(Melamprosops phaeosoma)
✝ 2004?

The last sighting of a pair of po'ouli was in 2004 and now again, in the sky of pi.

Shape: 4/145 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.8 107.1, 43.5
β
2.2 103.0, 45.9
γ
2.6 101.5, 40.0
δ
2.8 97.7, 42.5
ε
3.2 107.7, 52.6
ζ
3.2 106.1, 53.5
η
3.2 111.4, 40.9
θ
3.5 106.1, 38.8
ι
3.6 98.4, 52.1
κ
3.7 97.5, 44.4
λ
4.0 99.5, 40.9
μ
4.1 108.4, 54.3
ν
4.3 106.4, 47.8
ξ
4.3 112.4, 54.3
ο
4.3 102.8, 39.4
π
4.4 101.2, 52.2
ρ
4.4 99.9, 42.1
ς
4.4 105.2, 46.1
σ
4.5 106.3, 51.5
τ
4.6 112.4, 54.1
υ
4.6 107.6, 54.8
φ
4.7 111.0, 48.2
χ
4.7 99.0, 48.9
ψ
4.7 110.5, 38.0
ω
4.7 100.8, 42.9

58 ◒
PORZANA (Por)
Laysan rail
(Porzana palmeri)
✝ 1944

Tiny guys in the corner.

Shape: 2/7 stars, 1 edges.

α
2.7 169.3,-60.9
β
4.8 168.6,-63.1
γ
5.5 173.0,-77.9
δ
5.8 161.0,-72.5
ε
5.8 171.5,-76.4
ζ
6.4 159.9,-68.0
η
7.2 166.3,-62.4

59 ◒
PTERODACTYL (Pte)
Winged finger
(Pterodactylus antiquus)
✝ early Tithonian

Shape: 9/1676 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.7 6.2,-53.6
β
2.8 -26.3,-32.8
γ
2.9 -30.0,-26.2
δ
3.1 -34.6,-30.9
ε
3.2 -5.1,-43.4
ζ
3.3 -36.3,-22.8
η
3.4 -12.9,-42.5
θ
3.5 -17.3,-44.6
ι
3.6 11.0,-56.7
κ
3.6 -28.0,-35.9
λ
3.6 8.3,-59.1
μ
3.6 -18.0,-27.6
ν
3.6 -3.6,-48.7
ξ
3.7 -28.0,-35.6
ο
3.7 -21.6,-30.5
π
3.9 2.6,-49.1
ρ
3.9 -32.7,-29.5
ς
4.0 -11.0,-37.1
σ
4.0 -34.2,-34.6
τ
4.0 -26.0,-30.7
υ
4.0 -22.5,-30.4
φ
4.0 -31.9,-27.4
χ
4.1 -28.5,-33.0
ψ
4.1 -36.7,-22.7
ω
4.2 8.2,-63.5

60 ◓
QUAGGA (Qua)
Quagga
(Equus quagga quagga)
✝ 1883

Comical and uncertain of its stripes, Quagga is often seen asking Aurochs for his advice.

Shape: 6/139 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.8 73.0, 74.4
β
1.3 97.7, 60.3
γ
1.9 76.9, 55.4
δ
2.1 93.3, 77.0
ε
2.6 72.5, 52.3
ζ
2.7 90.6, 49.5
η
2.8 91.7, 74.8
θ
3.1 100.3, 74.9
ι
3.3 65.6, 78.2
κ
3.5 97.4, 50.5
λ
3.7 88.7, 55.0
μ
3.7 77.0, 55.7
ν
3.7 102.7, 69.8
ξ
3.7 103.9, 73.6
ο
3.8 95.3, 74.0
π
3.8 66.2, 74.0
ρ
3.9 99.3, 71.5
ς
3.9 79.3, 46.7
σ
3.9 91.4, 51.2
τ
4.0 68.3, 74.2
υ
4.0 93.4, 59.2
φ
4.1 84.9, 63.2
χ
4.1 111.3, 59.4
ψ
4.1 70.0, 66.3
ω
4.2 106.5, 60.3

61 ●
RAPHUS (Rap)
Dodo bird
(Raphus cucullatus)
✝ Holocene

Raphus is guarding his eggs—the clusters of stars just south of β Raphus (the second brightest star in the constellation) while pestered by Pecatonica.

Shape: 5/358 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.3 -23.6,-21.3
β
1.5 -27.7, 0.8
γ
1.8 -9.5,-14.7
δ
2.0 -37.5, 3.5
ε
2.3 -10.0, -6.2
ζ
2.8 -30.1, -7.4
η
2.8 -23.1, -1.6
θ
2.9 -28.8, -6.8
ι
2.9 -36.3, -7.7
κ
3.0 -19.1, 12.0
λ
3.2 -29.0, 7.7
μ
3.3 -38.3, -0.2
ν
3.4 -29.2, -7.7
ξ
3.4 -35.9,-19.4
ο
3.4 -21.5, -7.4
π
3.4 -39.0, 10.7
ρ
3.4 -36.1, -7.0
ς
3.5 -25.3,-21.4
σ
3.5 -35.1, 5.7
τ
3.5 -16.4, -5.9
υ
3.5 -20.2, -5.5
φ
3.5 -36.9, 1.5
χ
3.5 -36.6,-15.9
ψ
3.5 -23.3, -6.9
ω
3.6 -16.6,-14.9

62 ◒
RHYNIA (Rhy)
Rhynia
(Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 3/12 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 147.9,-54.4
β
2.6 160.0,-57.4
γ
3.2 157.4,-61.3
δ
3.3 158.7,-59.6
ε
3.6 146.2,-56.3
ζ
3.7 142.4,-61.6
η
4.8 153.1,-53.5
θ
5.5 152.9,-63.0
ι
5.6 142.5,-57.7
κ
5.6 143.5,-54.0
λ
6.4 145.4,-61.5
μ
6.5 155.4,-54.6

63 ◒
RODHOCETUS (Rod)
-
(Rodhocetus kasrani)
✝ Lutetian

Fleeing from the giant Megalodon, Rodhocetus was an early whale that possessed land mammal characteristics. Some say that he managed to escape from Megalodon and lived out his life on the land, never returning to the sea.

Shape: 6/44 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 96.7,-59.6
β
2.1 130.3,-51.7
γ
2.3 110.4,-54.7
δ
2.4 122.6,-57.0
ε
2.8 103.1,-51.5
ζ
2.9 116.2,-60.0
η
3.4 107.0,-58.8
θ
3.5 97.5,-47.7
ι
3.7 124.9,-53.5
κ
3.8 109.9,-54.9
λ
4.0 110.6,-49.2
μ
4.2 127.0,-52.2
ν
4.3 98.9,-50.5
ξ
4.3 117.8,-51.7
ο
4.4 130.1,-52.6
π
4.6 108.9,-59.5
ρ
4.7 95.6,-51.2
ς
4.9 104.4,-55.5
σ
5.0 100.3,-53.8
τ
5.0 106.1,-53.5
υ
5.2 111.5,-48.5
φ
5.3 100.0,-51.9
χ
5.3 101.5,-58.5
ψ
5.4 137.7,-57.3
ω
5.4 130.4,-58.2

64 ◒
SILPHIUM (Sil)
laserwort
(Ferula tingitana)
✝ 2,000 years ago

The last known stalk was given to Emperor Nero. As stories, some have said that he used Silphium as kindle to a larger fire.

Shape: 3/8 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 115.9,-50.1
β
2.9 114.5,-52.0
γ
3.1 116.2,-51.2
δ
3.9 113.9,-52.8
ε
4.1 114.8,-51.3
ζ
4.5 113.1,-50.5
η
5.0 114.9,-50.8
θ
5.6 114.9,-50.9

65 ◒
SIVATHERIUM (Siv)
Shiva's beast
(Sivatherium giganteum)
✝ Pliocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/577 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -4.3,-39.4
β
2.3 -2.4,-22.7
γ
2.7 10.0,-28.9
δ
2.8 5.9,-31.0
ε
3.1 9.1,-30.2
ζ
3.1 13.4,-17.1
η
3.2 0.8,-18.7
θ
3.2 13.3,-26.4
ι
3.2 4.2,-16.2
κ
3.3 4.8,-23.1
λ
3.5 2.1,-33.6
μ
3.5 -6.6,-21.5
ν
3.5 14.3,-10.8
ξ
3.5 -4.8,-39.8
ο
3.5 11.1,-24.7
π
3.5 -2.4,-16.7
ρ
3.5 9.3,-14.7
ς
3.6 -4.4,-31.0
σ
3.8 8.1,-15.3
τ
3.8 -0.3,-15.0
υ
3.8 -1.1,-35.6
φ
3.9 -6.2,-13.8
χ
4.0 6.2,-28.6
ψ
4.1 5.0,-12.2
ω
4.1 13.0,-11.7

66 ◒
SPELAEA (Spe)
Eurasian cave lion
(Panthera leo spelaea)
✝ 12,400 years ago

Shape: 6/202 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.7 61.9,-55.7
β
1.3 80.6,-65.7
γ
1.6 47.3,-57.3
δ
2.4 70.5,-71.4
ε
2.8 53.0,-66.2
ζ
3.1 43.5,-60.4
η
3.1 40.3,-76.6
θ
3.3 65.7,-67.3
ι
3.6 86.9,-59.8
κ
3.7 60.8,-72.8
λ
3.8 91.5,-63.8
μ
3.8 78.9,-59.9
ν
3.8 66.0,-72.5
ξ
3.8 82.4,-71.8
ο
3.9 80.7,-58.1
π
3.9 62.9,-77.0
ρ
3.9 77.6,-59.9
ς
3.9 67.3,-68.9
σ
3.9 41.5,-63.9
τ
4.0 68.1,-75.7
υ
4.0 59.2,-75.4
φ
4.1 41.3,-58.8
χ
4.1 76.4,-61.4
ψ
4.1 85.9,-57.9
ω
4.2 74.0,-68.4

67 ◒
SWAMPHEN (Swa)
Réunion swamphen
(Porphyrio coerulescens)
✝ 18th century

Swamphen is delighted to have a diacritical mark in its name, a characteristic shared only by the whēkau, who resides in the northern hemisphere and the ʻōʻō (Moho braccatus) who lives just to the north.

Shape: 3/19 stars, 2 edges.

α
3.1 106.3,-75.2
β
3.4 95.3,-70.7
γ
3.5 101.6,-76.1
δ
4.0 95.2,-65.2
ε
4.7 117.2,-80.0
ζ
4.8 96.7,-74.5
η
4.9 115.9,-69.2
θ
4.9 114.3,-67.0
ι
5.0 106.1,-65.7
κ
5.1 109.8,-71.0
λ
5.2 117.9,-69.9
μ
5.3 95.0,-67.7
ν
5.8 95.3,-65.5
ξ
6.3 114.9,-70.5
ο
6.6 114.5,-72.9
π
6.7 105.5,-65.1
ρ
6.7 114.5,-71.1
ς
6.8 99.2,-66.9
σ
7.1 115.3,-67.3

68 ◒
TADORNA (Tad)
Crested shelduck
(Tadorna cristata)
✝ ?

Rumor has it Tadorna may have snuck into the sky without permission—while not seen since the 1960’s, some say the duck isn’t extinct.

Shape: 3/31 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 162.9, -8.7
β
2.3 162.6,-11.2
γ
2.5 164.7, -5.7
δ
2.8 163.8,-12.8
ε
3.4 166.0, -6.0
ζ
3.6 168.8, -5.3
η
3.7 174.1, -7.1
θ
3.7 168.5,-17.1
ι
3.8 158.7,-14.7
κ
4.3 179.6,-11.2
λ
4.7 162.0, -7.2
μ
4.8 168.2, -5.7
ν
4.8 178.4,-12.3
ξ
4.8 160.7,-14.2
ο
4.8 162.1,-18.0
π
4.9 169.0,-13.3
ρ
5.1 162.0,-17.3
ς
5.4 165.3, -6.4
σ
5.8 179.8,-11.4
τ
5.8 156.1, -9.3
υ
5.9 158.8,-14.2
φ
6.0 158.7,-18.2
χ
6.0 169.3, -6.0
ψ
6.0 161.4, -8.5
ω
6.1 169.8, -3.1

69 ◒
TECOPA (Tec)
Tecopa pupfish
(Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae)
✝ 1979

Tecopa can tolerate heat, which allows him to escape from Megalodon, who will not chase Tecopa through the hot springs.

Shape: 4/100 stars, 3 edges.

α
0.4 102.1,-41.8
β
0.6 108.9,-43.2
γ
1.2 122.3,-37.8
δ
1.2 96.7,-32.2
ε
2.4 98.6,-43.5
ζ
2.6 110.2,-41.0
η
2.8 110.9,-34.7
θ
2.9 126.4,-40.2
ι
3.1 119.0,-33.0
κ
3.2 105.2,-34.3
λ
3.4 112.6,-36.6
μ
3.6 101.2,-42.9
ν
3.6 97.0,-33.0
ξ
3.6 104.0,-33.0
ο
3.7 102.5,-43.0
π
3.7 107.9,-40.5
ρ
3.7 100.2,-41.7
ς
3.8 120.1,-41.8
σ
3.9 113.1,-37.3
τ
4.1 97.8,-47.2
υ
4.2 105.6,-44.8
φ
4.2 116.4,-32.5
χ
4.2 115.2,-28.5
ψ
4.2 96.6,-31.4
ω
4.3 111.8,-44.7

70 ◒
THYLACINE (Thy)
Tasmanian tiger
(Thylacinus cynocephalus)
✝ 1936

The last of its kind was shot by Willem Dafoe in the movie The Hunter. To this day, the Thylacine can be seen screaming in the sky.

Shape: 10/2205 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.4 -74.9,-29.9
β
1.5 -61.7,-28.9
γ
2.0 -88.6,-47.6
δ
2.3 -95.4,-50.1
ε
2.5 -65.8,-32.6
ζ
3.2 -63.4,-41.6
η
3.2 -83.9,-30.8
θ
3.2 -59.7,-28.1
ι
3.2 -77.0,-48.1
κ
3.4 -58.1,-25.3
λ
3.4 -80.9,-51.5
μ
3.4 -53.4,-32.6
ν
3.4 -71.8,-19.5
ξ
3.4 -71.3,-20.6
ο
3.5 -106.1,-51.6
π
3.5 -53.8,-31.0
ρ
3.6 -85.3,-37.5
ς
3.7 -59.4,-22.0
σ
3.7 -69.6,-20.6
τ
3.7 -74.3,-43.1
υ
3.8 -56.1,-33.5
φ
3.9 -83.8,-46.3
χ
3.9 -81.6,-32.0
ψ
3.9 -89.9,-31.8
ω
3.9 -94.1,-44.6

71 ●
TRAVERSIA (Tra)
Stephens Island wren
(Traversia lyalli)
✝ 1895?

Shape: 3/481 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.8 -92.3, -3.3
β
3.4 -99.8, 0.5
γ
3.9 -98.9, -5.9
δ
3.9 -97.0, -6.5
ε
3.9 -101.7, -8.0
ζ
4.2 -92.6, -2.9
η
4.3 -101.1, 0.1
θ
4.4 -97.9, -5.4
ι
4.4 -96.6, -0.9
κ
4.5 -90.8, -8.3
λ
4.5 -98.6, -3.8
μ
4.5 -95.6, -7.1
ν
4.6 -94.5, -5.7
ξ
4.6 -92.6, 1.2
ο
4.6 -97.3, -1.4
π
4.7 -93.6, -3.8
ρ
4.7 -101.3, -3.4
ς
4.7 -93.9, -4.7
σ
4.7 -91.0, 1.3
τ
4.8 -97.6, -7.3
υ
4.8 -95.9, -2.5
φ
4.9 -91.3, -9.7
χ
4.9 -97.3, -7.7
ψ
4.9 -92.5, -5.0
ω
4.9 -93.9, -5.5

72 ◓
TREX (Tre)
Tyrant lizard
(Tyrannosaurus rex)
✝ late Cretaceous

Trex is unhappy because he's such a tiny constellation -- he's barely eaten!

Shape: 5/40 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -47.2, 45.4
β
2.6 -53.3, 48.4
γ
2.8 -40.8, 53.5
δ
2.9 -42.3, 64.0
ε
3.1 -42.8, 53.6
ζ
3.4 -45.1, 58.3
η
3.4 -42.1, 50.5
θ
3.5 -57.8, 60.9
ι
3.9 -39.5, 51.9
κ
3.9 -54.3, 47.0
λ
4.0 -45.0, 55.0
μ
4.3 -44.7, 64.8
ν
4.5 -41.8, 58.4
ξ
4.6 -36.6, 58.2
ο
4.6 -43.9, 48.9
π
4.7 -59.8, 63.6
ρ
4.7 -54.5, 43.9
ς
4.8 -42.3, 54.9
σ
4.9 -43.9, 60.9
τ
5.2 -42.0, 45.9
υ
5.4 -53.1, 66.3
φ
5.5 -58.6, 48.1
χ
5.5 -55.1, 49.9
ψ
5.5 -56.6, 46.4
ω
5.6 -36.3, 58.8

73 ◒
TROODON (Tro)
Troodon
(Troodon formosus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 6/71 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.0 131.1,-35.9
β
2.1 124.4,-29.9
γ
2.3 151.0,-23.3
δ
2.6 143.2,-28.3
ε
2.9 140.3,-20.6
ζ
2.9 135.5,-45.1
η
3.0 142.5,-22.4
θ
3.1 154.3,-39.0
ι
3.4 138.3,-39.6
κ
3.4 147.7,-34.7
λ
3.4 146.3,-40.7
μ
3.6 129.3,-31.7
ν
3.6 136.8,-31.5
ξ
3.6 145.7,-21.6
ο
3.6 150.1,-39.7
π
3.6 133.8,-49.2
ρ
3.7 143.9,-26.5
ς
3.7 132.4,-20.8
σ
3.8 125.3,-33.8
τ
3.8 144.5,-31.2
υ
3.8 126.1,-27.4
φ
3.8 130.2,-22.3
χ
3.9 151.8,-27.5
ψ
3.9 147.3,-49.0
ω
4.0 145.5,-37.4

74 ●
URANIA (Ura)
Sloane's urania
(Urania sloanus)
✝ 1894-1908

Shape: 6/751 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 110.8, 7.1
β
1.6 112.9, -4.5
γ
2.1 122.1, 0.2
δ
2.5 123.8, -8.4
ε
2.5 120.6, 6.4
ζ
2.5 118.1, -8.1
η
2.5 116.4, 6.6
θ
2.8 123.6, -9.8
ι
2.9 115.8,-11.8
κ
2.9 124.3,-11.1
λ
3.0 103.2,-14.9
μ
3.1 115.0, 5.1
ν
3.2 115.0,-10.5
ξ
3.5 102.7, -8.1
ο
3.6 107.2, -4.9
π
3.6 109.3, -1.0
ρ
3.7 114.7,-11.2
ς
3.7 103.7,-14.8
σ
3.8 102.6, 4.4
τ
3.9 115.7, 8.0
υ
4.0 120.5, -7.2
φ
4.1 110.0, 2.9
χ
4.1 103.2,-17.4
ψ
4.1 123.4, 4.2
ω
4.2 120.4, 4.1

75 ◓
URSUS (Urs)
Cave bear
(Ursus spelaeus)
✝ 24,000 years ago

Shape: 7/462 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.3 -76.5, 26.5
β
0.7 -84.8, 24.8
γ
2.3 -64.6, 19.6
δ
2.7 -66.6, 23.7
ε
2.7 -69.1, 26.5
ζ
2.9 -84.4, 15.3
η
2.9 -87.5, 22.0
θ
3.0 -61.4, 22.2
ι
3.0 -84.9, 22.4
κ
3.2 -57.8, 23.1
λ
3.2 -93.4, 16.5
μ
3.3 -64.0, 25.3
ν
3.3 -76.1, 18.9
ξ
3.3 -87.8, 15.6
ο
3.3 -60.7, 25.7
π
3.4 -90.6, 23.1
ρ
3.4 -86.3, 22.6
ς
3.4 -60.3, 23.6
σ
3.4 -68.2, 16.6
τ
3.4 -76.7, 18.4
υ
3.5 -89.2, 24.3
φ
3.6 -90.1, 20.4
χ
3.7 -85.2, 15.1
ψ
3.8 -72.7, 28.3
ω
3.8 -79.7, 16.7

76 ◓
VALERIANELLA (Val)
Varianella
(Varianella affinis)
✝ ?

Some members of the genus are not extinct and enjoy being called "corn salad" even though they have never seen a salad.

Shape: 4/1313 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 167.6, 58.4
β
2.1 168.0, 68.4
γ
2.5 178.5, 38.4
δ
2.9 166.3, 42.4
ε
2.9 171.1, 43.8
ζ
3.0 168.5, 50.6
η
3.0 157.4, 60.5
θ
3.2 180.0, 62.4
ι
3.3 170.8, 58.2
κ
3.4 158.3, 35.4
λ
3.4 167.1, 72.6
μ
3.5 161.5, 74.2
ν
3.5 161.5, 54.5
ξ
3.5 170.8, 59.8
ο
3.5 157.3, 46.2
π
3.5 164.3, 67.1
ρ
3.6 156.2, 46.5
ς
3.7 169.7, 46.0
σ
3.7 172.5, 52.8
τ
3.7 157.9, 68.3
υ
3.8 163.2, 37.4
φ
3.8 160.3, 54.0
χ
3.9 175.2, 46.6
ψ
3.9 171.0, 50.0
ω
4.0 156.3, 43.9

77 ◓
WHĒKAU (Whe)
Laughing owl
(Sceloglaux albifacies)
✝ 1914

Some say that whēkau can still be heard. Perhaps the joke is on us?

Shape: 3/57 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.7 152.8, 12.5
β
3.0 151.2, 12.4
γ
3.2 157.7, 17.2
δ
3.6 153.7, 8.3
ε
3.6 150.4, 13.8
ζ
3.8 156.5, 15.1
η
4.3 158.8, 14.6
θ
4.3 156.4, 8.8
ι
4.3 153.2, 7.3
κ
4.5 159.8, 15.8
λ
4.5 156.9, 16.8
μ
4.5 154.2, 9.2
ν
4.6 155.4, 13.8
ξ
4.8 152.0, 15.9
ο
4.8 152.5, 17.0
π
4.8 156.4, 11.3
ρ
4.9 159.0, 18.6
ς
4.9 156.4, 12.1
σ
5.0 156.0, 18.7
τ
5.2 156.6, 8.6
υ
5.2 156.4, 19.7
φ
5.2 156.3, 5.5
χ
5.3 156.9, 18.6
ψ
5.3 157.4, 11.5
ω
5.3 159.7, 15.6

78 ◒
XERCES (Xer)
Xerces blue
(Glaucopsyche xerces)
✝ 1941

Brilliant blue butterfly in the dark blue sky. Xerces is the only thing that is bluer than the sky itself. Some say that butterflies are flying flowers and Xerces is never far from Palaeoaldrovanda. He must be careful though. Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Nobody wants to take that chance.

Shape: 8/1299 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.1 21.9,-51.9
β
2.4 8.1,-44.3
γ
2.6 13.0,-45.1
δ
2.6 26.7,-46.1
ε
2.8 18.6,-36.0
ζ
2.9 15.4,-40.4
η
2.9 20.5,-42.7
θ
3.1 19.3,-49.0
ι
3.2 9.3,-35.4
κ
3.7 21.4,-43.6
λ
3.8 9.6,-48.5
μ
3.8 25.2,-28.7
ν
3.9 16.0,-25.5
ξ
3.9 28.9,-38.3
ο
4.0 29.8,-43.0
π
4.0 21.1,-50.8
ρ
4.1 20.4,-25.3
ς
4.1 25.6,-44.5
σ
4.1 11.3,-36.5
τ
4.1 9.4,-42.8
υ
4.2 19.8,-26.4
φ
4.2 27.4,-29.9
χ
4.2 16.5,-26.2
ψ
4.3 17.0,-54.0
ω
4.3 14.7,-39.9

79 ◓
YERSINIA (Yer)
Black death
(Yersinia pestis)
✝ ?

Don't let Yersinia's small size fool you. The Black Death may be the smallest creature in the sky, but she'll liquify your insides before you can memorize the 80 constellations. Perhaps out of all the creatures in the sky, this is the one we're happy to see go. But, because it's small, you can never be quite sure Yersinia isn't extinct but merely hiding. Or waiting.

Shape: 3/418 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.7 95.5, 20.2
β
2.8 94.7, 19.1
γ
3.1 93.0, 18.8
δ
3.3 91.4, 19.8
ε
3.3 93.3, 22.1
ζ
3.3 91.8, 18.3
η
3.6 93.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 97.0, 12.9
ι
4.0 91.0, 16.7
κ
4.0 95.6, 17.8
λ
4.1 90.6, 15.5
μ
4.1 92.7, 15.4
ν
4.2 91.7, 18.5
ξ
4.3 97.5, 23.2
ο
4.4 88.6, 22.9
π
4.4 94.9, 23.3
ρ
4.5 89.5, 20.9
ς
4.5 96.6, 11.8
σ
4.6 91.7, 20.6
τ
4.6 92.0, 14.6
υ
4.7 89.2, 20.7
φ
4.7 97.4, 11.6
χ
4.8 92.2, 25.8
ψ
4.9 92.3, 27.7
ω
4.9 95.3, 13.1

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

Optimal experimental design

Tue 31-07-2018
Customize the experiment for the setting instead of adjusting the setting to fit a classical design.

The presence of constraints in experiments, such as sample size restrictions, awkward blocking or disallowed treatment combinations may make using classical designs very difficult or impossible.

Optimal design is a powerful, general purpose alternative for high quality, statistically grounded designs under nonstandard conditions.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Optimal experimental design. (read)

We discuss two types of optimal designs (D-optimal and I-optimal) and show how it can be applied to a scenario with sample size and blocking constraints.

Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2018) Points of significance: Optimal experimental design Nature Methods 15:599–600.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M., Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Two factor designs. Nature Methods 11:1187–1188.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and blocking. Nature Methods 11:699–700.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Designing comparative experiments. Nature Methods 11:597–598.

The Whole Earth Cataloguer

Mon 30-07-2018
All the living things.

An illustration of the Tree of Life, showing some of the key branches.

The tree is drawn as a DNA double helix, with bases colored to encode ribosomal RNA genes from various organisms on the tree.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The circle of life. (read, zoom)

All living things on earth descended from a single organism called LUCA (last universal common ancestor) and inherited LUCA’s genetic code for basic biological functions, such as translating DNA and creating proteins. Constant genetic mutations shuffled and altered this inheritance and added new genetic material—a process that created the diversity of life we see today. The “tree of life” organizes all organisms based on the extent of shuffling and alteration between them. The full tree has millions of branches and every living organism has its own place at one of the leaves in the tree. The simplified tree shown here depicts all three kingdoms of life: bacteria, archaebacteria and eukaryota. For some organisms a grey bar shows when they first appeared in the tree in millions of years (Ma). The double helix winding around the tree encodes highly conserved ribosomal RNA genes from various organisms.

Johnson, H.L. (2018) The Whole Earth Cataloguer, Sactown, Jun/Jul, p. 89

Why we can't give up this odd way of typing

Mon 30-07-2018
All fingers report to home row.

An article about keyboard layouts and the history and persistence of QWERTY.

My Carpalx keyboard optimization software is mentioned along with my World's Most Difficult Layout: TNWMLC. True typing hell.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
TNWMLC requires seriously flexible digits. It’s 87% more difficult than using a standard Qwerty keyboard, according to Martin Krzywinski, who created it (Credit: Ben Nelms). (read)

McDonald, T. (2018) Why we can't give up this odd way of typing, BBC, 25 May 2018.

Molecular Case Studies Cover

Fri 06-07-2018

The theme of the April issue of Molecular Case Studies is precision oncogenomics. We have three papers in the issue based on work done in our Personalized Oncogenomics Program (POG).

The covers of Molecular Case Studies typically show microscopy images, with some shown in a more abstract fashion. There's also the occasional Circos plot.

I've previously taken a more fine-art approach to cover design, such for those of Nature, Genome Research and Trends in Genetics. I've used microscopy images to create a cover for PNAS—the one that made biology look like astrophysics—and thought that this is kind of material I'd start with for the MCS cover.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Cover design for Apr 2018 issue of Molecular Case Studies. (details)

Happy 2018 `\tau` Day—Art for everyone

Wed 27-06-2018
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
You know what day it is. (details)

Universe Superclusters and Voids

Mon 25-06-2018

A map of the nearby superclusters and voids in the Unvierse.

By "nearby" I mean within 6,000 million light-years.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The Universe — Superclustesr and Voids. The two supergalactic hemispheres showing Abell clusters, superclusters and voids within a distance of 6,000 million light-years from the Milky Way. (details)