Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
listen; there's a hell of a good universe next door: let's go.e.e. cummingsgo theremore quotes

poetry: curious


Scientific graphical abstracts — design guidelines


visualization + design


`\pi` Day 2021 Art Posters - A forest of Pi (a Lindenmayer system)
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
81 digits of `\pi` as a forest of trees: standard, bat cave and underwater editions. ( BUY ARTWORK )
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2021 Pi Day art celebrates the digits of `\pi` with a forest! Visit the bat cave and underwater ecosystems for the full experience.

`\pi` Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants


Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2021 `\pi` reminds us that good things grow for those who wait.' edition.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day stitches street maps into new destinations.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day imagines the sky in a new way.


Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day wonders what would happen if about right was right.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day sees digits really fall for each other.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day maps transcendentally.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day spirals into roughness.


Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day hypnotizes you into looking.

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day is where it started

Pi Day 2017 Art Posters - Star charts and extinct animals and plants
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art and other distractions

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Most of the art is available for purchase as framed prints and, yes, even pillows. Sleep's never been more important — I take custom requests.

Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.
—Horace

This year: creatures that don't exist, but once did, in the skies.

This year's `\pi` day song is Exploration by Karminsky Experience Inc. Why? Because "you never know what you'll find on an exploration".

If you like space, you'll love my the 12,000 billion light-year map of clusters, superclusters and voids. Find the biggest nothings in Boötes and Eridanus.

create myths and contribute!

Want to contribute to the mythology behind the constellations in the `\pi` in the sky? Many already have a story, but others still need one. Please submit your stories!

The `\pi` star chart has 80 constellations. Many of them have stories to tell—look up and listen.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A basic render of the `\pi` star chart in plate carrée projection, with focus on the constellations. (zoom)

I would love to have a complete mythology for each constellation. Please submit your stories!

contributions

Camptor — Veronica Falconeri

dramatis personae—the constellations

The symbols beside the constellation index indicate which hemisphere the constellation can be found (◓ north, ◒ south or ● both). The first 25 brightest stars in the constellation are also listed, along with their apparent magnitude, longitude and latitude.


1 ●
ALAOTRA (Ala)
Alaotra grebe
(Tachybaptus rufolavatus)
✝ 1985-2010

Alaotra is frustrated that Tadorna seems to get all the attention. Often confused for a duck, Alaotra would love you to know that she's in fact a grebe. She's very proud of this fact, despite of being prone to falls due to some biomechanical issues having to do with foot placement.

Shape: 3/57 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 166.8, -0.2
β
2.3 160.7, 10.8
γ
2.5 163.3, 4.5
δ
3.0 164.9, -0.4
ε
3.4 172.9, 4.8
ζ
3.6 178.0, 7.0
η
3.7 174.2, 9.9
θ
3.8 176.9, -2.5
ι
3.8 160.8, 10.3
κ
4.0 168.7, 2.7
λ
4.1 179.8, -0.7
μ
4.1 162.2, 3.3
ν
4.2 166.3, 3.7
ξ
4.3 163.9, 3.3
ο
4.3 177.6, 4.9
π
4.3 163.3, 4.9
ρ
4.3 163.5, 10.0
ς
4.3 174.4, 4.2
σ
4.5 159.1, 12.5
τ
4.7 160.2, 9.2
υ
4.8 173.7, -0.7
φ
5.0 177.0, 6.6
χ
5.0 172.4, 0.4
ψ
5.1 168.4, -0.5
ω
5.1 163.7, -1.2

2 ◓
ALLOPERLA (All)
Robert's Stonefly
(Alloperla roberti)
✝ ?

Shape: 4/42 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -82.0, 55.3
β
2.8 -89.2, 64.1
γ
3.0 -87.0, 72.1
δ
3.3 -82.1, 59.2
ε
3.5 -83.7, 73.7
ζ
3.6 -94.1, 54.9
η
3.7 -89.0, 69.0
θ
3.7 -83.5, 60.1
ι
3.9 -85.1, 68.6
κ
3.9 -85.4, 54.4
λ
3.9 -84.5, 81.5
μ
4.0 -88.8, 57.1
ν
4.0 -81.2, 58.8
ξ
4.3 -89.1, 62.9
ο
4.3 -83.4, 67.9
π
4.4 -89.3, 52.8
ρ
4.5 -78.9, 68.1
ς
4.8 -87.7, 72.1
σ
4.9 -93.7, 79.6
τ
5.0 -84.9, 58.5
υ
5.0 -85.4, 67.4
φ
5.1 -88.3, 55.4
χ
5.3 -83.2, 55.5
ψ
5.5 -90.6, 54.6
ω
6.2 -94.6, 77.4

3 ◓
APLONIS (Apl)
mysterious bird of Ulieta
(Aplonis ulietensis)
✝ 1774-1850

Shape: 2/21 stars, 1 edges.

α
1.0 25.9, 60.0
β
1.2 15.0, 71.6
γ
3.7 28.1, 65.4
δ
3.8 16.9, 72.0
ε
4.5 14.6, 72.2
ζ
4.5 18.6, 69.2
η
4.6 17.6, 73.5
θ
4.7 25.0, 63.4
ι
5.1 3.5, 75.4
κ
5.1 2.6, 53.8
λ
5.3 24.3, 71.4
μ
5.5 13.0, 76.2
ν
5.5 21.2, 60.3
ξ
5.6 29.1, 75.1
ο
6.0 18.0, 66.7
π
6.2 6.7, 56.3
ρ
6.2 2.9, 59.6
ς
6.4 15.2, 56.2
σ
7.1 22.0, 60.1
τ
7.1 23.4, 58.4
υ
7.1 10.2, 63.7

4 ●
ARAUCARIA (Ara)
Araucaria
(Araucaria mirabilis)
✝ middle Jurassic

Araucaria is truly a marvel. She is so large, in fact, that the constellation only shows the canopy and does not include the tree trunk—which was known to reach a height of 100 m. Araucaria offers plenty of protection and has many flying friends all around, including Urania, Moho and WhĒkau. Just a little further are the ducks (and a grebe), Camptor, Mariana, Tadorna and Alaotra. They would love to visit Araucaria but worry that they are too heavy to perch on her branches.

Shape: 8/1232 stars, 8 edges.

α
-0.4 143.3, 5.3
β
0.5 120.1, 17.0
γ
1.4 148.3, 4.7
δ
1.7 138.1, 12.7
ε
1.7 143.6, 5.3
ζ
1.8 129.1, 27.3
η
1.8 138.7, 4.7
θ
2.0 137.1, 17.3
ι
2.2 127.3, 19.1
κ
2.4 132.7, 16.6
λ
2.4 123.3, 18.8
μ
2.7 148.8, 7.0
ν
2.8 118.3, 17.2
ξ
3.0 146.0, 13.3
ο
3.0 130.1, 4.9
π
3.1 135.0, 19.7
ρ
3.1 136.5, 8.3
ς
3.3 129.4, 5.2
σ
3.3 134.4, 29.5
τ
3.4 140.5, 13.9
υ
3.4 122.4, 13.1
φ
3.5 126.5, 15.0
χ
3.5 130.5, 18.1
ψ
3.6 127.6, 19.5
ω
3.6 129.4, 20.0

5 ◒
ARCHAEAMPHORA (Archaea)
Archaeamphora
(Archaeamphora longicervia)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 7/1838 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.9 87.6,-18.5
β
2.1 79.1,-26.6
γ
2.4 95.8,-20.0
δ
2.5 92.1,-19.9
ε
2.5 76.4,-26.0
ζ
2.6 96.4, -8.8
η
2.9 86.0,-13.9
θ
3.0 92.7,-23.4
ι
3.1 83.8,-18.8
κ
3.1 94.7,-11.7
λ
3.2 89.0, -8.0
μ
3.4 83.4, -7.4
ν
3.4 80.9, -8.8
ξ
3.4 92.0, -0.1
ο
3.5 96.8,-19.8
π
3.5 78.3,-12.1
ρ
3.6 84.4,-30.2
ς
3.6 92.8,-30.1
σ
3.7 83.7,-15.0
τ
3.7 81.3, -4.3
υ
3.7 80.5, -6.0
φ
3.7 91.9, -6.0
χ
3.7 79.6,-19.2
ψ
3.7 92.3, -8.2
ω
3.8 92.4, -9.8

6 ◒
ARCHAEFRUCTUS (Archaef)
-
(Archaefructus eoflora)
✝ early Cretaceous

Shape: 5/1019 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -97.9,-21.1
β
2.7 -103.1,-31.8
γ
2.8 -81.4,-15.6
δ
2.8 -98.5,-28.8
ε
2.8 -94.8,-18.9
ζ
3.0 -83.7,-19.1
η
3.1 -109.8,-37.8
θ
3.1 -88.7,-12.9
ι
3.1 -102.8,-21.5
κ
3.2 -88.5,-17.9
λ
3.2 -98.4,-35.1
μ
3.2 -97.6,-19.4
ν
3.2 -90.2,-20.3
ξ
3.2 -84.4,-10.7
ο
3.4 -81.7,-26.7
π
3.5 -102.5,-29.4
ρ
3.5 -103.5,-34.5
ς
3.6 -93.9,-28.6
σ
3.6 -103.2,-22.7
τ
3.6 -92.4,-23.2
υ
3.6 -108.2,-23.7
φ
3.7 -105.7,-29.6
χ
3.7 -92.2,-23.2
ψ
3.8 -100.6,-29.7
ω
3.9 -106.0,-35.2

7 ◓
ARCHAEOPTERYX (Archaeo)
Urvogel
(Archaeopteryx lithographica)
✝ late Jurassic

Shape: 14/2287 stars, 14 edges.

α
2.0 148.1, 37.2
β
2.3 144.0, 23.2
γ
2.4 142.3, 75.2
δ
2.4 130.6, 42.8
ε
2.6 126.7, 37.9
ζ
2.9 139.2, 79.0
η
3.0 135.2, 45.1
θ
3.2 151.4, 43.9
ι
3.3 145.2, 63.2
κ
3.4 125.2, 43.7
λ
3.4 135.4, 34.8
μ
3.4 144.7, 67.3
ν
3.4 144.4, 57.8
ξ
3.5 142.5, 42.3
ο
3.5 148.0, 32.6
π
3.6 117.4, 51.9
ρ
3.6 131.7, 47.5
ς
3.7 149.8, 26.0
σ
3.7 143.1, 34.8
τ
3.8 127.9, 43.6
υ
3.8 138.5, 31.5
φ
3.8 123.0, 38.9
χ
3.8 140.5, 27.4
ψ
3.8 152.9, 49.2
ω
4.0 146.5, 58.4

8 ◓
ARDEA (Ard)
Bennu heron
(Ardea bennuides)
✝ Holocene

Urged by Camelops, Ardea is trying to beat Aepyornis and be the first to see beyond the sky. It looks like she may be winning, but Camelops knows its a futile pursuit. Only he knows what is beyond the sky.

Shape: 9/1768 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.6 -149.2, 81.4
β
2.0 -160.2, 53.3
γ
2.0 -169.6, 52.9
δ
2.1 -162.1, 33.7
ε
2.1 -172.7, 22.1
ζ
2.4 -159.3, 60.5
η
2.4 -161.8, 61.3
θ
2.5 -166.7, 58.1
ι
2.7 -168.7, 56.0
κ
2.8 -169.2, 31.0
λ
3.0 -155.9, 79.2
μ
3.0 -179.7, 57.2
ν
3.0 -151.8, 61.1
ξ
3.3 -147.5, 66.8
ο
3.4 -176.4, 39.8
π
3.4 -162.3, 38.3
ρ
3.5 -172.8, 36.2
ς
3.6 -168.7, 37.1
σ
3.7 -148.8, 70.2
τ
3.7 -174.0, 31.7
υ
3.7 -178.4, 43.5
φ
3.7 -162.3, 45.3
χ
3.7 -167.5, 48.5
ψ
3.7 -169.4, 47.3
ω
3.8 -156.5, 64.2

9 ◓
ARGENTAVIS (Arg)
magnificent silver bird
(Argentavis magnificens)
✝ late Miocene

Argentavis is a big bird in the big sky. There are many stories of his feud with Pelagornis, who spreads his wings in the southern hemisphere — both insist that they have the biggest wing span.

Shape: 5/69 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 64.9, 27.1
β
2.8 68.8, 26.7
γ
3.0 69.2, 33.4
δ
3.1 55.6, 30.2
ε
3.5 65.1, 41.7
ζ
3.5 55.1, 35.4
η
3.5 63.4, 26.3
θ
3.5 71.7, 43.2
ι
3.7 58.2, 35.7
κ
3.8 71.1, 43.2
λ
3.8 71.0, 41.9
μ
3.9 65.0, 26.8
ν
4.0 58.2, 41.5
ξ
4.0 53.3, 25.1
ο
4.0 68.9, 40.9
π
4.0 65.9, 29.4
ρ
4.2 61.2, 28.5
ς
4.2 72.2, 32.9
σ
4.2 71.2, 29.8
τ
4.3 64.3, 32.6
υ
4.3 65.4, 23.7
φ
4.3 67.4, 31.9
χ
4.3 62.4, 25.2
ψ
4.4 69.0, 35.8
ω
4.4 60.1, 21.4

10 ◓
AUROCHS (Aur)
Aurochs
(Bos primigenius)
✝ 1627

Runs in the vast plains of the north together with Mammuthus and Quagga.

Shape: 7/62 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.8 63.3, 66.1
β
2.9 50.6, 49.8
γ
2.9 69.3, 58.4
δ
3.1 61.0, 59.1
ε
3.2 40.8, 60.8
ζ
3.3 34.5, 52.9
η
3.5 65.4, 61.1
θ
3.6 63.8, 47.3
ι
3.7 50.1, 49.1
κ
3.7 62.2, 58.3
λ
3.8 68.8, 59.8
μ
3.8 39.8, 63.8
ν
3.8 46.5, 40.0
ξ
3.9 64.0, 66.5
ο
4.1 32.1, 50.9
π
4.2 30.9, 53.1
ρ
4.3 55.8, 60.7
ς
4.3 40.3, 46.0
σ
4.4 33.3, 58.5
τ
4.5 56.1, 56.9
υ
4.6 57.9, 61.4
φ
4.7 57.9, 48.0
χ
4.7 42.7, 34.7
ψ
4.7 67.4, 59.1
ω
4.8 61.0, 47.1

11 ◒
BASILOSAURUS (Bas)
king lizard
(Basilosaurus cetoides)
✝ late Eocene

The king lizard dives into the depths of the sky at the very tip of the south hemisphere. Some say that he is chasing the South star, `\alpha` Basilosaurus.

Shape: 3/61 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.8 180.0,-88.1
β
3.3 -166.2,-86.7
γ
3.3 -168.1,-66.1
δ
3.4 -118.3,-74.7
ε
3.6 -138.6,-70.5
ζ
3.6 -2.9,-85.6
η
3.6 -171.5,-78.3
θ
3.6 -78.3,-85.5
ι
3.7 -166.7,-70.0
κ
3.7 2.0,-81.0
λ
3.7 179.3,-80.9
μ
3.8 -4.9,-86.5
ν
3.8 -65.7,-84.9
ξ
4.0 58.5,-85.2
ο
4.1 -140.2,-87.3
π
4.2 90.8,-86.0
ρ
4.2 -29.5,-86.8
ς
4.3 -175.5,-77.0
σ
4.3 62.4,-80.9
τ
4.5 -139.5,-70.5
υ
4.5 -120.2,-73.4
φ
4.6 -141.2,-74.7
χ
4.7 -153.7,-69.7
ψ
5.0 -125.1,-70.0
ω
5.0 90.0,-85.7

12 ◓
BOLYERIA (Bol)
Round Island Burrowing boa
(Bolyeria multocarinata)
✝ 1975

Shape: 5/602 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.7 -108.2, 43.1
β
2.9 -116.2, 40.8
γ
3.1 -102.1, 36.4
δ
3.5 -110.0, 32.0
ε
3.6 -109.5, 39.0
ζ
3.6 -117.5, 33.5
η
3.6 -104.9, 46.7
θ
3.9 -116.9, 38.9
ι
3.9 -112.5, 35.7
κ
4.0 -120.2, 41.3
λ
4.0 -116.7, 32.2
μ
4.1 -109.3, 36.8
ν
4.2 -116.5, 46.4
ξ
4.2 -113.1, 32.2
ο
4.3 -103.4, 31.8
π
4.3 -119.9, 37.6
ρ
4.3 -117.1, 39.6
ς
4.3 -110.8, 40.6
σ
4.5 -117.9, 43.0
τ
4.5 -100.0, 39.3
υ
4.5 -107.3, 39.1
φ
4.6 -122.4, 30.5
χ
4.6 -114.3, 33.2
ψ
4.6 -101.8, 41.8
ω
4.7 -109.0, 34.7

13 ◓
BRON (Bro)
thunder lizard
(Brontosaurus excelsus)
✝ late Jurassic

It's hard to be bigger than Bron. He must always pay attention not to step on his frolicking friend Compsognathus, who seeks to find protection in Bron's shadow. Some believe that if Bron stretches his neck, he can look above the sky! But don't tell Ardea this—she's in a contest with Aepyornis to be the first!

Shape: 12/5230 stars, 11 edges.

α
1.3 -139.4, 27.3
β
1.6 -104.6, 13.8
γ
1.8 -167.0, 8.5
δ
2.0 -80.3, 1.0
ε
2.0 -123.1, 25.8
ζ
2.4 -62.3, 8.1
η
2.4 -109.5, 20.5
θ
2.5 -123.5, 17.8
ι
2.6 -94.8, 13.5
κ
2.6 -107.7, 7.0
λ
2.7 -133.7, 20.4
μ
2.8 -170.6, 13.2
ν
2.9 -125.4, 12.4
ξ
2.9 -174.0, 7.6
ο
2.9 -127.0, 25.8
π
3.0 -159.1, 22.4
ρ
3.0 -92.0, 5.9
ς
3.0 -100.7, 12.5
σ
3.0 -111.8, 27.5
τ
3.0 -108.9, 9.8
υ
3.1 -111.2, 23.9
φ
3.1 -111.0, 12.7
χ
3.1 -147.7, 28.6
ψ
3.1 -61.8,-13.0
ω
3.2 -169.8, 7.6

14 ◓
CAMELOPS (Came)
Camelops
(Camelops kansanus)
✝ late Pliocene to early Holocene

Camelops played a cruel joke on Ardea and Aepyornis, asking them to try to look beyond the sky. Both think they have the longest neck, so they're still trying!

Shape: 6/1789 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.5 -146.6, 37.9
β
2.9 -136.6, 37.6
γ
3.0 -124.9, 57.9
δ
3.0 -153.9, 42.7
ε
3.0 -132.1, 36.7
ζ
3.3 -154.5, 44.8
η
3.3 -133.9, 49.7
θ
3.3 -127.6, 60.2
ι
3.4 -130.3, 36.8
κ
3.4 -142.0, 53.2
λ
3.6 -138.4, 47.4
μ
3.6 -129.2, 64.1
ν
3.6 -149.4, 42.2
ξ
3.7 -124.8, 38.1
ο
3.7 -148.8, 43.4
π
3.7 -151.6, 46.1
ρ
3.8 -126.3, 44.9
ς
3.8 -127.3, 43.0
σ
3.9 -151.5, 53.3
τ
3.9 -144.8, 65.8
υ
3.9 -137.0, 50.2
φ
3.9 -136.5, 42.1
χ
3.9 -134.8, 36.8
ψ
4.0 -152.5, 35.0
ω
4.0 -133.1, 40.2

15 ◓
CAMPTOR (Camp)
Labrador duck
(Camptorhynchus labradorius)
✝ 1878

Camptor flew long and far to find a pond without ducks on Earth, but could find no such pond. So she chose longest journey, and flew to settle in the sky.

Shape: 3/570 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 160.1, 21.1
β
2.5 178.3, 27.0
γ
2.5 174.1, 11.8
δ
2.6 172.1, 10.8
ε
2.7 157.7, 22.5
ζ
2.7 167.3, 34.6
η
2.9 170.9, 32.2
θ
2.9 179.5, 24.0
ι
3.2 171.4, 20.4
κ
3.4 177.4, 25.4
λ
3.4 161.5, 22.3
μ
3.5 173.9, 14.4
ν
3.6 168.2, 21.7
ξ
3.6 160.1, 28.0
ο
3.7 179.4, 30.1
π
3.7 163.9, 13.1
ρ
3.8 157.4, 34.2
ς
3.8 170.5, 29.5
σ
3.8 160.8, 22.8
τ
3.9 177.1, 7.9
υ
3.9 161.9, 34.4
φ
3.9 179.8, 24.6
χ
4.0 174.7, 21.0
ψ
4.0 178.3, 14.5
ω
4.0 159.7, 31.4

16 ◓
CARACARA (Car)
Guadalupe caracara
(Caracara lutosa)
✝ 1900 or 1903

Shape: 4/7 stars, 4 edges.

α
3.7 47.9, 72.0
β
3.7 44.3, 75.1
γ
3.8 45.8, 68.8
δ
3.9 41.5, 72.0
ε
4.8 43.9, 71.7
ζ
5.5 54.3, 75.2
η
6.3 43.8, 73.2

17 ●
CERVUS (Cer)
Eastern elk
(Cervus canadensis canadensis)
✝ 1 September 1877

The last elk was shot in Pennsylvania. Oops.

Shape: 6/296 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.3 30.9,-20.2
β
1.5 18.3, -9.6
γ
1.7 18.1, 4.2
δ
2.1 32.1,-10.8
ε
2.4 17.8, -2.0
ζ
2.9 28.1,-12.0
η
3.1 35.8, 1.2
θ
3.1 34.5, -1.4
ι
3.2 30.1,-23.1
κ
3.2 21.4, 8.4
λ
3.4 24.7, -0.9
μ
3.4 24.2, -2.8
ν
3.4 22.9,-20.7
ξ
3.5 19.7,-25.0
ο
3.6 19.9, -5.2
π
3.6 34.8, 3.7
ρ
3.6 26.8, 2.1
ς
3.6 22.1,-13.5
σ
3.7 16.0, 18.6
τ
3.7 23.2, 15.2
υ
3.7 30.5, 6.9
φ
3.7 28.2,-16.4
χ
3.8 18.6, 13.7
ψ
3.8 19.1,-11.0
ω
3.9 28.3, 7.4

18 ◓
COMPSOGNATHUS (Com)
Compsognathus
(Compsognathus longipes)
✝ late Jurassic

The tiniest of dinosaurs, Compsognathus hides in the protection of Bron's shadow.

Shape: 2/190 stars, 1 edges.

α
3.6 -103.2, 25.8
β
4.2 -102.6, 26.1
γ
4.3 -97.6, 29.4
δ
4.3 -98.2, 27.5
ε
4.3 -103.4, 27.1
ζ
4.7 -99.7, 26.2
η
4.7 -100.8, 26.2
θ
4.8 -101.7, 25.0
ι
4.8 -103.8, 27.0
κ
4.9 -101.1, 23.8
λ
5.1 -100.3, 22.6
μ
5.1 -98.1, 24.1
ν
5.2 -98.6, 23.3
ξ
5.2 -100.4, 23.5
ο
5.2 -106.0, 29.2
π
5.3 -98.0, 22.8
ρ
5.3 -102.8, 28.6
ς
5.3 -99.2, 24.0
σ
5.4 -97.6, 27.9
τ
5.4 -98.7, 29.2
υ
5.4 -105.0, 26.3
φ
5.5 -106.7, 24.1
χ
5.5 -103.0, 26.6
ψ
5.5 -104.6, 24.4
ω
5.5 -100.5, 22.6

19 ◒
COOKSONIA (Coo)
-
(Cooksonia bohemica)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 5/364 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.2 -63.4,-48.9
β
1.9 -53.2,-57.7
γ
2.3 -59.2,-53.5
δ
2.5 -57.2,-56.0
ε
2.6 -58.7,-61.9
ζ
2.6 -64.6,-67.4
η
2.9 -59.4,-46.5
θ
3.1 -68.3,-49.7
ι
3.2 -63.6,-47.7
κ
3.2 -64.7,-53.3
λ
3.2 -65.7,-48.2
μ
3.4 -58.7,-45.2
ν
3.5 -68.5,-48.3
ξ
3.6 -46.3,-58.4
ο
3.7 -67.7,-58.8
π
3.7 -47.2,-58.9
ρ
3.8 -48.6,-74.0
ς
3.9 -54.7,-57.5
σ
3.9 -54.5,-50.0
τ
4.0 -52.4,-71.4
υ
4.1 -50.5,-58.2
φ
4.1 -57.9,-44.0
χ
4.1 -61.5,-73.0
ψ
4.1 -67.1,-60.6
ω
4.2 -57.5,-50.9

20 ◒
COPEPTERYX (Cop)
Copepteryx
(Copepteryx titan)
✝ late Oligocene

Shape: 6/57 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.5 162.7,-30.0
β
0.8 161.2,-44.6
γ
1.6 174.6,-29.1
δ
1.6 172.9,-54.4
ε
1.8 176.6,-43.7
ζ
2.3 178.4,-14.9
η
2.4 158.8,-39.3
θ
2.8 174.9,-37.6
ι
3.0 163.2,-51.6
κ
3.0 166.3,-57.6
λ
3.0 158.6,-33.0
μ
3.2 160.1,-24.9
ν
3.3 158.2,-33.3
ξ
3.3 168.1,-49.5
ο
3.4 176.2,-52.9
π
3.4 172.5,-57.4
ρ
3.4 174.4,-43.1
ς
3.5 175.6,-17.8
σ
3.5 173.9,-31.4
τ
3.6 157.1,-25.4
υ
3.7 170.9,-29.9
φ
3.8 174.6,-30.2
χ
4.1 164.6,-31.0
ψ
4.1 178.6,-37.7
ω
4.2 167.5,-32.4

21 ◒
CORVINA (Cor)
Kosrae starling
(Aplonis corvina)
✝ mid 19th century

Shape: 3/82 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.4 124.9,-21.3
β
2.9 123.6,-17.2
γ
3.2 117.9,-15.7
δ
3.4 117.1,-23.2
ε
3.5 116.9,-20.6
ζ
3.8 120.1,-12.5
η
3.9 128.4,-24.6
θ
3.9 124.3,-14.0
ι
3.9 115.0,-18.3
κ
4.0 119.7,-21.5
λ
4.0 125.4,-21.9
μ
4.1 129.7,-14.6
ν
4.1 124.4,-18.3
ξ
4.2 123.1,-22.0
ο
4.2 126.8,-20.4
π
4.3 121.2,-20.0
ρ
4.3 121.6,-18.0
ς
4.3 120.4,-20.6
σ
4.4 127.0,-19.7
τ
4.4 123.6,-24.1
υ
4.4 114.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 117.0,-13.5
χ
4.6 119.5,-21.1
ψ
4.6 119.1,-14.6
ω
4.6 125.9,-20.2

22 ◒
CUPIDO (Cup)
Heath hen
(Tympanuchus cupido cupido)
✝ 1932

Shape: 4/1164 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 58.8,-21.1
β
2.7 62.9,-27.9
γ
2.7 73.8,-18.1
δ
3.2 60.1,-13.1
ε
3.2 57.8,-21.1
ζ
3.3 57.6,-28.5
η
3.4 64.2,-22.1
θ
3.6 65.7,-10.7
ι
3.8 72.5,-12.1
κ
3.8 59.5,-16.4
λ
3.9 66.5,-12.1
μ
3.9 66.7,-18.7
ν
3.9 69.5,-28.3
ξ
4.0 70.1,-18.0
ο
4.0 60.3,-14.0
π
4.2 72.5,-18.0
ρ
4.2 64.0,-14.0
ς
4.3 70.0,-18.1
σ
4.3 63.8,-24.4
τ
4.3 59.7, -8.9
υ
4.4 63.9,-14.0
φ
4.4 60.7,-19.9
χ
4.4 63.8,-12.0
ψ
4.5 63.8,-16.5
ω
4.6 63.4,-27.9

23 ◒
CYLINDRASPIS (Cyl)
Giant tortoise
(Cylindraspis indica)
✝ 1795

Ever since meeting Pinta, they've been fast (and slow) friends.

Shape: 4/233 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.1 27.7,-67.6
β
1.6 14.9,-61.4
γ
2.1 15.3,-71.4
δ
2.8 16.9,-75.3
ε
2.9 28.7,-69.5
ζ
3.0 28.2,-76.3
η
3.1 16.5,-61.4
θ
3.2 19.4,-56.6
ι
3.4 21.0,-67.8
κ
3.4 18.6,-77.3
λ
3.5 20.6,-62.1
μ
3.6 29.0,-65.2
ν
3.8 38.7,-62.0
ξ
3.8 5.3,-76.3
ο
3.9 29.6,-75.1
π
4.1 33.1,-66.5
ρ
4.2 15.4,-64.4
ς
4.2 31.9,-62.1
σ
4.3 30.0,-61.0
τ
4.3 16.1,-69.1
υ
4.3 31.5,-79.1
φ
4.3 32.5,-57.2
χ
4.3 32.2,-58.0
ψ
4.4 24.2,-77.5
ω
4.5 11.0,-63.7

24 ◒
DEINOCHEIRUS (Dei)
-
(Deinocheirus mirificus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 5/47 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.6 -130.4,-49.4
β
2.8 -124.9,-52.7
γ
2.8 -142.5,-51.2
δ
2.8 -144.4,-45.5
ε
2.9 -119.5,-51.6
ζ
3.1 -119.6,-47.6
η
3.5 -136.6,-52.8
θ
3.6 -132.1,-61.3
ι
3.6 -127.6,-65.5
κ
3.6 -131.4,-56.3
λ
3.7 -135.2,-54.2
μ
3.7 -138.2,-48.9
ν
3.8 -125.5,-49.5
ξ
4.4 -126.7,-57.9
ο
4.4 -117.3,-49.1
π
4.7 -140.8,-61.2
ρ
4.7 -142.3,-56.2
ς
4.7 -117.2,-45.9
σ
4.7 -124.0,-58.9
τ
4.8 -119.5,-50.5
υ
4.8 -146.1,-67.1
φ
4.8 -135.5,-63.7
χ
5.1 -141.9,-60.8
ψ
5.3 -136.6,-50.6
ω
5.3 -113.5,-51.2

25 ◓
DESMODUS (Des)
Giant Vampire Bat
(Desmodus draculae)
✝ Pleistocene or early Holocene

It is thought that each night Desmodus flies up against the dome of the sky, looking for a way to escape.

Shape: 3/122 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 -72.9, 70.4
β
2.8 29.1, 77.7
γ
3.4 -58.5, 71.8
δ
3.5 60.5, 88.1
ε
3.6 -167.3, 70.3
ζ
3.6 23.6, 79.4
η
3.6 108.0, 82.9
θ
3.7 -132.9, 71.2
ι
3.8 -141.7, 76.6
κ
3.8 -175.7, 71.0
λ
3.9 -106.4, 87.6
μ
3.9 30.8, 83.5
ν
4.0 -126.8, 75.8
ξ
4.0 -94.9, 84.7
ο
4.0 170.4, 88.4
π
4.1 -178.1, 73.5
ρ
4.1 98.0, 85.8
ς
4.2 -137.3, 74.1
σ
4.2 168.0, 83.9
τ
4.2 -167.7, 68.5
υ
4.2 108.8, 83.3
φ
4.3 -164.9, 70.1
χ
4.3 -124.1, 75.6
ψ
4.3 126.3, 85.2
ω
4.4 160.0, 77.3

26 ◓
ECTOPISTES (Ect)
Passenger pigeon
(Ectopistes migratorius)
✝ 1 September 1914

The last pidgeon, Martha, died in 1914 at the Cincinanati zoo. What a place to leave the earth from, eh?

Shape: 3/33 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.4 -28.5, 59.8
β
2.0 -19.7, 76.4
γ
2.7 -11.0, 68.1
δ
3.0 -34.3, 63.4
ε
3.2 -32.2, 73.3
ζ
3.3 -21.8, 64.7
η
3.5 -25.5, 62.4
θ
3.5 -6.2, 66.0
ι
3.5 -12.7, 56.1
κ
3.8 2.2, 73.5
λ
4.1 -10.4, 57.7
μ
4.2 -4.8, 77.3
ν
4.3 -15.0, 55.7
ξ
4.3 -10.6, 63.4
ο
4.3 -10.1, 76.5
π
4.5 -6.2, 65.6
ρ
4.5 -1.6, 61.1
ς
4.9 -12.5, 54.3
σ
5.1 -18.1, 53.0
τ
5.1 -29.3, 65.2
υ
5.2 -21.3, 69.4
φ
5.2 -16.9, 55.7
χ
5.4 -26.5, 55.9
ψ
5.5 -7.1, 64.6
ω
5.6 -29.3, 70.0

27 ●
GLYPTODON (Gly)
Glyptodon
(Glyptodon clavipes)
✝ Pleistocene

The Glyptodon is very slowly crossing from the south to the north hemisphere to play with Bron and Compsognathus. Will he make it?

Shape: 7/332 stars, 7 edges.

α
2.4 -140.9, 0.9
β
2.4 -123.4, 0.6
γ
2.8 -126.9,-13.6
δ
2.8 -114.0, -5.3
ε
2.9 -134.8, 4.8
ζ
2.9 -128.9, 4.7
η
2.9 -137.4,-10.0
θ
3.0 -135.7,-14.2
ι
3.0 -142.1, 6.0
κ
3.1 -141.4,-14.0
λ
3.1 -138.0, -9.7
μ
3.1 -121.1,-11.0
ν
3.6 -112.7, -6.6
ξ
3.6 -137.3, 3.0
ο
3.8 -126.6, -5.1
π
3.8 -122.3, -7.3
ρ
3.8 -141.4, -1.7
ς
3.8 -113.2, 4.5
σ
3.8 -138.7,-12.3
τ
3.9 -124.4, 4.8
υ
3.9 -127.3, 1.6
φ
4.0 -120.8, -0.1
χ
4.1 -129.0,-11.2
ψ
4.1 -118.9,-12.4
ω
4.1 -114.1, -3.1

28 ◓
HIPPOTRAGUS (Hip)
Bluebuck
(Hippotragus niger)
✝ 1799-1800

Shape: 7/437 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.9 78.0, 32.5
β
1.6 80.8, 29.4
γ
2.3 80.1, 36.0
δ
2.3 85.2, 19.5
ε
2.7 74.7, 32.0
ζ
2.8 84.6, 37.3
η
3.0 79.3, 29.5
θ
3.3 71.5, 21.1
ι
3.4 76.8, 19.4
κ
3.4 76.8, 41.0
λ
3.6 70.8, 15.4
μ
3.6 93.1, 37.0
ν
3.7 72.8, 22.8
ξ
3.7 72.6, 41.3
ο
3.7 81.2, 19.5
π
3.8 88.2, 33.4
ρ
3.9 80.4, 20.1
ς
3.9 83.5, 29.2
σ
4.0 83.0, 23.1
τ
4.0 75.4, 12.3
υ
4.0 84.9, 35.7
φ
4.1 87.5, 43.2
χ
4.1 72.1, 12.8
ψ
4.1 73.7, 39.1
ω
4.2 81.0, 11.8

29 ◒
HOOPOE (Hoo)
hoopoe starling
(Fregilupus varius)
✝ 1850s

Shape: 3/73 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.6 100.5,-25.4
β
3.2 103.9,-30.5
γ
3.3 109.6,-27.5
δ
3.9 100.9,-28.9
ε
3.9 99.5,-25.1
ζ
4.0 110.1,-20.8
η
4.0 104.6,-32.2
θ
4.1 109.0,-27.0
ι
4.1 109.3,-30.7
κ
4.3 108.2,-22.5
λ
4.5 104.6,-27.2
μ
4.6 103.6,-23.7
ν
4.7 100.7,-19.9
ξ
4.8 100.1,-29.8
ο
4.8 108.5,-17.6
π
4.8 101.1,-27.9
ρ
4.8 106.4,-23.6
ς
4.8 110.2,-29.4
σ
4.8 107.2,-22.1
τ
4.8 104.6,-24.6
υ
4.9 102.7,-27.6
φ
4.9 100.3,-22.9
χ
5.0 104.8,-18.2
ψ
5.0 103.8,-23.9
ω
5.1 102.7,-32.0

30 ◒
HUIA (Hui)
Huia
(Heteralocha acutirostris)
✝ 1907

Shape: 3/53 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.2 -108.0,-14.9
β
3.4 -105.8,-13.9
γ
3.4 -106.2,-12.0
δ
3.5 -106.4,-13.8
ε
3.8 -107.8,-10.4
ζ
4.1 -106.7,-13.8
η
4.1 -106.9,-19.7
θ
4.3 -107.1,-11.7
ι
4.4 -107.6,-19.3
κ
4.5 -107.7,-13.7
λ
4.7 -109.9,-11.6
μ
4.8 -108.4,-17.6
ν
4.8 -105.4,-14.2
ξ
4.9 -106.7,-15.6
ο
5.0 -106.8,-13.3
π
5.1 -103.4,-11.7
ρ
5.1 -109.8,-10.8
ς
5.1 -104.6,-10.1
σ
5.2 -106.9,-13.6
τ
5.2 -105.2,-17.4
υ
5.3 -105.7,-11.7
φ
5.4 -105.3,-19.6
χ
5.5 -102.6,-15.8
ψ
5.5 -108.9,-11.3
ω
5.5 -106.5,-14.1

31 ◓
HYDRODAMALIS (Hyd)
Steller's sea cow
(Hydrodamalis gigas)
✝ 1768

Shape: 4/72 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.9 -51.1, 19.5
β
2.6 -42.5, 16.6
γ
2.7 -50.6, 25.5
δ
2.7 -29.5, 38.6
ε
3.0 -30.6, 27.8
ζ
3.0 -53.4, 30.8
η
3.2 -49.6, 34.1
θ
3.4 -33.5, 30.8
ι
3.5 -40.9, 37.1
κ
3.5 -47.6, 19.7
λ
3.5 -49.3, 32.1
μ
3.6 -43.7, 35.2
ν
3.6 -34.2, 32.4
ξ
3.6 -52.9, 22.4
ο
3.8 -56.7, 31.9
π
3.8 -43.8, 17.0
ρ
3.9 -43.8, 20.2
ς
3.9 -49.4, 29.6
σ
4.0 -53.1, 41.8
τ
4.0 -40.9, 24.3
υ
4.0 -33.0, 51.9
φ
4.1 -48.0, 22.8
χ
4.1 -31.6, 36.0
ψ
4.1 -45.0, 17.9
ω
4.1 -44.3, 20.2

32 ●
IBEX (Ibe)
Pyrenean ibex
(Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica))
✝ 2000

Shape: 6/817 stars, 6 edges.

α
1.5 -43.2,-21.3
β
2.0 -53.4, 6.2
γ
2.0 -49.2, -4.5
δ
2.2 -41.2,-12.1
ε
2.5 -53.4,-16.6
ζ
2.5 -55.7, -3.2
η
2.8 -56.9,-10.2
θ
2.8 -55.0, -9.0
ι
3.3 -45.0,-12.2
κ
3.5 -42.4,-12.2
λ
3.6 -46.7, -7.9
μ
3.7 -46.8,-13.9
ν
3.8 -49.7, -7.4
ξ
3.8 -54.4, 0.6
ο
3.9 -41.1,-20.6
π
4.0 -49.3,-14.6
ρ
4.0 -56.3, -8.6
ς
4.0 -49.9, 7.6
σ
4.0 -48.1,-15.9
τ
4.1 -44.9,-27.1
υ
4.1 -50.5, -6.9
φ
4.1 -53.6,-13.4
χ
4.1 -40.4,-14.5
ψ
4.2 -50.0,-25.9
ω
4.2 -57.4,-21.9

33 ◓
INCILIUS (Inc)
Golden toad
(Incilius periglenes)
✝ 15 May 1989

Toads are studied by herpetologists. I'd love to be one just so that I can say that word at a party.

Shape: 4/106 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.5 -107.3, 61.0
β
2.6 -108.6, 56.1
γ
2.7 -118.9, 56.6
δ
3.3 -112.9, 61.9
ε
3.6 -117.5, 56.4
ζ
3.7 -110.4, 47.5
η
3.8 -112.7, 60.7
θ
3.8 -113.0, 49.2
ι
3.8 -113.4, 65.5
κ
3.8 -113.7, 55.1
λ
4.0 -108.0, 63.6
μ
4.1 -119.3, 60.3
ν
4.2 -107.6, 49.0
ξ
4.4 -112.2, 49.8
ο
4.5 -117.4, 66.0
π
4.6 -113.2, 48.4
ρ
4.7 -121.4, 51.5
ς
4.7 -116.9, 52.9
σ
4.7 -120.1, 48.2
τ
4.7 -109.9, 49.6
υ
4.7 -114.6, 49.7
φ
4.7 -121.2, 54.5
χ
4.8 -113.7, 58.7
ψ
4.8 -114.2, 62.5
ω
4.8 -116.1, 49.2

34 ◓
KELENKEN (Kel)
Terror bird
(Kelenken guillermoi)
✝ Miocene

Shape: 5/48 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.6 10.9, 14.0
β
1.9 9.0, 27.4
γ
2.2 -4.6, 17.4
δ
2.4 9.4, 18.3
ε
2.7 13.8, 26.3
ζ
2.9 -0.6, 12.1
η
3.1 11.2, 22.4
θ
3.3 15.0, 25.6
ι
3.4 1.3, 25.0
κ
3.5 5.8, 7.7
λ
3.7 8.9, 20.3
μ
3.8 4.6, 29.2
ν
3.8 -7.4, 20.0
ξ
3.8 1.4, 9.5
ο
4.1 13.7, 17.6
π
4.2 2.1, 15.5
ρ
4.5 3.9, 18.4
ς
4.6 1.9, 21.9
σ
4.6 3.9, 27.4
τ
4.8 -4.7, 22.1
υ
4.8 10.4, 29.8
φ
4.9 -1.0, 10.2
χ
5.1 -3.0, 8.1
ψ
5.2 13.3, 20.5
ω
5.2 3.1, 12.4

35 ◒
KIMBETOPSALIS (Kim)
-
(Kimbetopsalis simmonsae)
✝ middle Puercan

Shape: 8/2155 stars, 7 edges.

α
1.2 34.3,-48.0
β
1.4 33.6,-31.4
γ
1.4 79.6,-47.0
δ
1.6 58.0,-41.7
ε
2.1 89.4,-37.1
ζ
2.3 63.5,-37.8
η
2.3 79.6,-39.4
θ
2.4 59.8,-32.4
ι
2.6 36.9,-42.6
κ
2.7 40.7,-35.7
λ
2.7 73.1,-45.3
μ
2.9 45.6,-32.4
ν
2.9 30.9,-41.4
ξ
3.4 31.3,-28.9
ο
3.4 89.1,-39.8
π
3.4 44.6,-26.6
ρ
3.4 43.4,-44.2
ς
3.5 55.2,-31.5
σ
3.6 42.5,-30.8
τ
3.6 40.8,-40.0
υ
3.6 63.9,-37.2
φ
3.7 55.0,-25.7
χ
3.8 42.0,-32.4
ψ
3.8 37.6,-30.4
ω
3.9 50.2,-38.2

36 ●
KLEKOWSKII (Kle)
Colossus penguin
(Palaeeudyptes klekowskii)
✝ late Eocene

Shape: 5/714 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 46.2, 3.2
β
1.5 57.7, 14.2
γ
1.8 53.1, -9.6
δ
1.8 38.3, 13.3
ε
2.1 45.6, 11.4
ζ
2.5 48.5,-13.8
η
2.6 52.7, 18.4
θ
2.7 42.5, 0.0
ι
2.8 46.4, 10.7
κ
2.8 49.8,-12.5
λ
2.9 54.1, -5.8
μ
3.0 36.6, 16.1
ν
3.1 39.6,-15.1
ξ
3.2 51.7, 3.6
ο
3.3 48.8, 8.5
π
3.4 53.1, 7.2
ρ
3.5 47.3, 15.7
ς
3.5 48.3,-10.8
σ
3.6 36.5, 9.3
τ
3.6 67.4, 10.3
υ
3.6 65.2, 13.5
φ
3.7 67.5, 15.2
χ
3.8 52.1, 13.6
ψ
3.8 58.1, 17.1
ω
3.8 54.9,-22.9

37 ◒
LEPIDODENDRON (Lep)
Scale tree
(Lepidodendron)
✝ Carboniferous

Shape: 6/1028 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 -19.4,-47.6
β
2.6 -24.8,-50.1
γ
2.9 -21.9,-44.0
δ
2.9 -24.5,-38.8
ε
2.9 -34.2,-44.1
ζ
3.0 -37.6,-41.3
η
3.1 -43.0,-52.1
θ
3.2 -44.7,-40.0
ι
3.4 -30.0,-42.2
κ
3.6 -37.9,-48.5
λ
3.7 -28.2,-40.8
μ
3.9 -18.6,-56.8
ν
4.0 -33.8,-42.1
ξ
4.0 -36.0,-51.0
ο
4.0 -33.7,-38.5
π
4.0 -39.9,-38.2
ρ
4.1 -43.8,-40.7
ς
4.1 -20.8,-54.6
σ
4.1 -33.9,-42.5
τ
4.2 -25.8,-48.7
υ
4.2 -28.8,-39.3
φ
4.3 -36.1,-56.3
χ
4.3 -23.8,-51.5
ψ
4.4 -33.6,-56.2
ω
4.4 -30.4,-48.5

38 ◓
MALPAISOMYS (Mal)
Lava mouse
(Malpaisomys insularis)
✝ ?

Not much is known about when Malpaisomys became extinct. Some think it's when humans and dogs arrived on the Canary islands. Malpaisomys worries that because of his small size, nobody cares.

Shape: 3/38 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.4 123.7, 78.1
β
2.8 120.5, 71.0
γ
2.8 124.0, 77.7
δ
3.5 127.5, 74.1
ε
3.7 126.3, 79.5
ζ
3.7 125.7, 81.3
η
3.7 113.1, 74.3
θ
3.8 113.6, 74.5
ι
3.8 119.5, 71.6
κ
4.1 116.8, 74.7
λ
4.1 132.6, 76.6
μ
4.2 121.2, 73.2
ν
4.3 114.7, 77.7
ξ
4.5 132.0, 69.9
ο
4.6 124.4, 70.2
π
4.7 129.0, 69.3
ρ
4.8 119.4, 71.9
ς
4.8 118.7, 66.2
σ
4.9 130.6, 65.3
τ
5.4 112.6, 68.5
υ
5.6 130.4, 64.3
φ
5.6 131.5, 82.4
χ
5.7 112.7, 68.0
ψ
5.8 121.8, 70.9
ω
5.8 129.3, 66.6

39 ◓
MAMMUTHUS (Mam)
Woolly mammoth
(Mammuthus primigenius)
✝ Pleistocene, early Holocene

Shape: 8/69 stars, 7 edges.

α
-0.7 13.6, 33.6
β
0.6 26.5, 31.5
γ
1.7 19.3, 41.5
δ
1.9 36.3, 37.6
ε
2.3 7.2, 34.4
ζ
2.5 24.6, 46.6
η
2.6 33.6, 46.1
θ
2.9 13.0, 35.9
ι
3.0 34.2, 33.9
κ
3.0 5.0, 51.1
λ
3.1 21.5, 20.4
μ
3.1 30.2, 46.3
ν
3.2 7.6, 37.1
ξ
3.2 -3.9, 43.0
ο
3.3 29.8, 43.9
π
3.3 33.0, 27.3
ρ
3.3 25.6, 46.0
ς
3.5 19.6, 47.2
σ
3.6 24.2, 33.8
τ
3.7 7.3, 33.5
υ
3.8 5.3, 45.5
φ
4.0 18.2, 51.1
χ
4.2 6.1, 42.5
ψ
4.4 -1.8, 40.9
ω
4.4 -0.6, 39.4

40 ●
MARIANA (Mar)
Mariana mallard
(Anas oustaleti)
✝ 1981

Shape: 3/17 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.7 157.8, -4.1
β
3.5 155.8, -2.1
γ
4.0 154.1, -3.4
δ
4.0 155.4, -0.3
ε
4.1 155.9, -2.7
ζ
4.3 159.4, 0.4
η
4.8 154.8, -1.1
θ
4.9 153.4, 0.6
ι
5.1 154.1, -2.1
κ
5.2 157.5, 4.2
λ
5.8 153.1, -0.7
μ
5.9 158.9, -1.5
ν
6.0 152.6, -6.6
ξ
6.1 157.4, 0.9
ο
6.2 155.5, 2.3
π
6.6 152.7, -4.7
ρ
7.0 156.0, -7.2

41 ◒
MEGALODON (Megal)
Giant shark
(Carcharodon Megalodon)
✝ early miocene, late Pliocene

One word: terrifying. More words: endlessly chasing Tecopa. The megalodon possesses the brightest star in the sky.

Shape: 4/20 stars, 4 edges.

α
-2.0 127.3,-65.2
β
2.9 129.9,-74.5
γ
2.9 148.7,-74.0
δ
3.0 134.5,-62.4
ε
3.3 128.0,-66.4
ζ
3.7 136.4,-74.1
η
3.9 120.4,-67.1
θ
4.2 131.4,-69.0
ι
4.6 140.6,-75.0
κ
4.8 145.4,-72.0
λ
4.9 146.5,-77.1
μ
4.9 135.1,-68.5
ν
5.0 120.8,-76.0
ξ
5.4 127.6,-69.5
ο
5.8 125.0,-77.4
π
5.9 132.1,-74.1
ρ
6.0 121.6,-75.9
ς
6.3 146.0,-68.3
σ
6.5 132.3,-62.7
τ
6.9 139.5,-77.0

42 ◒
MEGANEURA (Megan)
Giant dragonfly
(Meganeura brongniarti)
✝ late Carboniferous

Shape: 5/122 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 -81.4,-71.5
β
2.0 -97.1,-83.7
γ
2.2 -113.2,-61.9
δ
2.5 -90.5,-57.6
ε
2.7 -104.2,-57.2
ζ
3.1 -93.9,-79.9
η
3.2 -107.8,-68.1
θ
3.2 -107.9,-80.4
ι
3.3 -107.3,-77.8
κ
3.4 -76.9,-71.1
λ
3.5 -91.8,-65.3
μ
3.5 -101.5,-78.4
ν
3.6 -92.8,-59.1
ξ
3.6 -108.1,-75.7
ο
3.6 -96.6,-75.1
π
3.6 -79.4,-55.8
ρ
3.6 -90.2,-66.2
ς
3.8 -90.8,-52.8
σ
3.8 -89.3,-66.0
τ
3.8 -90.6,-62.0
υ
3.9 -104.2,-58.6
φ
3.9 -112.1,-79.0
χ
4.0 -114.5,-69.0
ψ
4.0 -84.6,-56.7
ω
4.1 -115.6,-62.8

43 ◓
MINMI (Min)
Minmi
(Minmi paravertebra)
✝ early Cretaceous

The Minmi is actually much larger than his name suggests. He really wants you to know that.

Shape: 5/749 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.8 87.9, 7.3
β
2.3 89.9, 7.9
γ
2.5 76.6, 6.0
δ
2.7 87.0, 7.2
ε
2.7 93.4, 7.5
ζ
3.1 95.9, 5.7
η
3.3 86.5, 2.3
θ
3.6 79.2, 8.3
ι
3.6 94.6, 6.3
κ
3.7 79.7, 5.7
λ
3.7 84.7, 8.1
μ
3.8 95.8, 9.9
ν
4.1 80.0, 7.1
ξ
4.2 93.8, 0.3
ο
4.2 76.1, 4.3
π
4.2 98.7, 2.8
ρ
4.3 78.0, 1.7
ς
4.3 78.9, 7.2
σ
4.3 84.7, 8.1
τ
4.4 97.3, 4.4
υ
4.4 77.6, 2.1
φ
4.4 78.4, 7.7
χ
4.5 76.1, 5.4
ψ
4.5 76.5, 8.4
ω
4.5 98.1, 3.4

44 ◓
MOA (Moa)
Moa
(Dinornis novaezealandiae)
✝ Miocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/60 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -17.2, 27.0
β
1.0 -25.6, 22.4
γ
1.6 -21.0, 17.5
δ
1.8 -10.9, 34.4
ε
1.9 -11.9, 45.0
ζ
2.0 -23.0, 43.6
η
2.6 -9.5, 35.4
θ
2.6 -23.4, 26.2
ι
2.8 -33.0, 20.6
κ
3.0 -14.3, 17.8
λ
3.0 -7.6, 35.2
μ
3.2 -8.5, 40.0
ν
3.3 -19.6, 48.5
ξ
3.3 -8.8, 44.9
ο
3.4 -16.8, 29.5
π
3.5 -17.6, 49.5
ρ
3.5 -16.9, 37.1
ς
3.7 -32.9, 24.9
σ
3.8 -21.4, 40.6
τ
3.8 -25.0, 16.9
υ
4.1 -28.5, 23.9
φ
4.1 -21.0, 23.6
χ
4.5 -12.8, 16.4
ψ
4.5 -10.1, 42.4
ω
4.6 -23.2, 18.1

45 ◒
MOHO (Moh)
ʻōʻō
(Moho braccatus)
✝ 1987

The ʻōʻō has all its letters with diacriticals. This makes the whēkau jealous. They haven't talked since.

Shape: 6/70 stars, 6 edges.

α
2.5 135.0, -7.0
β
2.6 131.3,-10.0
γ
3.1 130.1, -5.5
δ
3.4 135.9, -7.8
ε
3.5 129.3, -4.6
ζ
3.8 141.4,-19.0
η
4.0 143.0, -2.7
θ
4.0 135.5,-10.0
ι
4.0 136.3,-10.4
κ
4.0 132.2,-11.1
λ
4.1 134.1, -9.0
μ
4.1 128.3,-10.1
ν
4.1 138.6, -7.6
ξ
4.1 136.5, -7.5
ο
4.1 132.9, -6.2
π
4.2 143.7, -5.7
ρ
4.2 135.5,-15.6
ς
4.4 141.6,-17.4
σ
4.4 141.7,-10.3
τ
4.4 140.1,-10.4
υ
4.5 137.5,-12.2
φ
4.6 132.3, -7.5
χ
4.7 134.1, -7.9
ψ
4.8 134.3, -9.4
ω
4.8 134.8,-13.4

46 ◓
NESIOTA (Nes)
St Helena Olive
(Nesiota elliptica)
✝ 2003

I frankly hate olives and there's no end to my pleasure in throwing olives at the sky.

Shape: 4/784 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.8 116.4, 37.4
β
2.8 112.3, 25.9
γ
2.9 117.3, 30.7
δ
3.4 105.5, 29.0
ε
3.4 112.5, 23.4
ζ
3.5 115.9, 34.5
η
3.6 112.5, 36.9
θ
4.0 104.4, 23.0
ι
4.1 111.4, 33.1
κ
4.2 110.4, 29.8
λ
4.2 108.4, 33.2
μ
4.3 102.5, 23.2
ν
4.3 119.4, 23.5
ξ
4.3 115.1, 33.7
ο
4.4 118.3, 37.5
π
4.4 115.4, 36.3
ρ
4.5 119.0, 26.9
ς
4.6 103.4, 36.7
σ
4.6 109.4, 37.4
τ
4.6 109.2, 32.7
υ
4.6 117.3, 35.6
φ
4.7 102.9, 36.6
χ
4.7 106.6, 28.2
ψ
4.7 115.7, 36.3
ω
4.8 103.9, 26.4

47 ◒
O'AHU 'AKEPA (Oah)
O'ahu 'akepa
(Loxops wolstenholmei)
✝ 1990s

Like Pipilo, the O'ahu 'akepa is the only other multi-part constellation. Here, a pair of akepas are chatting and spreading rumors about Tadorna.

Shape: 4/30 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.3 150.9, -4.2
β
2.6 151.7,-13.5
γ
3.1 148.9, -9.1
δ
3.7 148.2,-12.2
ε
3.7 152.9,-16.5
ζ
3.8 152.8, -9.6
η
3.9 145.9, -7.0
θ
4.2 149.0,-11.2
ι
4.3 149.9,-15.6
κ
4.3 147.3,-13.2
λ
4.6 149.7, -1.2
μ
4.8 147.7, -7.3
ν
4.8 153.8,-18.9
ξ
4.9 152.5,-15.8
ο
5.0 147.1, -5.4
π
5.1 148.0,-10.5
ρ
5.2 148.5, -4.1
ς
5.2 150.8, -2.3
σ
5.5 145.7,-11.2
τ
5.6 147.0, -9.4
υ
5.7 148.5,-14.4
φ
5.9 152.4, -8.4
χ
6.1 150.4, -1.2
ψ
6.2 151.2, -6.9
ω
6.2 146.8, -3.9

48 ◒
PALAEOALDROVANDA (Pal)
-
(Palaeoaldrovanda splendens)
✝ late Cretaceous

Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Xerces is seen flying nearby. He must be careful.

Shape: 3/121 stars, 3 edges.

α
3.0 1.0,-44.3
β
3.4 2.1,-38.5
γ
3.6 6.9,-39.5
δ
3.9 4.7,-42.1
ε
4.1 2.5,-37.8
ζ
4.1 2.1,-40.7
η
4.7 2.7,-43.6
θ
4.8 6.7,-41.6
ι
4.9 1.7,-44.7
κ
5.1 1.5,-42.0
λ
5.1 4.7,-44.7
μ
5.1 0.9,-42.0
ν
5.1 2.2,-43.3
ξ
5.1 0.5,-40.1
ο
5.4 3.0,-44.2
π
5.6 3.4,-43.4
ρ
5.7 6.2,-38.4
ς
5.7 5.8,-39.6
σ
5.8 2.6,-38.4
τ
5.8 4.0,-42.5
υ
5.9 6.1,-38.7
φ
6.0 1.9,-38.7
χ
6.0 4.2,-43.6
ψ
6.2 3.5,-44.4
ω
6.2 1.4,-38.9

49 ●
PECATONICA (Pec)
Pecatonica River mayfly
(Acanthametropus pecatonica)
✝ -

The mayfly loves to pester Raphus, the Dodo bird. He is too worried about guarding his eggs to pay attention to Pecatonica, though.

Shape: 4/58 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.3 3.9, -2.1
β
3.1 1.0, -1.4
γ
3.3 4.0, -7.2
δ
3.5 4.7, 6.2
ε
3.5 14.1, -0.2
ζ
3.7 6.1, 5.4
η
3.8 2.2, -6.7
θ
4.1 1.4, 6.9
ι
4.2 11.4, -3.1
κ
4.2 1.1, -9.7
λ
4.3 14.1, 6.5
μ
4.3 11.9, 1.8
ν
4.6 4.7, 6.0
ξ
4.6 12.3, -2.2
ο
4.6 3.7, -3.5
π
4.8 -3.6, -0.6
ρ
4.8 8.3, 3.3
ς
4.8 2.7, 5.5
σ
5.0 8.1, 6.1
τ
5.0 6.7, -1.8
υ
5.1 3.3, -1.3
φ
5.2 8.0, -1.0
χ
5.2 7.7, -6.3
ψ
5.4 -2.3, -6.3
ω
5.6 7.6, -9.9

50 ◒
PELAGORNIS (Pel)
Pelagornis
(Pelagornis sandersi)
✝ upper Oligocene

He can barely fit in the southern skies. With a wingspan of over 5 meters, he is certain that he is the biggest bird in the sky. However, Argentavis of the northern hemisphere disagrees.

Shape: 6/192 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.4 74.8,-55.9
β
2.7 92.1,-47.9
γ
3.1 60.2,-50.6
δ
3.3 49.0,-48.0
ε
3.4 83.7,-51.3
ζ
3.4 67.3,-52.6
η
3.5 81.6,-50.7
θ
3.7 86.6,-53.6
ι
4.1 58.6,-51.6
κ
4.3 85.9,-53.3
λ
4.3 77.7,-57.0
μ
4.4 50.6,-48.6
ν
4.4 70.2,-51.2
ξ
4.5 84.8,-54.3
ο
4.6 90.4,-48.8
π
4.6 55.4,-51.2
ρ
4.7 60.3,-51.9
ς
4.7 76.5,-51.8
σ
4.7 89.9,-56.3
τ
4.7 60.1,-45.5
υ
4.8 65.0,-49.2
φ
4.8 56.3,-46.2
χ
4.9 74.0,-50.4
ψ
4.9 72.4,-50.5
ω
4.9 67.6,-50.3

51 ◒
PHELSUMA (Phe)
Rodrigues day gecko
(Phelsuma edwardnewtoni)
✝ late 1800s?

The Phelsuma was described as unafraid of humans and said to be tame and happy to eat fruit from your hand. Lessons to be learned here?

Shape: 10/131 stars, 10 edges.

α
0.5 -121.9,-33.4
β
1.1 -160.8,-36.7
γ
1.4 -128.5,-26.2
δ
1.4 -151.1,-41.5
ε
1.5 -177.8,-36.5
ζ
1.5 -156.1,-32.5
η
1.8 -131.8,-43.7
θ
1.8 -137.6,-30.2
ι
2.0 -148.0,-31.3
κ
2.0 -178.0,-55.0
λ
2.1 -167.1,-33.7
μ
2.1 -140.1,-27.1
ν
2.3 -177.6,-42.4
ξ
2.6 -143.7,-32.1
ο
2.7 -153.2,-29.1
π
2.8 -137.2,-27.4
ρ
3.0 -111.4,-31.8
ς
3.1 -157.5,-31.9
σ
3.3 -153.6,-33.1
τ
3.3 -144.3,-28.6
υ
3.3 -141.6,-31.9
φ
3.4 -167.7,-48.4
χ
3.4 -166.6,-53.8
ψ
3.5 -132.3,-40.5
ω
3.5 -161.7,-48.0

52 ◓
PINGUINUS (Ping)
Great auk
(Pinguinus impennis)
✝ 1852

Shape: 3/88 stars, 2 edges.

α
1.0 -70.5, 55.1
β
1.5 -68.3, 57.7
γ
2.6 -75.9, 52.3
δ
2.8 -71.9, 38.9
ε
2.9 -67.6, 36.3
ζ
3.5 -65.0, 47.1
η
3.5 -75.4, 32.0
θ
3.5 -75.2, 38.8
ι
3.6 -63.6, 48.5
κ
3.8 -61.0, 47.5
λ
3.8 -70.8, 36.0
μ
3.9 -75.6, 32.2
ν
3.9 -70.6, 32.4
ξ
3.9 -60.9, 44.1
ο
4.0 -74.5, 39.9
π
4.0 -69.1, 50.6
ρ
4.0 -73.1, 33.1
ς
4.0 -68.4, 39.2
σ
4.1 -74.6, 40.0
τ
4.1 -60.8, 35.7
υ
4.1 -57.9, 30.8
φ
4.2 -74.3, 54.3
χ
4.2 -72.7, 36.0
ψ
4.2 -67.7, 31.2
ω
4.3 -70.2, 63.6

53 ◵
PINTA (Pint)
Pinta Island tortoise
(Chelonoidis abingdonii)
✝ 24 June 2012

The last of its kind, a male named Lonesome George, died in 2012.

Shape: 5/402 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.9 -32.6,-64.5
β
1.9 -39.5,-74.1
γ
2.0 -5.6,-63.5
δ
2.3 -4.8,-54.5
ε
2.5 -2.1,-74.5
ζ
3.1 -16.6,-61.4
η
3.4 -6.9,-69.2
θ
3.6 -19.7,-64.4
ι
3.6 -12.5,-65.5
κ
3.6 -43.5,-68.9
λ
3.6 -1.3,-67.5
μ
3.7 -30.0,-76.8
ν
3.8 -32.2,-67.9
ξ
3.8 -17.1,-76.7
ο
4.0 -14.3,-61.5
π
4.1 -11.3,-59.0
ρ
4.2 -29.4,-69.7
ς
4.2 -42.2,-64.8
σ
4.2 -6.6,-66.7
τ
4.3 2.1,-63.6
υ
4.3 -10.3,-53.7
φ
4.4 -36.5,-71.8
χ
4.4 0.4,-79.0
ψ
4.4 -15.9,-61.5
ω
4.4 -8.7,-56.0

54 ●
PIPILO (Pip)
Bermuda towhee
(Pipilo naufragus)
✝ Pleistocene, Holocene

A rare flocking constellation. These towhees cross hemispheres and keep the Glyptodon company.

Shape: 44/261 stars, 22 edges.

α
2.9 -137.7,-20.1
β
3.0 -165.7,-13.7
γ
3.0 -168.1,-29.1
δ
3.0 -157.3,-18.6
ε
3.0 -147.3,-23.0
ζ
3.1 -123.5,-21.5
η
3.1 -176.5, -2.9
θ
3.1 -169.8,-28.5
ι
3.1 -149.3,-21.6
κ
3.1 -162.6,-13.4
λ
3.1 -172.9, -9.0
μ
3.1 -172.4,-23.2
ν
3.2 -178.1,-25.6
ξ
3.2 -170.7, -9.0
ο
3.3 -159.1,-21.5
π
3.4 -171.9,-19.7
ρ
3.4 -176.0, 1.9
ς
3.5 -140.9, 11.1
σ
3.5 -178.9,-24.7
τ
3.5 -178.5,-12.7
υ
3.5 -166.3,-18.1
φ
3.6 -152.2, 3.1
χ
3.6 -144.1, 10.7
ψ
3.6 -157.5, -5.7
ω
3.6 -143.4, -2.1

55 ●
PLEOROTUS (Ple)
Pleorotus
(Pleorotus braueri)
✝ 1894

Shape: 5/406 stars, 5 edges.

α
3.2 59.4, 1.1
β
3.2 60.1, -3.6
γ
3.3 74.9, -6.7
δ
3.6 65.7, -3.7
ε
3.7 63.0, -3.6
ζ
3.8 65.8, 2.2
η
3.8 71.9, 2.3
θ
3.8 64.0, 1.2
ι
3.9 70.5, 3.2
κ
4.0 71.3, 1.5
λ
4.2 67.6, 4.4
μ
4.2 66.5, -3.8
ν
4.2 62.2, -5.2
ξ
4.3 70.6, -6.7
ο
4.3 68.8, -4.9
π
4.3 60.4, 3.3
ρ
4.4 72.4, 2.8
ς
4.5 70.8, -2.3
σ
4.5 69.3, 8.9
τ
4.5 62.2, 2.0
υ
4.7 60.6, 4.5
φ
4.7 69.2, 9.4
χ
4.7 67.6, -3.8
ψ
4.7 65.9, 5.3
ω
4.7 65.3, 6.1

56 ◓
PLUCHEA (Plu)
Pluchea
(Pluchea glutinosa)
✝ 19th century

Shape: 4/652 stars, 4 edges.

α
1.4 104.3, 15.1
β
1.4 99.0, 17.4
γ
1.6 110.6, 15.4
δ
2.1 103.7, 18.4
ε
2.6 110.6, 15.8
ζ
3.3 103.7, 11.7
η
3.7 112.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 113.2, 19.6
ι
3.7 98.5, 20.8
κ
3.8 111.2, 15.6
λ
3.9 107.3, 13.5
μ
4.0 102.0, 10.6
ν
4.0 101.6, 18.6
ξ
4.0 114.9, 16.5
ο
4.0 111.0, 13.3
π
4.1 97.7, 21.3
ρ
4.1 110.1, 19.0
ς
4.1 111.0, 19.7
σ
4.2 109.8, 22.4
τ
4.2 107.1, 11.7
υ
4.3 105.8, 19.7
φ
4.4 110.1, 19.5
χ
4.5 104.0, 14.3
ψ
4.5 114.2, 20.0
ω
4.5 102.5, 13.6

57 ◓
PO'OULI (Poo)
po'o-uli
(Melamprosops phaeosoma)
✝ 2004?

The last sighting of a pair of po'ouli was in 2004 and now again, in the sky of pi.

Shape: 4/145 stars, 4 edges.

α
0.8 107.1, 43.5
β
2.2 103.0, 45.9
γ
2.6 101.5, 40.0
δ
2.8 97.7, 42.5
ε
3.2 107.7, 52.6
ζ
3.2 106.1, 53.5
η
3.2 111.4, 40.9
θ
3.5 106.1, 38.8
ι
3.6 98.4, 52.1
κ
3.7 97.5, 44.4
λ
4.0 99.5, 40.9
μ
4.1 108.4, 54.3
ν
4.3 106.4, 47.8
ξ
4.3 112.4, 54.3
ο
4.3 102.8, 39.4
π
4.4 101.2, 52.2
ρ
4.4 99.9, 42.1
ς
4.4 105.2, 46.1
σ
4.5 106.3, 51.5
τ
4.6 112.4, 54.1
υ
4.6 107.6, 54.8
φ
4.7 111.0, 48.2
χ
4.7 99.0, 48.9
ψ
4.7 110.5, 38.0
ω
4.7 100.8, 42.9

58 ◒
PORZANA (Por)
Laysan rail
(Porzana palmeri)
✝ 1944

Tiny guys in the corner.

Shape: 2/7 stars, 1 edges.

α
2.7 169.3,-60.9
β
4.8 168.6,-63.1
γ
5.5 173.0,-77.9
δ
5.8 161.0,-72.5
ε
5.8 171.5,-76.4
ζ
6.4 159.9,-68.0
η
7.2 166.3,-62.4

59 ◒
PTERODACTYL (Pte)
Winged finger
(Pterodactylus antiquus)
✝ early Tithonian

Shape: 9/1676 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.7 6.2,-53.6
β
2.8 -26.3,-32.8
γ
2.9 -30.0,-26.2
δ
3.1 -34.6,-30.9
ε
3.2 -5.1,-43.4
ζ
3.3 -36.3,-22.8
η
3.4 -12.9,-42.5
θ
3.5 -17.3,-44.6
ι
3.6 11.0,-56.7
κ
3.6 -28.0,-35.9
λ
3.6 8.3,-59.1
μ
3.6 -18.0,-27.6
ν
3.6 -3.6,-48.7
ξ
3.7 -28.0,-35.6
ο
3.7 -21.6,-30.5
π
3.9 2.6,-49.1
ρ
3.9 -32.7,-29.5
ς
4.0 -11.0,-37.1
σ
4.0 -34.2,-34.6
τ
4.0 -26.0,-30.7
υ
4.0 -22.5,-30.4
φ
4.0 -31.9,-27.4
χ
4.1 -28.5,-33.0
ψ
4.1 -36.7,-22.7
ω
4.2 8.2,-63.5

60 ◓
QUAGGA (Qua)
Quagga
(Equus quagga quagga)
✝ 1883

Comical and uncertain of its stripes, Quagga is often seen asking Aurochs for his advice.

Shape: 6/139 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.8 73.0, 74.4
β
1.3 97.7, 60.3
γ
1.9 76.9, 55.4
δ
2.1 93.3, 77.0
ε
2.6 72.5, 52.3
ζ
2.7 90.6, 49.5
η
2.8 91.7, 74.8
θ
3.1 100.3, 74.9
ι
3.3 65.6, 78.2
κ
3.5 97.4, 50.5
λ
3.7 88.7, 55.0
μ
3.7 77.0, 55.7
ν
3.7 102.7, 69.8
ξ
3.7 103.9, 73.6
ο
3.8 95.3, 74.0
π
3.8 66.2, 74.0
ρ
3.9 99.3, 71.5
ς
3.9 79.3, 46.7
σ
3.9 91.4, 51.2
τ
4.0 68.3, 74.2
υ
4.0 93.4, 59.2
φ
4.1 84.9, 63.2
χ
4.1 111.3, 59.4
ψ
4.1 70.0, 66.3
ω
4.2 106.5, 60.3

61 ●
RAPHUS (Rap)
Dodo bird
(Raphus cucullatus)
✝ Holocene

Raphus is guarding his eggs—the clusters of stars just south of β Raphus (the second brightest star in the constellation) while pestered by Pecatonica.

Shape: 5/358 stars, 5 edges.

α
0.3 -23.6,-21.3
β
1.5 -27.7, 0.8
γ
1.8 -9.5,-14.7
δ
2.0 -37.5, 3.5
ε
2.3 -10.0, -6.2
ζ
2.8 -30.1, -7.4
η
2.8 -23.1, -1.6
θ
2.9 -28.8, -6.8
ι
2.9 -36.3, -7.7
κ
3.0 -19.1, 12.0
λ
3.2 -29.0, 7.7
μ
3.3 -38.3, -0.2
ν
3.4 -29.2, -7.7
ξ
3.4 -35.9,-19.4
ο
3.4 -21.5, -7.4
π
3.4 -39.0, 10.7
ρ
3.4 -36.1, -7.0
ς
3.5 -25.3,-21.4
σ
3.5 -35.1, 5.7
τ
3.5 -16.4, -5.9
υ
3.5 -20.2, -5.5
φ
3.5 -36.9, 1.5
χ
3.5 -36.6,-15.9
ψ
3.5 -23.3, -6.9
ω
3.6 -16.6,-14.9

62 ◒
RHYNIA (Rhy)
Rhynia
(Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii)
✝ early Devonian

Shape: 3/12 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.8 147.9,-54.4
β
2.6 160.0,-57.4
γ
3.2 157.4,-61.3
δ
3.3 158.7,-59.6
ε
3.6 146.2,-56.3
ζ
3.7 142.4,-61.6
η
4.8 153.1,-53.5
θ
5.5 152.9,-63.0
ι
5.6 142.5,-57.7
κ
5.6 143.5,-54.0
λ
6.4 145.4,-61.5
μ
6.5 155.4,-54.6

63 ◒
RODHOCETUS (Rod)
-
(Rodhocetus kasrani)
✝ Lutetian

Fleeing from the giant Megalodon, Rodhocetus was an early whale that possessed land mammal characteristics. Some say that he managed to escape from Megalodon and lived out his life on the land, never returning to the sea.

Shape: 6/44 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.7 96.7,-59.6
β
2.1 130.3,-51.7
γ
2.3 110.4,-54.7
δ
2.4 122.6,-57.0
ε
2.8 103.1,-51.5
ζ
2.9 116.2,-60.0
η
3.4 107.0,-58.8
θ
3.5 97.5,-47.7
ι
3.7 124.9,-53.5
κ
3.8 109.9,-54.9
λ
4.0 110.6,-49.2
μ
4.2 127.0,-52.2
ν
4.3 98.9,-50.5
ξ
4.3 117.8,-51.7
ο
4.4 130.1,-52.6
π
4.6 108.9,-59.5
ρ
4.7 95.6,-51.2
ς
4.9 104.4,-55.5
σ
5.0 100.3,-53.8
τ
5.0 106.1,-53.5
υ
5.2 111.5,-48.5
φ
5.3 100.0,-51.9
χ
5.3 101.5,-58.5
ψ
5.4 137.7,-57.3
ω
5.4 130.4,-58.2

64 ◒
SILPHIUM (Sil)
laserwort
(Ferula tingitana)
✝ 2,000 years ago

The last known stalk was given to Emperor Nero. As stories, some have said that he used Silphium as kindle to a larger fire.

Shape: 3/8 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.3 115.9,-50.1
β
2.9 114.5,-52.0
γ
3.1 116.2,-51.2
δ
3.9 113.9,-52.8
ε
4.1 114.8,-51.3
ζ
4.5 113.1,-50.5
η
5.0 114.9,-50.8
θ
5.6 114.9,-50.9

65 ◒
SIVATHERIUM (Siv)
Shiva's beast
(Sivatherium giganteum)
✝ Pliocene, Holocene

Shape: 5/577 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.3 -4.3,-39.4
β
2.3 -2.4,-22.7
γ
2.7 10.0,-28.9
δ
2.8 5.9,-31.0
ε
3.1 9.1,-30.2
ζ
3.1 13.4,-17.1
η
3.2 0.8,-18.7
θ
3.2 13.3,-26.4
ι
3.2 4.2,-16.2
κ
3.3 4.8,-23.1
λ
3.5 2.1,-33.6
μ
3.5 -6.6,-21.5
ν
3.5 14.3,-10.8
ξ
3.5 -4.8,-39.8
ο
3.5 11.1,-24.7
π
3.5 -2.4,-16.7
ρ
3.5 9.3,-14.7
ς
3.6 -4.4,-31.0
σ
3.8 8.1,-15.3
τ
3.8 -0.3,-15.0
υ
3.8 -1.1,-35.6
φ
3.9 -6.2,-13.8
χ
4.0 6.2,-28.6
ψ
4.1 5.0,-12.2
ω
4.1 13.0,-11.7

66 ◒
SPELAEA (Spe)
Eurasian cave lion
(Panthera leo spelaea)
✝ 12,400 years ago

Shape: 6/202 stars, 6 edges.

α
0.7 61.9,-55.7
β
1.3 80.6,-65.7
γ
1.6 47.3,-57.3
δ
2.4 70.5,-71.4
ε
2.8 53.0,-66.2
ζ
3.1 43.5,-60.4
η
3.1 40.3,-76.6
θ
3.3 65.7,-67.3
ι
3.6 86.9,-59.8
κ
3.7 60.8,-72.8
λ
3.8 91.5,-63.8
μ
3.8 78.9,-59.9
ν
3.8 66.0,-72.5
ξ
3.8 82.4,-71.8
ο
3.9 80.7,-58.1
π
3.9 62.9,-77.0
ρ
3.9 77.6,-59.9
ς
3.9 67.3,-68.9
σ
3.9 41.5,-63.9
τ
4.0 68.1,-75.7
υ
4.0 59.2,-75.4
φ
4.1 41.3,-58.8
χ
4.1 76.4,-61.4
ψ
4.1 85.9,-57.9
ω
4.2 74.0,-68.4

67 ◒
SWAMPHEN (Swa)
Réunion swamphen
(Porphyrio coerulescens)
✝ 18th century

Swamphen is delighted to have a diacritical mark in its name, a characteristic shared only by the whēkau, who resides in the northern hemisphere and the ʻōʻō (Moho braccatus) who lives just to the north.

Shape: 3/19 stars, 2 edges.

α
3.1 106.3,-75.2
β
3.4 95.3,-70.7
γ
3.5 101.6,-76.1
δ
4.0 95.2,-65.2
ε
4.7 117.2,-80.0
ζ
4.8 96.7,-74.5
η
4.9 115.9,-69.2
θ
4.9 114.3,-67.0
ι
5.0 106.1,-65.7
κ
5.1 109.8,-71.0
λ
5.2 117.9,-69.9
μ
5.3 95.0,-67.7
ν
5.8 95.3,-65.5
ξ
6.3 114.9,-70.5
ο
6.6 114.5,-72.9
π
6.7 105.5,-65.1
ρ
6.7 114.5,-71.1
ς
6.8 99.2,-66.9
σ
7.1 115.3,-67.3

68 ◒
TADORNA (Tad)
Crested shelduck
(Tadorna cristata)
✝ ?

Rumor has it Tadorna may have snuck into the sky without permission—while not seen since the 1960’s, some say the duck isn’t extinct.

Shape: 3/31 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 162.9, -8.7
β
2.3 162.6,-11.2
γ
2.5 164.7, -5.7
δ
2.8 163.8,-12.8
ε
3.4 166.0, -6.0
ζ
3.6 168.8, -5.3
η
3.7 174.1, -7.1
θ
3.7 168.5,-17.1
ι
3.8 158.7,-14.7
κ
4.3 179.6,-11.2
λ
4.7 162.0, -7.2
μ
4.8 168.2, -5.7
ν
4.8 178.4,-12.3
ξ
4.8 160.7,-14.2
ο
4.8 162.1,-18.0
π
4.9 169.0,-13.3
ρ
5.1 162.0,-17.3
ς
5.4 165.3, -6.4
σ
5.8 179.8,-11.4
τ
5.8 156.1, -9.3
υ
5.9 158.8,-14.2
φ
6.0 158.7,-18.2
χ
6.0 169.3, -6.0
ψ
6.0 161.4, -8.5
ω
6.1 169.8, -3.1

69 ◒
TECOPA (Tec)
Tecopa pupfish
(Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae)
✝ 1979

Tecopa can tolerate heat, which allows him to escape from Megalodon, who will not chase Tecopa through the hot springs.

Shape: 4/100 stars, 3 edges.

α
0.4 102.1,-41.8
β
0.6 108.9,-43.2
γ
1.2 122.3,-37.8
δ
1.2 96.7,-32.2
ε
2.4 98.6,-43.5
ζ
2.6 110.2,-41.0
η
2.8 110.9,-34.7
θ
2.9 126.4,-40.2
ι
3.1 119.0,-33.0
κ
3.2 105.2,-34.3
λ
3.4 112.6,-36.6
μ
3.6 101.2,-42.9
ν
3.6 97.0,-33.0
ξ
3.6 104.0,-33.0
ο
3.7 102.5,-43.0
π
3.7 107.9,-40.5
ρ
3.7 100.2,-41.7
ς
3.8 120.1,-41.8
σ
3.9 113.1,-37.3
τ
4.1 97.8,-47.2
υ
4.2 105.6,-44.8
φ
4.2 116.4,-32.5
χ
4.2 115.2,-28.5
ψ
4.2 96.6,-31.4
ω
4.3 111.8,-44.7

70 ◒
THYLACINE (Thy)
Tasmanian tiger
(Thylacinus cynocephalus)
✝ 1936

The last of its kind was shot by Willem Dafoe in the movie The Hunter. To this day, the Thylacine can be seen screaming in the sky.

Shape: 10/2205 stars, 9 edges.

α
1.4 -74.9,-29.9
β
1.5 -61.7,-28.9
γ
2.0 -88.6,-47.6
δ
2.3 -95.4,-50.1
ε
2.5 -65.8,-32.6
ζ
3.2 -63.4,-41.6
η
3.2 -83.9,-30.8
θ
3.2 -59.7,-28.1
ι
3.2 -77.0,-48.1
κ
3.4 -58.1,-25.3
λ
3.4 -80.9,-51.5
μ
3.4 -53.4,-32.6
ν
3.4 -71.8,-19.5
ξ
3.4 -71.3,-20.6
ο
3.5 -106.1,-51.6
π
3.5 -53.8,-31.0
ρ
3.6 -85.3,-37.5
ς
3.7 -59.4,-22.0
σ
3.7 -69.6,-20.6
τ
3.7 -74.3,-43.1
υ
3.8 -56.1,-33.5
φ
3.9 -83.8,-46.3
χ
3.9 -81.6,-32.0
ψ
3.9 -89.9,-31.8
ω
3.9 -94.1,-44.6

71 ●
TRAVERSIA (Tra)
Stephens Island wren
(Traversia lyalli)
✝ 1895?

Shape: 3/481 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.8 -92.3, -3.3
β
3.4 -99.8, 0.5
γ
3.9 -98.9, -5.9
δ
3.9 -97.0, -6.5
ε
3.9 -101.7, -8.0
ζ
4.2 -92.6, -2.9
η
4.3 -101.1, 0.1
θ
4.4 -97.9, -5.4
ι
4.4 -96.6, -0.9
κ
4.5 -90.8, -8.3
λ
4.5 -98.6, -3.8
μ
4.5 -95.6, -7.1
ν
4.6 -94.5, -5.7
ξ
4.6 -92.6, 1.2
ο
4.6 -97.3, -1.4
π
4.7 -93.6, -3.8
ρ
4.7 -101.3, -3.4
ς
4.7 -93.9, -4.7
σ
4.7 -91.0, 1.3
τ
4.8 -97.6, -7.3
υ
4.8 -95.9, -2.5
φ
4.9 -91.3, -9.7
χ
4.9 -97.3, -7.7
ψ
4.9 -92.5, -5.0
ω
4.9 -93.9, -5.5

72 ◓
TREX (Tre)
Tyrant lizard
(Tyrannosaurus rex)
✝ late Cretaceous

Trex is unhappy because he's such a tiny constellation -- he's barely eaten!

Shape: 5/40 stars, 4 edges.

α
2.6 -47.2, 45.4
β
2.6 -53.3, 48.4
γ
2.8 -40.8, 53.5
δ
2.9 -42.3, 64.0
ε
3.1 -42.8, 53.6
ζ
3.4 -45.1, 58.3
η
3.4 -42.1, 50.5
θ
3.5 -57.8, 60.9
ι
3.9 -39.5, 51.9
κ
3.9 -54.3, 47.0
λ
4.0 -45.0, 55.0
μ
4.3 -44.7, 64.8
ν
4.5 -41.8, 58.4
ξ
4.6 -36.6, 58.2
ο
4.6 -43.9, 48.9
π
4.7 -59.8, 63.6
ρ
4.7 -54.5, 43.9
ς
4.8 -42.3, 54.9
σ
4.9 -43.9, 60.9
τ
5.2 -42.0, 45.9
υ
5.4 -53.1, 66.3
φ
5.5 -58.6, 48.1
χ
5.5 -55.1, 49.9
ψ
5.5 -56.6, 46.4
ω
5.6 -36.3, 58.8

73 ◒
TROODON (Tro)
Troodon
(Troodon formosus)
✝ late Cretaceous

Shape: 6/71 stars, 5 edges.

α
2.0 131.1,-35.9
β
2.1 124.4,-29.9
γ
2.3 151.0,-23.3
δ
2.6 143.2,-28.3
ε
2.9 140.3,-20.6
ζ
2.9 135.5,-45.1
η
3.0 142.5,-22.4
θ
3.1 154.3,-39.0
ι
3.4 138.3,-39.6
κ
3.4 147.7,-34.7
λ
3.4 146.3,-40.7
μ
3.6 129.3,-31.7
ν
3.6 136.8,-31.5
ξ
3.6 145.7,-21.6
ο
3.6 150.1,-39.7
π
3.6 133.8,-49.2
ρ
3.7 143.9,-26.5
ς
3.7 132.4,-20.8
σ
3.8 125.3,-33.8
τ
3.8 144.5,-31.2
υ
3.8 126.1,-27.4
φ
3.8 130.2,-22.3
χ
3.9 151.8,-27.5
ψ
3.9 147.3,-49.0
ω
4.0 145.5,-37.4

74 ●
URANIA (Ura)
Sloane's urania
(Urania sloanus)
✝ 1894-1908

Shape: 6/751 stars, 5 edges.

α
1.4 110.8, 7.1
β
1.6 112.9, -4.5
γ
2.1 122.1, 0.2
δ
2.5 123.8, -8.4
ε
2.5 120.6, 6.4
ζ
2.5 118.1, -8.1
η
2.5 116.4, 6.6
θ
2.8 123.6, -9.8
ι
2.9 115.8,-11.8
κ
2.9 124.3,-11.1
λ
3.0 103.2,-14.9
μ
3.1 115.0, 5.1
ν
3.2 115.0,-10.5
ξ
3.5 102.7, -8.1
ο
3.6 107.2, -4.9
π
3.6 109.3, -1.0
ρ
3.7 114.7,-11.2
ς
3.7 103.7,-14.8
σ
3.8 102.6, 4.4
τ
3.9 115.7, 8.0
υ
4.0 120.5, -7.2
φ
4.1 110.0, 2.9
χ
4.1 103.2,-17.4
ψ
4.1 123.4, 4.2
ω
4.2 120.4, 4.1

75 ◓
URSUS (Urs)
Cave bear
(Ursus spelaeus)
✝ 24,000 years ago

Shape: 7/462 stars, 7 edges.

α
0.3 -76.5, 26.5
β
0.7 -84.8, 24.8
γ
2.3 -64.6, 19.6
δ
2.7 -66.6, 23.7
ε
2.7 -69.1, 26.5
ζ
2.9 -84.4, 15.3
η
2.9 -87.5, 22.0
θ
3.0 -61.4, 22.2
ι
3.0 -84.9, 22.4
κ
3.2 -57.8, 23.1
λ
3.2 -93.4, 16.5
μ
3.3 -64.0, 25.3
ν
3.3 -76.1, 18.9
ξ
3.3 -87.8, 15.6
ο
3.3 -60.7, 25.7
π
3.4 -90.6, 23.1
ρ
3.4 -86.3, 22.6
ς
3.4 -60.3, 23.6
σ
3.4 -68.2, 16.6
τ
3.4 -76.7, 18.4
υ
3.5 -89.2, 24.3
φ
3.6 -90.1, 20.4
χ
3.7 -85.2, 15.1
ψ
3.8 -72.7, 28.3
ω
3.8 -79.7, 16.7

76 ◓
VALERIANELLA (Val)
Varianella
(Varianella affinis)
✝ ?

Some members of the genus are not extinct and enjoy being called "corn salad" even though they have never seen a salad.

Shape: 4/1313 stars, 3 edges.

α
1.6 167.6, 58.4
β
2.1 168.0, 68.4
γ
2.5 178.5, 38.4
δ
2.9 166.3, 42.4
ε
2.9 171.1, 43.8
ζ
3.0 168.5, 50.6
η
3.0 157.4, 60.5
θ
3.2 180.0, 62.4
ι
3.3 170.8, 58.2
κ
3.4 158.3, 35.4
λ
3.4 167.1, 72.6
μ
3.5 161.5, 74.2
ν
3.5 161.5, 54.5
ξ
3.5 170.8, 59.8
ο
3.5 157.3, 46.2
π
3.5 164.3, 67.1
ρ
3.6 156.2, 46.5
ς
3.7 169.7, 46.0
σ
3.7 172.5, 52.8
τ
3.7 157.9, 68.3
υ
3.8 163.2, 37.4
φ
3.8 160.3, 54.0
χ
3.9 175.2, 46.6
ψ
3.9 171.0, 50.0
ω
4.0 156.3, 43.9

77 ◓
WHĒKAU (Whe)
Laughing owl
(Sceloglaux albifacies)
✝ 1914

Some say that whēkau can still be heard. Perhaps the joke is on us?

Shape: 3/57 stars, 2 edges.

α
2.7 152.8, 12.5
β
3.0 151.2, 12.4
γ
3.2 157.7, 17.2
δ
3.6 153.7, 8.3
ε
3.6 150.4, 13.8
ζ
3.8 156.5, 15.1
η
4.3 158.8, 14.6
θ
4.3 156.4, 8.8
ι
4.3 153.2, 7.3
κ
4.5 159.8, 15.8
λ
4.5 156.9, 16.8
μ
4.5 154.2, 9.2
ν
4.6 155.4, 13.8
ξ
4.8 152.0, 15.9
ο
4.8 152.5, 17.0
π
4.8 156.4, 11.3
ρ
4.9 159.0, 18.6
ς
4.9 156.4, 12.1
σ
5.0 156.0, 18.7
τ
5.2 156.6, 8.6
υ
5.2 156.4, 19.7
φ
5.2 156.3, 5.5
χ
5.3 156.9, 18.6
ψ
5.3 157.4, 11.5
ω
5.3 159.7, 15.6

78 ◒
XERCES (Xer)
Xerces blue
(Glaucopsyche xerces)
✝ 1941

Brilliant blue butterfly in the dark blue sky. Xerces is the only thing that is bluer than the sky itself. Some say that butterflies are flying flowers and Xerces is never far from Palaeoaldrovanda. He must be careful though. Rumor has it Palaeoaldrovanda was related to the carnivorous plant genus Aldrovanda! Nobody wants to take that chance.

Shape: 8/1299 stars, 8 edges.

α
2.1 21.9,-51.9
β
2.4 8.1,-44.3
γ
2.6 13.0,-45.1
δ
2.6 26.7,-46.1
ε
2.8 18.6,-36.0
ζ
2.9 15.4,-40.4
η
2.9 20.5,-42.7
θ
3.1 19.3,-49.0
ι
3.2 9.3,-35.4
κ
3.7 21.4,-43.6
λ
3.8 9.6,-48.5
μ
3.8 25.2,-28.7
ν
3.9 16.0,-25.5
ξ
3.9 28.9,-38.3
ο
4.0 29.8,-43.0
π
4.0 21.1,-50.8
ρ
4.1 20.4,-25.3
ς
4.1 25.6,-44.5
σ
4.1 11.3,-36.5
τ
4.1 9.4,-42.8
υ
4.2 19.8,-26.4
φ
4.2 27.4,-29.9
χ
4.2 16.5,-26.2
ψ
4.3 17.0,-54.0
ω
4.3 14.7,-39.9

79 ◓
YERSINIA (Yer)
Black death
(Yersinia pestis)
✝ ?

Don't let Yersinia's small size fool you. The Black Death may be the smallest creature in the sky, but she'll liquify your insides before you can memorize the 80 constellations. Perhaps out of all the creatures in the sky, this is the one we're happy to see go. But, because it's small, you can never be quite sure Yersinia isn't extinct but merely hiding. Or waiting.

Shape: 3/418 stars, 3 edges.

α
2.7 95.5, 20.2
β
2.8 94.7, 19.1
γ
3.1 93.0, 18.8
δ
3.3 91.4, 19.8
ε
3.3 93.3, 22.1
ζ
3.3 91.8, 18.3
η
3.6 93.3, 18.3
θ
3.7 97.0, 12.9
ι
4.0 91.0, 16.7
κ
4.0 95.6, 17.8
λ
4.1 90.6, 15.5
μ
4.1 92.7, 15.4
ν
4.2 91.7, 18.5
ξ
4.3 97.5, 23.2
ο
4.4 88.6, 22.9
π
4.4 94.9, 23.3
ρ
4.5 89.5, 20.9
ς
4.5 96.6, 11.8
σ
4.6 91.7, 20.6
τ
4.6 92.0, 14.6
υ
4.7 89.2, 20.7
φ
4.7 97.4, 11.6
χ
4.8 92.2, 25.8
ψ
4.9 92.3, 27.7
ω
4.9 95.3, 13.1

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

Happy 2021 `\pi` Day—
A forest of digits

Sun 14-03-2021

Celebrate `\pi` Day (March 14th) and finally see the digits through the forest.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 26th tree in the digit forest of `\pi`. Why is there a flower on the ground?. (details)

This year is full of botanical whimsy. A Lindenmayer system forest – deterministic but always changing. Feel free to stop and pick the flowers from the ground.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The first 46 digits of `\pi` in 8 trees. There are so many more. (details)

And things can get crazy in the forest.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A forest of the digits of '\pi`, by ecosystem. (details)

Check out art from previous years: 2013 `\pi` Day and 2014 `\pi` Day, 2015 `\pi` Day, 2016 `\pi` Day, 2017 `\pi` Day, 2018 `\pi` Day and 2019 `\pi` Day.

Testing for rare conditions

Tue 16-03-2021

All that glitters is not gold. —W. Shakespeare

The sensitivity and specificity of a test do not necessarily correspond to its error rate. This becomes critically important when testing for a rare condition — a test with 99% sensitivity and specificity has an even chance of being wrong when the condition prevalence is 1%.

We discuss the positive predictive value (PPV) and how practices such as screen can increase it.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Testing for rare conditions. (read)

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2021) Points of significance: Testing for rare conditions. Nature Methods 18

Standardization fallacy

Tue 09-02-2021

We demand rigidly defined areas of doubt and uncertainty! —D. Adams

A popular notion about experiments is that it's good to keep variability in subjects low to limit the influence of confounding factors. This is called standardization.

Unfortunately, although standardization increases power, it can induce unrealistically low variability and lead to results that do not generalize to the population of interest. And, in fact, may be irreproducible.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Standardization fallacy. (read)

Not paying attention to these details and thinking (or hoping) that standardization is always good is the "standardization fallacy". In this column, we look at how standardization can be balanced with heterogenization to avoid this thorny issue.

Voelkl, B., Würbel, H., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2021) Points of significance: Standardization fallacy. Nature Methods 18:5–6.

Graphical Abstract Design Guidelines

Fri 13-11-2020

Clear, concise, legible and compelling.

Making a scientific graphical abstract? Refer to my practical design guidelines and redesign examples to improve organization, design and clarity of your graphical abstracts.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Graphical Abstract Design Guidelines — Clear, concise, legible and compelling.

"This data might give you a migrane"

Tue 06-10-2020

An in-depth look at my process of reacting to a bad figure — how I design a poster and tell data stories.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A poster of high BMI and obesity prevalence for 185 countries.

He said, he said — a word analysis of the 2020 Presidential Debates

Thu 01-10-2020

Building on the method I used to analyze the 2008, 2012 and 2016 U.S. Presidential and Vice Presidential debates, I explore word usagein the 2020 Debates between Donald Trump and Joe Biden.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Analysis of word usage by parts of speech for Trump and Biden reveals insight into each candidate.