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# words: lettery

DNA on 10th — street art, wayfinding and font

# Dark Matter of the English Language—the unwords

Words are easy, like the wind;
Faithful friends are hard to find.
—William Shakespeare

These are maladies sampled from my list of about 883,500 English unwords.

Medical jargon has never been so opaque.

### phobias

Don't feel like going to that party? It could be a conveniently timed attack of ictophobia or myconomascophobia.

—9—
abophobia
beophobia
cgyphobia
deophobia
epophobia
etaphobia
kanphobia
miophobia
—10—
alraphobia
beexphobia
bemophobia
cemophobia
cetophobia
dalophobia
degephobia
eccophobia
eedophobia
ficaphobia
galophobia
ganyphobia
helophobia
hilophobia
ictophobia
illyphobia
kelophobia
manophobia
menophobia
oxiophobia
perophobia
pisophobia
tegophobia
tenophobia
—11—
acctophobia
alonophobia
beonyphobia
beprephobia
caanophobia
cachophobia
deginphobia
deinephobia
ecquephobia
egycaphobia
geceophobia
geneophobia
inymophobia
iponephobia
kennophobia
lleiophobia
mactophobia
maenephobia
oeriophobia
optigphobia
paliophobia
parrophobia
reglophobia
scavophobia
starophobia
taloaphobia
teonaphobia
—12—
antotophobia
begatophobia
birroophobia
cabolophobia
canchophobia
dachoiphobia
debriophobia
elimiaphobia
enconophobia
fansoaphobia
fatenophobia
gedicophobia
gercomphobia
heralephobia
hyscrophobia
inchrophobia
ingonophobia
konetophobia
lamphophobia
lepinophobia
menoxiphobia
mezalophobia
neponophobia
oppetophobia
parkiophobia
preotaphobia
saconophobia
temphophobia
tilophphobia
uemanaphobia
vobitophobia
—13—
achythophobia
acteliophobia
becrosophobia
benoprophobia
cembaniphobia
chegenophobia
dambotophobia
denyarophobia
ecenytophobia
eerichophobia
fatenylphobia
galarsophobia
gannotophobia
hotoidophobia
iconopephobia
inbictophobia
kentylophobia
mallygophobia
manismyphobia
nonditophobia
oophalaphobia
ototarophobia
peltosaphobia
penconophobia
rechapophobia
rechorophobia
stimotophobia
stomosophobia
testanophobia
thidotophobia
vertulophobia
—14—
ancometophobia
antionsyphobia
cenctopaphobia
cheinonophobia
dempabiophobia
denolaryphobia
ecenytrophobia
edalycrophobia
gebrocomphobia
geoparyophobia
heegoscophobia
hindancophobia
ichicotyphobia
ideuschophobia
maromaniphobia
myolegrophobia
octonenophobia
onechotophobia
persectophobia
phetholyphobia

And here are some very long fears. I'm sure that one of these is the fear of long fears.

### fires in the brain

Those thoughts you're having might not be yours. It could be talmatomania.

—7—
demania
gomania
namania
—8—
diomania
dipmania
fermania
giomania
maomania
peomania
thomania
—9—
agnymania
benamania
brepmania
calemania
capumania
dipamania
disomania
egzomania
expomania
facomania
galamania
gamemania
hytomania
iglimania
ihyomania
ledimania
macemania
mallmania
najumania
pedamania
poelmania
susimania
tegomania
tigymania
uztimania
vicimania
—10—
agniomania
ampiamania
besmomania
ceedomania
centomania
deglimania
deykomania
eodaimania
fathemania
fertomania
galarmania
geolemania
inasamania
inorimania
leliomania
maaromania
mariomania
nedramania
nodiomania
plolomania
precamania
sereimania
tachymania
tattomania
viliomania
—11—
acculamania
antisumania
beedromania
beranimania
cemchomania
chetiomania
degonomania
demitemania
endonomania
eyleromania
flodiomania
gastdomania
gelyzymania
ingatomania
lamphomania
lamphymania
malatomania
maracamania
opostomania
perciomania
prathomania
teouromania
tieanomania
—12—
anchodymania
anchonomania
cirminomania
conchromania
degotrsmania
demminomania
encoctomania
eyotoxomania
gremgormania
mardisimania
mibeliomania
parmulamania
pestriomania
talmatomania
thyminomania
wirgilamania
—13—
bepporanmania
berandromania
caconylymania
calebitomania
deborphomania
icepatromania
inferonomania
megazidomania
pecatisomania
peribacomania
seergenamania
stentosomania

### stuff is definitely wrong

I'm not sure what's going on, but it might be an acute attack of ophalosis or that chronic icabulosis you've been struggling with.

—5—
cosis
gosis
iosis
mosis
—6—
axosis
buosis
byosis
ciosis
coosis
diosis
ecosis
egosis
feosis
geosis
idosis
irosis
keosis
meosis
moosis
pathyc
pathym
taosis
tiosis
—7—
algiang
algiate
bedosis
beeosis
calgias
cavosis
dehosis
didosis
edosist
eemosis
facosis
ferosis
galosis
gasosis
hedosis
hemosis
ichosis
idaosis
magosis
odiosis
odlosis
panosis
pecosis
roposis
saxosis
tacosis
talosis
vinosis
vorosis
—8—
acshosis
bemposis
benosise
cactosis
caliosis
deagosis
demiosis
ecosises
egglosis
fattosis
fedlosis
gareosis
gariosis
harrosis
helposis
icerosis
ichnosis
leliosis
macosism
mactosis
nefkosis
neocosis
obbiosis
ocirosis
pathybic
pathymia
rechosis
tachosis
tendosis
—9—
acctrosis
acyclosis
balolosis
befalgian
cacacosis
cafulosis
danknosis
decarosis
echenosis
econeosis
falgnosis
fanulosis
gabarosis
galoxosis
heepathyl
hegriosis
icemosism
ichapathy
kelutosis
kenatosis
lamomosis
lebytosis
mabacosis
macalosis
nenylosis
nercrosis
odiosises
olohosism
panosises
partosism
quoetosis
regoosism
rhagnosis
saconosis
saumalgia
tacopathy
talthosis
undylosis
vhilalgia
vhinnosis
—10—
acaporosis
aceutiosis
bariakosis
becrotosis
cabesmosis
cachinosis
daiocrosis
daiphyosis
ecraniosis
eeminalgia
falogiosis
fedophosis
gaggonosis
gamancosis
heltonosis
heniflosis
icabulosis
icayulosis
kasphosise
kemoptosis
lephanosis
maccolosis
macosistic
namancosis
neocosises
oditopathy
omosinosis
palanrosis
panhidosis
rechoposis
rechosises
segiphosis
setactosis
taronosism
unodylosis
vhitatosis
vhoripathy
—11—
acdioenosis
actypyrosis
ballfrosise
becosistate
cacymalosis
caliphiosis
dalmatosise
dalomicosis
econeosises
ecrpharosis
facunolosis
gacochrosis
heleignosis
helipolosis
ibbiognosis
ichabolosis
jabimarosis
kedamirosis
kelodialgia
lelidalosis
macolobosis
macomycosis
nacocynosis
nectianosis
octoperosis
octorsposis
palevomosis
palygulosis
recocolosis
reglogyosis
sabrichosis
saconosises
teclagnosis
tellodrosis
untochosise
vurocylosis
—12—
abzibellosis
achythoposis
bakiomatosis
bedolignosis
cabolophosis
caconoacosis
dansepicosis
dantachrosis
ecchonylosis
ecctometosis
fansoaphosis
fentivorosis
gaelopyrosis
ganactomosis
hecthlinosis
hedophonosis
icaneoptosis
icepleitosis
karocalcosis
keloecatosis
lelemosisine
lelephotosis
macophagosis
maerozooosis
naniquinosis
nescroblosis
octorschosis
olethydrosis
pastiosising
pastiosismes
rechopatosis
rechopyrosis
segamethosis
seprorinosis
taronosismic
tedophirosis
venotormosis
vicypartosis
—13—
abobiolanosis
abrophyclosis
bailligirosis
beetheritosis
caccoparcosis
caconylycosis
decantophosis
decretharosis
ecccombulosis
ecyphenolosis
fansoecosises
feritoverosis
gaoduroniosis
gecivericosis
helatosteosis
heneotermosis
icenaronrosis
icernicycosis
kaumebedrosis
kelumbeenosis
lamphymbiosis
lelemosiseous
maelmicolosis
mafectermosis
neodylemnosis
noriotyphosis
octonepidosis
oepetymstosis
paccurognosis
paliascilosis
rerexomatosis
rimipathylene
stammomycosis
stolosibeosis
talhagunnosis
uneloplerosis
unmedunulosis
vhoriolecosis
vyrteobulosis
xlocrodynosis
—14—
acciritorrosis
accorbotolosis
bacocentamosis
becrotenicosis
caliphogniosis
calmicocenosis
danduocardosis
dantachromosis
ectinoliphosis
eggenopertosis
fematosishalle
fenhhaocamosis
galettonemosis
gaslogastrosis
hendimorphosis
henoptermeosis
icliotoidlosis
iddomethemosis
karapiapulosis
kichymarenosis
maccombuscosis
macophomacosis
nercrodidiosis
nondexicalosis
omestospidosis
ooracholosises
pacolimidrosis
pastinooctosis
qansinquirosis
rechanucenosis
saxinifactosis
secrotopolosis
tachomorphosis
vericatorrosis
vhioductylosis

### it's probably just age

Most of these are natural conditions associated with aging. I know mediatopathy definitely is and it always makes my bellotalgia flare up.

—7—
byalgia
—8—
alealgia
dymalgia
gelalgia
mydalgia
myzalgia
tinalgia
—9—
coomalgia
cyonalgia
diptalgia
drycalgia
egyralgia
enaralgia
inoralgia
irivalgia
mochalgia
myolalgia
saumalgia
sempalgia
vhilalgia
—10—
antoralgia
camoxalgia
ceavoalgia
detotalgia
dogosalgia
eeminalgia
goemoalgia
hotodalgia
ictetalgia
opennalgia
paniyalgia
pumonalgia
—11—
bellotalgia
bontaralgia
cicroyalgia
cinodyalgia
digratalgia
diodymalgia
eppersalgia
kelodialgia
progetalgia
pyrponalgia
surianalgia
—12—
artaramalgia
ceminonalgia
chempemalgia
degoestalgia
dehyzydalgia
fidetisalgia
genaroyalgia
geolaycalgia
manchomalgia
oorcastalgia
—13—
conomethalgia
coronydralgia
doiocystalgia
epalanthalgia
keneopatalgia
manciscialgia
merycromalgia
olettrosalgia
oxosinchalgia
phiorhicalgia
proodustalgia

—7—
gepathy
mipathy
pupathy
—8—
dempathy
deopathy
geopathy
oxypathy
penpathy
—9—
antopathy
betopathy
bilypathy
cypopathy
detopathy
dipapathy
endopathy
finypathy
henopathy
ichapathy
inrepathy
manopathy
melopathy
notopathy
orcopathy
oviopathy
phiopathy
prempathy
tacopathy
tebopathy
—10—
acynopathy
biplopathy
cecropathy
cectopathy
deptopathy
deylopathy
egenopathy
eodyopathy
geneopathy
geolopathy
illyopathy
maliopathy
meddopathy
oditopathy
perropathy
phelopathy
vhoripathy
—11—
cherropathy
conchopathy
delphopathy
demylopathy
euchlopathy
helloopathy
omperopathy
phogiopathy
tyoptopathy
—12—
blatalopathy
cepigropathy
comyslopathy
ditheropathy
enceptopathy
mediatopathy
mompulopathy
orchypopathy
perrctopathy
prophropathy
—13—
chaldipopathy
chillitypathy
driboatopathy
miteligipathy

VIEW ALL

# Genome Sciences Center 20th Anniversary Clothing, Music, Drinks and Art

Wed 22-01-2020

Science. Timeliness. Respect.

Read about the design of the clothing, music, drinks and art for the Genome Sciences Center 20th Anniversary Celebration, held on 15 November 2019.

Luke and Mayia wearing limited edition volunteer t-shirts. The pattern reproduces the human genome with chromosomes as spirals. (zoom)

As part of the celebration and with the help of our engineering team, we framed 48 flow cells from the lab.

Precisely engineered frame mounts of flow cells used to sequence genomes in our laboratory. (zoom)

Each flow cell was accompanied by an interpretive plaque explaining the technology behind the flow cell and the sample information and sequence content.

The plaque at the back of one of the framed Illumina flow cell. This one has sequence from a patient's lymph node diagnosed with Burkitt's lymphoma. (zoom)

# Scientific data visualization: Aesthetic for diagrammatic clarity

Mon 13-01-2020

The scientific process works because all its output is empirically constrained.

My chapter from The Aesthetics of Scientific Data Representation, More than Pretty Pictures, in which I discuss the principles of data visualization and connect them to the concept of "quality" introduced by Robert Pirsig in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.

# Yearning for the Infinite — Aleph 2

Mon 18-11-2019

Discover Cantor's transfinite numbers through my music video for the Aleph 2 track of Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite (album page, event page).

Yearning for the Infinite, Max Cooper at the Barbican Hall, London. Track Aleph 2. Video by Martin Krzywinski. Photo by Michal Augustini. (more)

I discuss the math behind the video and the system I built to create the video.

# Hidden Markov Models

Mon 18-11-2019

Everything we see hides another thing, we always want to see what is hidden by what we see.
—Rene Magritte

A Hidden Markov Model extends a Markov chain to have hidden states. Hidden states are used to model aspects of the system that cannot be directly observed and themselves form a Markov chain and each state may emit one or more observed values.

Hidden states in HMMs do not have to have meaning—they can be used to account for measurement errors, compress multi-modal observational data, or to detect unobservable events.

Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Hidden Markov Models. (read)

In this column, we extend the cell growth model from our Markov Chain column to include two hidden states: normal and sedentary.

We show how to calculate forward probabilities that can predict the most likely path through the HMM given an observed sequence.

Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Hidden Markov Models. Nature Methods 16:795–796.

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2019) Points of significance: Markov Chains. Nature Methods 16:663–664.

# Hola Mundo Cover

Sat 21-09-2019

My cover design for Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Published by Blackie Books.

Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Cover design is based on my 2013 $\pi$ day art. (read)

Curious how the design was created? Read the full details.

# Markov Chains

Tue 30-07-2019

You can look back there to explain things,
but the explanation disappears.
You'll never find it there.
Things are not explained by the past.
They're explained by what happens now.
—Alan Watts

A Markov chain is a probabilistic model that is used to model how a system changes over time as a series of transitions between states. Each transition is assigned a probability that defines the chance of the system changing from one state to another.

Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Markov Chains. (read)

Together with the states, these transitions probabilities define a stochastic model with the Markov property: transition probabilities only depend on the current state—the future is independent of the past if the present is known.

Once the transition probabilities are defined in matrix form, it is easy to predict the distribution of future states of the system. We cover concepts of aperiodicity, irreducibility, limiting and stationary distributions and absorption.

This column is the first part of a series and pairs particularly well with Alan Watts and Blond:ish.

Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Markov Chains. Nature Methods 16:663–664.