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visualization + math

The 2022 π Day art is a music album composed by Greg Coles for solo piano. It tells stories from the very beginning (314…) to the very (known) end of π (…264) as well as math (Wallis Product) and math jokes (Feynman Point), repetition (nn) and zeroes (null).

`\pi` Day 2018 Art Posters - Stitched city road maps from around the world


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2021 `\pi` reminds us that good things grow for those who wait.' edition.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day stitches street maps into new destinations.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day imagines the sky in a new way.


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day wonders what would happen if about right was right.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day sees digits really fall for each other.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day maps transcendentally.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day spirals into roughness.


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day hypnotizes you into looking.

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day is where it started

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art and other distractions

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Most of the art is available for purchase as framed prints and, yes, even pillows. Sleep's never been more important — I take custom requests.

And if you've got to sleep a moment on the road
I will steer for you
And if you want to work the street alone
I'll disappear for you
—Leonard Cohen (I'm Your Man)

This year's is the 30th anniversary of `\pi` day. The theme of the art is bridging the world and making friends. So myself I again team up with my long-time friend and collaborator Jake Lever. I worled with Jake on the snowflake catalogue, where we build a world of flakes.

And so, this year we also build a world. We start with all the roads in the world and stitch them together in brand new ways. And if you walk more than 1 km in this world, you'll likely to be transported somewhere completely different.

This year's `\pi` day song is Trance Groove: Paris. Why? Because it's worth to go to new places—real or imagined.

city strips

Amsterdam,Bangkok,Beijing,Berlin,Copenhagen,Edinburgh,Hong Kong,Johannesburg,Marrakesh and Melbourne


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 10 digits of `\pi`. City strips for Amsterdam, Bangkok, Beijing, Berlin, Copenhagen, Edinburgh, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Marrakesh and Melbourne. (BUY ARTWORK)

Moscow,Mumbai,Nairobi,New Delhi,Nice,Prague,Rome,Stockholm,Vancouver and Warsaw


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 10 digits of `\pi`. City strips for Moscow, Mumbai, Nairobi, New Delhi, Nice, Prague, Rome, Stockholm, Vancouver and Warsaw. (BUY ARTWORK)

Barcelona,Cairo,Dublin,Lisbon,Los Angeles,New York,Paris,San Francisco,Saint Petersburg and Vienna


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 10 digits of `\pi`. City strips for Barcelona, Cairo, Dublin, Lisbon, Los Angeles, New York, Paris, San Francisco, Saint Petersburg and Vienna. (BUY ARTWORK)

Buenos Aires,Doha,Jakarta,Madrid,Mexico City,Osaka,Sao Paolo,Shanghai,Sydney and Toronto


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 10 digits of `\pi`. City strips for Buenos Aires, Doha, Jakarta, Madrid, Mexico City, Osaka, Sao Paolo, Shanghai, Sydney and Toronto. (BUY ARTWORK)

boonies, burbs and boutiques


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
The boonies, burbs and boutiques of `\pi`. Progressively denser patches of streets from various cities smoothly progress from nowhere to somewhere. (BUY ARTWORK)

world patches

10 cities

Berlin,Cairo,Hong Kong,London,Moscow,New York,Paris,Rome,Sydney and Tokyo


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Berlin, Cairo, Hong Kong, London, Moscow, New York, Paris, Rome, Sydney and Tokyo. (BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Berlin, Cairo, Hong Kong, London, Moscow, New York, Paris, Rome, Sydney and Tokyo. (BUY ARTWORK)

Amsterdam,Copenhagen,Dublin,Istanbul,Lisbon,Madrid,Melbourne,Nice,Prague and San Francisco.


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Dublin, Istanbul, Lisbon, Madrid, Melbourne, Nice, Prague and San Francisco. (BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Dublin, Istanbul, Lisbon, Madrid, Melbourne, Nice, Prague and San Francisco. (BUY ARTWORK)

Amsterdam,Doha,Marrakesh,Mumbai,Nairobi,Rome,San Francisco,Seoul,Shanghai and Vancouver


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Amsterdam, Doha, Marrakesh, Mumbai, Nairobi, Rome, San Francisco, Seoul, Shanghai and Vancouver (BUY ARTWORK)

Dublin,Istanbul,Lisbon,Marrakesh,Osaka,Paris,Prague,Sydney,Vancouver and Vienna


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Dublin, Istanbul, Lisbon, Marrakesh, Osaka, Paris, Prague, Sydney, Vancouver and Vienna (BUY ARTWORK)

2 cities

Melbourne and Nice


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Melbourne and Nice. (BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Melbourne and Nice. (BUY ARTWORK)

Paris and Prague


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Paris and Prague. (BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Paris and Prague. (BUY ARTWORK)

Bangkok and Sao Paolo


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Bangkok and Sao Paolo. (zoom)

Berlin and Jakarta


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Berlin and Jakarta. (zoom)

Berlin and Mumbai


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Berlin and Mumbai. (zoom)

Cairo and Istanbul


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Cairo and Istanbul. (zoom)

Cairo and Jakarta


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Cairo and Jakarta. (zoom)

Doha and Lisbon


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Doha and Lisbon. (zoom)

Dublin and Istanbul


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Dublin and Istanbul. (zoom)

Dublin and Mumbai


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Dublin and Mumbai. (zoom)

Hong Kong and Jakarta


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Hong Kong and Jakarta. (zoom)

Istanbul and Paris


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Istanbul and Paris. (zoom)

Jakarta and San Francisco


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Jakarta and San Francisco. (zoom)

Johannesburg and Marrakesh


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Johannesburg and Marrakesh. (zoom)

Johannesburg and Nice


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Johannesburg and Nice. (zoom)

Lisbon and Seoul


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Lisbon and Seoul. (zoom)

Marrakesh and New Delhi


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Marrakesh and New Delhi. (zoom)

Marrakesh and Tokyo


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Marrakesh and Tokyo. (zoom)

Mumbai and Nairobi


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Mumbai and Nairobi. (zoom)

Mumbai and Vancouver


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Mumbai and Vancouver. (zoom)

Toronto and Vienna


Pi Day 2018 Art Posters  - Stitched city road maps from around the world
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
On the road with 36 digits of `\pi`. A world patch using Toronto and Vienna. (zoom)
news + thoughts

Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring

Mon 21-11-2022

If you sit on the sofa for your entire life, you’re running a higher risk of getting heart disease and cancer. —Alex Honnold, American rock climber

In a follow-up to our Survival analysis — time-to-event data and censoring article, we look at how regression can be used to account for additional risk factors in survival analysis.

We explore accelerated failure time regression (AFTR) and the Cox Proportional Hazards model (Cox PH).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. Nature Methods 19.

Music video for Max Cooper's Ascent

Tue 25-10-2022

My 5-dimensional animation sets the visual stage for Max Cooper's Ascent from the album Unspoken Words. I have previously collaborated with Max on telling a story about infinity for his Yearning for the Infinite album.

I provide a walkthrough the video, describe the animation system I created to generate the frames, and show you all the keyframes

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Frame 4897 from the music video of Max Cooper's Asent.

The video recently premiered on YouTube.

Renders of the full scene are available as NFTs.

Gene Cultures exhibit — art at the MIT Museum

Tue 25-10-2022

I am more than my genome and my genome is more than me.

The MIT Museum reopened at its new location on 2nd October 2022. The new Gene Cultures exhibit featured my visualization of the human genome, which walks through the size and organization of the genome and some of the important structures.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My art at the MIT Museum Gene Cultures exhibit tells shows the scale and structure of the human genome. Pay no attention to the pink chicken.

Annals of Oncology cover

Wed 14-09-2022

My cover design on the 1 September 2022 Annals of Oncology issue shows 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers. Each case shows the number and type of actionable genomic alterations that were detected and the length of therapies that resulted from the analysis.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
An organic arrangement of 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers showing genomic changes and therapies. Apperas on Annals of Oncology cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022).

Pleasance E et al. Whole-genome and transcriptome analysis enhances precision cancer treatment options (2022) Annals of Oncology 33:939–949.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Annals of Oncology 570 cancer cohort cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring

Fri 05-08-2022

Love's the only engine of survival. —L. Cohen

We begin a series on survival analysis in the context of its two key complications: skew (which calls for the use of probability distributions, such as the Weibull, that can accomodate skew) and censoring (required because we almost always fail to observe the event in question for all subjects).

We discuss right, left and interval censoring and how mishandling censoring can lead to bias and loss of sensitivity in tests that probe for differences in survival times.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. Nature Methods 19:906–908.

3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps

Sun 21-08-2022

See How Scientists Put Together the Complete Human Genome.

My graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the August 2022 issue shows the full history of the human genome assembly — from its humble shotgun beginnings to the gapless telomere-to-telomere assembly.

Read about the process and methods behind the creation of the graphic.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps. Text by Clara Moskowitz (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: UCSC Genome Browser.

See all my Scientific American Graphic Science visualizations.


© 1999–2022 Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA