Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
Drive, driven. Gave, given.YelloGive me a number of games.more quotes

words: fun


Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2020 `\pi` day art and the piku


language + fiction

Dark Matter of the English Language—the unwords

Words are easy, like the wind;
Faithful friends are hard to find.
—William Shakespeare

uncountries

The uncountries are places that don't exist, but perhaps should. If you're starting your own country or are hoping to secede from your current employer (here's looking at you States of the US), you might find this list useful.

The list of uncountries is generated by training on list of 257 countries and territories.

Here's my bucket list of where I'm going next:

  • Conchar and Pobacia
  • Hzuuland
  • New Kain
  • Rabibus and Megee Islands
  • Sentip and Sitina
  • Sinistan
  • Tuskia
  • Urzenia
  • Vontila

Below are the alphabetically first 4–10 letter single-word uncountries for each letter. In some cases, no names of a given length were generated for a given letter.

—4—
Aani
Aemo
Ball
Bang
Cada
Caga
Dafa
Dalr
Eira
Eran
Fani
Fato
Gaar
Gace
Hana
Hhen
Iaou
Inor
Kala
Kani
Lain
Lale
Mabe
Mage
Naom
Nare
Pein
Peis
Ragi
Raiy
Saen
Saic
Taga
Tans
Ucan
Uica
Venr
Viam
—5—
Aalce
Aanie
Babat
Baica
Caane
Cacae
Daaca
Demga
Eamat
Eanda
Fabta
Fania
Gaane
Gaare
Haemy
Harre
Imina
Imoba
Jacin
Jania
Kande
Kangi
Labua
Laiir
Mabia
Maeky
Nague
Nalgo
Paine
Paiti
Qetia
Qiria
Relat
Renir
Sabga
Sabta
Tabia
Tagan
Ucite
Uenha
Vamar
Vanga
Wiady
Zepek
—6—
Aamade
Afanen
Baaira
Baggia
Cabomo
Caemia
Darlye
Darzan
Eagero
Eattas
Faitia
Farado
Gabbak
Gabiai
Hauima
Henlia
Icalin
Iganda
Jaigio
Jartar
KSonko
Kabolo
Labopa
Lacuua
Mabana
Mabiak
Nalgin
Nandar
Ougagu
Paiada
Paldol
Rabgen
Ramgui
Saadae
Sabite
Taikua
Takkia
Udapor
Uermin
Vandes
Vangan
Wantia
Wengan
—7—
Aanigah
Agentan
Bagtera
Baliadi
Caathea
Cabibia
Dahmomo
Dalhais
Ebaniar
Eboniat
Falinha
Falttin
Gaereta
Gainana
Haratan
Hasland
Iafercy
Icrotii
Jelican
Jeliwia
Kanfono
Kargice
Lacitia
Laitgoe
Mabaden
Maellha
Naendia
Nalhind
Onbagin
Pabapua
Pagonia
Rarralo
Rarrkak
SEerral
Sabaida
Taateaa
Tahiria
Uagayas
Ujoland
Vaairta
Valonds
—8—
Aegtomis
Aeirania
Balcosda
Baltages
Cacbilii
Calnaria
Dargonda
Darirnio
Eatisasa
Eeniicia
Femanlan
Ferlanda
Gacterat
Gadeqtam
Hinaniti
Hndiwiun
Ihibiano
Ilriload
JenogRan
Jenorala
Kcinisan
Keberlan
Laenhuan
Lalostia
Mabdadde
Mabhalin
Naitieta
Naltenis
Oinvalia
Orringia
Pajtbava
Palalian
Qerbacon
Raliutan
Raphenla
SDatelan
Sabmutia
Taigonia
Talbiela
Uginbiam
Uityeate
Vasguace
Velentin
—9—
Aiwontmia
Alememter
Bawelilia
Beciradue
Cankeslas
Cansiaila
Dacucania
Elorbhiad
Epubhulon
Fredelapo
Gakgasdan
Gantiulan
Hotutuias
Ilallasda
Imroldian
Jendiulia
Jitgodien
Kemadicis
Kerndhand
Lazekatis
Lectarada
MInledian
Mabertima
Nacasnand
Nadordinh
Palcotiis
Panciland
Raecsatas
Rentelisy
SDirniata
Saentolia
Tarhhaldi
Tarnoigan
Untensian
Vantanira
Ventalica
Wensatial
—10—
Amodedhani
Andhsituia
Badetcinia
Bandesland
Camegessow
Canoniitia
Damalhania
Denwarinia
Ensriitrui
Eremgosdon
Garilsista
Gebticiita
Hatendacan
Hecrapband
Inteniania
Irrhalipan
Kendestand
Lantunutan
Lenkalland
Macgalland
Malbaninis
Namgelasta
Naniheomie
Pamestitia
Pilimintan
Reboteisia
Ricanlands
Sacgsainas
Samanhalaa
Tenheposda
Tezadtinia
Vagioliale
Veuthalian
—11—
Adrelebcima
Amurenoilan
Berniwhpana
Buenaslatda
Catdhtilard
Cerrertoria
Daniacsalon
Eirniatiars
Gaundaniani
Getnicistan
Kiaghbaliaa
Lurolelicam
Madcesladts
Melhellunds
Naporrestan
Niuritantsa
Pebenigisia
Rancitolian
Sarcestalta
Sengrerolia
Varenchales

And below are uncountries that are composed of compound words. The neural network doesn't always do a good job in capitalization.

—6—
Bel Eo
—7—
Ar Neli
Bei Ros
Co Naf,
Es onda
Gob and
Ka -uca
Lex Sen
Mec Len
Se amar
Ton San
—8—
Anru Ran
Baqta Aa
Can Kanc
Dr Belle
Eone Vue
Giinu an
In Gecan
Leen Kon
Mons ald
New Kain
Pobia io
Se Mawan
Tanv Wag
Un Sayth
Vanbo ia
—9—
Arte olia
Ban Tenka
Cui iepes
Dant Sion
Enu Balra
Fem Feriu
Gia honia
Kamen San
Lan Giane
Ma orepan
Nak Manti
Pat Gamia
Saa hetiu
Tar Itlin
Uem Ladde
—10—
Aem Latlia
Banh Cerra
Cairt Aani
Dal Vclcin
Ee Riritan
Gaine Sora
Ken Sonras
Laen Lalor
Mal Rilteh
Nib Carean
Paoth enia
Ran borado
Saed Canua
Tamr eatos
Vamin ores
—11—
Agim Niidea
Baman oshon
Catil Menia
Eil Mitakeo
Freni Niray
Ge Manlando
Jhs Lelland
Ktuct Calia
Leg Saltima
Macan Taman
Namet Gacia
Panan Rerni
Sab Nelieda
Tanc Talind
Vuitan Sera
—12—
Aginh Erpata
Bamen Island
Cancd Samcua
Demun Bondan
Eginan Kerta
Gaicc Iutand
Inanon Gapia
Kanan Island
Lionh Irania
Nameon Raran
Rarve Iitand
Saeci Inlond
Talth Isliin
Unde Narpisa

—13—
Aipen Sabtars
Bab il Rinvee
Caneg Iclands
Dont Calioica
Emanh Naytani
Gaetia esland
Iatin Islands
Jamedh Island
Karch Sartier
Laine Islands
Maind Veltant
Nadtin Launua
Pau Meny ings
Rarciua Oaros
Saini Islands
Tacen Goetian
Urran Teviina
Vopenkb Toppa
—14—
Actatiat Nalto
Bahten Gojilan
Cela Ticgialia
Dototiat Lieda
Eusruuta essan
Fentch Nopyvon
Gaicd Eingasya
Inoral Islands
Jounh Miiticci
Kinera en Cime
Ladten Reperta
Maponit Peraco
Nalton Islands
Pamari eslands
Raqton Beparte
Salnen Islands
Tamokan Asteto
Vekmad Islands
—15—
Aepgenin Veliin
Bemanan Supatii
Caddad Gialerna
Eertiton Ialesd
Fuparrat Asiben
Gamgad Rerradia
Hitetal Iflasds
Jawshanad Meemi
Launiad Istands
Mariadec Geruur
Negend Peregine
Pacabara islans
Rortan Rertaria
Saldusl Islands
Talion Reputlic
Umzenon Islands
—16—
Anevares Inlands
Bangan Aulentand
Caun Nelch afdsa
Dita onu Islands
Eurania Tomontia
Fontican Aviisli
Gaitinl Indipige
Izerlind Reraumo
Jarenran Islands
Krdirtel Cenuria
Lazinan Bestilin
Maltinun Islands
Namnan Sceneilin
Pauran and Rarbe
Ramgiad Cruerava
Sagcas and Narol
Tanin Kenthurian
Urarcan Sudhiety
Vharkiin Ralands
—17—
Avaryi Barsseland
Binicon Areonieme
Cbiathan Islicssa
Dulial and Carora
Eciircan Rarandin
Gainonial Islands
Jumo iten Serlacd
Kaldtan Fiamusaia
Lattioalan CSubia
Matperacd ofdente
Neni Nicch Dorova
Sanon Perbelobgie
Tengepoth Iscands
Wapu et Lat Miban

—18—
Amanes Vontenseiar
Bamntal Asitrcanos
Canomad Rertheqiad
Detuereilin Inlatd
Eeet orwen Seworas
Gantarten Afan and
Kary escin Islands
Lamorho an Lebbati
Mem aynol Islandsi
Nibitayd ordheriio
Oenginh Kinderland
Pacaut Martirlalon
Salend Fe Selerdan
Terviniot Islandss
Vetbited Afobeslen
—19—
Agen Tand and Suoni
Bont Marrtan Toraza
Conchar and Pobacia
Eith Miap Minebanis
Galenta Gueutinanes
Kucaran and Samosea
Loettiruan Atereeti
Mon Varmands Island
Notk Maeg Lemtorban
Pestsian and Kupeta
Sarretonien endanda
Tinba Rand Banciton
Utabtin Anian hulan
—20—
Alenra Varin Mepubla
Cenialas and Malalia
Dagic Islands Island
Ekmhula andi Leprico
Garthda and Geekiree
Khin Matib Gebuyston
Liqan and Nantorepua
Maloil Iulands Ncoty
Nanuu Ieean Iymoldir
Samtes iucis Inlends
Teni emctan Sanucias
Urpoe an Rec Sucilia
—21—
Borne iarran Devarece
Car Rethil Nacinitana
Emytican Geru atgania
Gaind Marchan Islonds
Molticon Cini ondiles
Naund Ramen Arigariar
Pomithan Micrilanimia
Ramtitan Saruan Gaico
Sala am Ton Pameruidi

Here are all some lists with common suffixes

*nia Ariania Aruenia Bamenia Bolsnia Bukania Caminia Carenia Copania Eniania Eruinia Eryinia Eyuinia Fvounia Gapania Gorania Guyinia Imgania Lebania Lepania Mezania Pagonia Pamonia Piainia Pirania Saminia Sesinia Simania Somenia Sorinia Tinonia Turunia Urzenia Badetcinia Damalhania Denwarinia Inteniania Mangevinia Seregiania Tezadtinia Tudennenia Akinia Arenia Arunia Bocnia Boinia Bounia Buinia Burnia Byunia Caunia Eminia Gainia Geenia Geinia Giania Guania Guinia Guonia Gwinia Jhunia Jiinia Jirnia Kcenia Leinia Lornia Neenia Rernia Ruenia Sannia Shinia Siinia Siunia Suinia Uninia Vasnia Arefeonia Bevomania Dacucania Eziboonia Gibstania Klbininia Setrounia Shlatania Suunienia Teroninia EwDirireonia Aeirania Bemginia Bunyonia Canmania Carginia Carnania Cosrania Culiinia Cumiinia Duinania Ezupinia Geziania Guinenia Guurania Konvonia Lalzinia Lertania Marbania Nandania Narnania Nenconia Pastania Sadiania Sazcinia Sigwenia Smeminia Sonconia Surbania Taigonia Tebcania Tendania Unyrania Cania Conia Fania Henia Jania Jonia Kinia Lonia Mania Ninia Nonia Sania Tenia Tonia Vania

*lan Anualan Binelan Biselan Comelan Donolan Eduulan Iferlan Ilaslan Iudelan Papilan Potalan Srinlan Takilan Tamglan Cemuneilan Gehsyanlan Mecineslan Amurenoilan Aralan Cralan Geilan Inilan Innlan Kerlan Nanlan Sorlan Tnulan Beugeilan Condamlan Cunogslan Gantiulan Geevallan Gienyslan Memsinlan Mertorlan Minnaulan Mururolan Neminolan Sandeslan Sennerlan Titorilan Vertonlan Andenlan Betarlan Ceneslan Cunmelan Curislan Femanlan Geamilan Keberlan Larielan Meloelan Menrulan Molielan Otenelan Redallan SDatelan Selenlan Alan Glan Tlan Bolan Bulan Culan Galan Malan Selan Solan

*land Garland Hasland Ujoland Bandesland Benhelland Bhqlalland Dhinioland Lenkalland Macgalland Vuleslland Caland Feland Maland Saland Anderland Cemerland Geunoland Lutkaland Mowurland Panciland Parraland Anreland Asealand Hzuuland Maerland Masrland Memoland Namaland Navaland Ponoland Tuysland Vetaland

*ana Amynana Balpana Burgana Congana Fuubana Gainana Gaulana Guiiana Somuana Tartana Vehcana Cunheqrana Berniwhpana Antana Argana Buvana Mabana Merana Mobana Relana Rucana Semana Sikana Nteradana Gitanana Hana Lana Mana Sana Giana Guana Gvana Toana

*ica Cinuica Deyrica Goitica Maltica Mannica Merlica Peotica Raryica Sortica Stamica Sumhica Tektica Tiumica Utiuica Bemgbicica Aniica Bapica Narica Sanica Selica Sibica Gatuitica Iuperiica Ventalica Buuntica Bwentica Sorgeica Uica Baica Umica

*can Banecan Celican Jelican Pelecan Deslisacan Hatendacan Leucan Noccan Tircan Tlycan Shaylican Suniracan Cerarcan Emunecan Gepuucan Mamescan Salgican Vongican Ucan

*dan Euvadan Gtardan Monmdan Seundan Srisdan Unendan Banitisdan Ringkeldan Bildan Landan Saldan Soldan Sordan Tamdan Gakgasdan Mremaldan Stelosdan Lapardan Siwesdan Srunadan

*stan Baystan Caistan Velstan Gentiastan Getnicistan Naporrestan Gistan Mastan Tengastan Sinistan

*tar Lalatar Sanktar Simntar Somytar Swettar Temitar Burekertar Jartar Tantar Unitar Gornitar Satar

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

The Outbreak Poems

Tue 24-03-2020

I'm writing poetry daily to put my feelings into words more often during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Panic can
wait
for tomorrow.
Regrets live
on
curves not tangents.
Small chances
are
never zero.
Month's last day
waits
for another
year.

Read the poems and learn what a piku is.

Deadly Genomes: Genome Structure and Size of Harmful Bacteria and Viruses

Tue 17-03-2020

A poster full of epidemiological worry and statistics. Now updated with the genome of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 case statistics as of 3 March 2020.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Deadly Genomes: Genome Structure and Size of Harmful Bacteria and Viruses (zoom)

Bacterial and viral genomes of various diseases are drawn as paths with color encoding local GC content and curvature encoding local repeat content. Position of the genome encodes prevalence and mortality rate.

The deadly genomes collection has been updated with a posters of the genomes of SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Genomes of 56 SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses that causes COVID-19.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Ball of 56 SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses that causes COVID-19.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The first SARS-CoV-2 genome (MT019529) to be sequenced appears first on the poster.

Using Circos in Galaxy Australia Workshop

Wed 04-03-2020

A workshop in using the Circos Galaxy wrapper by Hiltemann and Rasche. Event organized by Australian Biocommons.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Using Circos in Galaxy Australia workshop. (zoom)

Download workshop slides.

Galaxy wrapper training materials, Saskia Hiltemann, Helena Rasche, 2020 Visualisation with Circos (Galaxy Training Materials).

Essence of Data Visualization in Bioinformatics Webinar

Thu 20-02-2020

My webinar on fundamental concepts in data visualization and visual communication of scientific data and concepts. Event organized by Australian Biocommons.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Essence of Data Visualization in Bioinformatics webinar. (zoom)

Download webinar slides.

Markov models — training and evaluation of hidden Markov models

Thu 20-02-2020

With one eye you are looking at the outside world, while with the other you are looking within yourself.
—Amedeo Modigliani

Following up with our Markov Chain column and Hidden Markov model column, this month we look at how Markov models are trained using the example of biased coin.

We introduce the concepts of forward and backward probabilities and explicitly show how they are calculated in the training process using the Baum-Welch algorithm. We also discuss the value of ensemble models and the use of pseudocounts for cases where rare observations are expected but not necessarily seen.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Markov models — training and evaluation of hidden Markov models. (read)

Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Markov models — training and evaluation of hidden Markov models. Nature Methods 17:121–122.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2019) Points of significance: Hidden Markov models. Nature Methods 16:795–796.

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2019) Points of significance: Markov Chains. Nature Methods 16:663–664.

Genome Sciences Center 20th Anniversary Clothing, Music, Drinks and Art

Tue 28-01-2020

Science. Timeliness. Respect.

Read about the design of the clothing, music, drinks and art for the Genome Sciences Center 20th Anniversary Celebration, held on 15 November 2019.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Luke and Mayia wearing limited edition volunteer t-shirts. The pattern reproduces the human genome with chromosomes as spirals. (zoom)

As part of the celebration and with the help of our engineering team, we framed 48 flow cells from the lab.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Precisely engineered frame mounts of flow cells used to sequence genomes in our laboratory. (zoom)

Each flow cell was accompanied by an interpretive plaque explaining the technology behind the flow cell and the sample information and sequence content.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The plaque at the back of one of the framed Illumina flow cell. This one has sequence from a patient's lymph node diagnosed with Burkitt's lymphoma. (zoom)