Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert Curve
Lips that taste of tears, they say, are the best for kissing.Dorothy Parkerget crankymore quotes

DNA on 10th — street art, wayfinding and font


language + fiction

Dark Matter of the English Language—the unwords

Words are easy, like the wind;
Faithful friends are hard to find.
—William Shakespeare

These are London Underground station names generated by training on 622 actual London station names.

Public transit has never been this fun.

—8—
Aac Purk
Aad Hare
B Marrey
Balting
Calwinl
Cam Mary
D Carton
Dancon &
E Bralge
E Readen
Falsser
Feltham
Gatean S
Gay Park
H Canrey
Ham Roe
Iule ald
Janston
Ked uark
Kel Road
Lat Park
Lat oute
Mal Parl
Mal kary
Ne terlo
Neltolr
Oack Oek
Oad Gate
Pam Park
Par Btos
Queenas
Raa pale
Raywors
S Ceoley
S Digham
Tal Paln
Tat Park
Ubl Hall
Ues Wack
Wam prie
Wamdron
—9—
Aact Park
Aadon Hon
Baats Olk
Badin Eak
C Houncom
Caln Park
Da Halrey
Dack Cans
E penhalr
Each Hill
Farn Hill
Farn tale
Galb Wesr
Gane Hart
Hald Harf
Hald thel
Iach Hanm
Iali Park
Jace Eard
Japb Road
K Croydon
Kans Road
Lamen Oad
Lane Road
Maan Road
Maliford
N te Parl
Nar Breet
Oack Hinl
Oak Warte
Pallo Loy
Paok Hole
Qoeem amm
Qood ford
Ranchpal
Rayd Park
S Dsealey
S Evenham
Tath Hill
Tew Grice
Uad Surth
Udper Ead
Wackbury
Wal Crise
—10—
A ton Erst
Aak Ssreet
Back Green
Badne Road
C Palkbond
C syerrild
Daetp Mary
Dagton Mom
Eaad Ecton
Eaak Weast
Fais Grove
Fandham Le
Gaden Lane
Gadge Walt
H Hiclelay
Hadel Park
Iator Himp
Icton Down
Jambllean
Jichl Buck
KanOl Hanl
Kanan Town
LaHee Line
Labor Road
Mal Wathin
Maldon Oad
Nar untrig
Narth Park
Oaing Park
Oak Street
Paine Tiry
Pakor Hill
Qaom Ciwns
Qleew atte
Raad Cross
Raan Greet
S Celerons
S Janrwayd
Tanor Hark
Tead Jurns
Uamom Nort
Ucton Pilk
Vaoss Mroy
Veilh Bark
Waath Roas
Wack Canes
x Acesford
—11—
Aaast Green
Aach Saoret
Baants Park
Back Outham
C Haug Dell
Cabery Roat
Dadpel Herl
Dagton Hich
Eabcon Parn
Eacest Gaed
Fakden Sard
Falon Coutt
Gaades Wisl
Gacks Green
H cocnstort
H yanesting
Ianes Parke
Ianmon outt
Jannse Eath
Jarr' Greel
Kales Broad
Kanbor Ctos
Laddon Road
Lale Prrden
Madbad Hill
Madbon Hill
Nalton Park
Nardon Hall
Oader Green
Oadwe Coutt
P'vden Hall
Palder Cloy
Qharss Park
Qneene Park
Rabham uonb
Radal Croas
S Doungwort
S Wenherles
Tachyy Hark
Taddon Manf
Uadban Road
Uales Green
Veston Brad
Vinley Park
W Penk Town
Waadss Pord
—12—
Aakher Weath
Aanger Swark
Backham Hill
Backton West
C Nilsherton
Cachsoy Road
Dacbons Road
Dacknen Park
Eabpine Park
Eacens Green
Falnel Aales
Falnens Harl
Gack Eistie
Gaddens Wook
H Wemhalfoud
HaHdon Court
Iachwam Hick
Iaday Street
Jaldens Ipee
Jalwild Hood
Kadbinp Gare
Kalburn Park
Laange Torne
Ladgate High
Madrord Wood
Madsane Park
Naldhed Road
Naltham Road
Oadford Hols
Oadsram Hest
Paandon Park
Pabnick Mann
Qaapeam East
Qeanper Park
Raambon Town
Rac fordbond
S Govenbinll
S Hechertham
Tactham Hoxd
Talders Park
U link Green
Uackher Park
Vamptree tea
Vanbury Gate
Waanl Citray
Wackley Wick
x Abory Hoar
—13—
Abury Cerninl
Acherton Park
Baantley Road
Backbory Cown
C tenead Road
Ca onton Town
Daass Heltray
Dack iln Park
Ea Cton Sorte
Eaalfowe Pank
Facchary Road
Fadsare Touth
Gackbord Lone
Gadden Street
H Colney Park
H Hockiunh Ey
Ictamal Green
Icteron Arley
Jancham Hecle
Janens Strhet
Kalbowad Dark
Kanbury Green
Lachaut South
Laledon Sroed
Mady Jucnchee
Maels Angeran
Nagborr Green
Nalborte Park
Oadgeton Bale
Oadnston Loos
Packoon South
Packsens Town
Qarast Isters
Qoaden Stweet
Raanbhey Road
Rabrrigh urke
S Dheysonston
S Garees Groe
Tambern harth
Tantean' Cill
UBlenham Park
Uacerour Park
Varchley Park
Varcon Street
WackBes Park
Wackens Green

posh parks

—9—
Aact Park
Aats Park
Bale Park
Bane Park
Caln Park
Cear Park
Dest Park
Dham Park
Ead' Park
Eale Park
Gest Park
Gite Park
Hawe Park
Hene Park
Iali Park
Irle Park
KanOsPark
Keng Park
Lang Park
Layy Park
Mann Park
Maor Park
Nood Park
Nort Park
Oawe Park
Oess Park
Park Park
Pars Park
Rayd Park
Read Park
SouthPark
Syer Park
Tood Park
Toor Park
Uilp Park
Wast Park
Weel Park
—10—
Aales Park
Aalor Park
Balks Park
Balon Park
Calon Park
Carye Park
Danch Park
Ddans Park
Eador Park
Eadss Park
Fewel Park
Fiwey Park
Galee Park
Garte Park
Hadel Park
Halon Park
Ieder Park
Ildar Park
Junns Park
Kange Park
Kenle Park
Laner Park
Lenle Park
Mator Park
Mente Park
Narth Park
Nonth Park
Oaing Park
Oakon Park
Parlo Park
Parse Park
Quins Park
Reash Park
Reden Park
Samte Park
Sedde Park
Toore Park
Toott Park
Upgea Park
Uppan Park
Waigl Park
Walor Park
—11—
Aalang Park
Aalmla Park
Baants Park
Baldon Park
Calden Park
Calnon Park
Dapons Park
Dapten Park
Eacham Park
Eagtea Park
Falvel Park
Faodse Park
Gaders Park
Gafint Park
HaHass Park
Hailon Park
Idbrey Park
Idters Park
Julror Park
Kenbor Park
Kender Park
Lamere Park
Landoe Park
Malbar Park
Mallen Park
Nalton Park
Nenser Park
Oaltor Park
Oeddon Park
Palsay Park
Pandar Park
Qharss Park
Qneene Park
Rairyy Park
Ramens Park
Sauker Park
Sbount Park
Tarner Park
Tatlan Park
Uphilg Park
Vinley Park
Walley Park
Walpar Park
—12—
Aatgale Park
Adeondy Park
Bankres Park
Barcins Park
Cackdon Park
Cackton Park
Dacknen Park
Dalpewy Park
Eabpine Park
Eadsewe Park
Famesle Park
Faoving Park
Gaicong Park
Galbark Park
Hadbrey Park
Hallind Park
Iderily Park
Ikderse Park
Jasries Park
Jompher Park
Kalburn Park
Kambrey Park
Lagherh Park
Lalewon Park
Madsane Park
Malford Park
Narbery Park
Narbrey Park
Oakbote Park
Oakpute Park
Paandon Park
Palberl Park
Qeanper Park
Qoadens Park
Radburs Park
Raetham Park
S yamfe Park
Satbery Park
Talders Park
Tanping Park
Uackher Park
Updenle Park
Velting Park
Vlenton Park
Walford Park
Wampror Park
—13—
Acherton Park
Acteraud Park
Balkford Park
Banbford Park
Cal Oast Park
Calboune Park
Dack iln Park
Dameston Park
Eadswerd Park
Eagelnan Park
Falngich Park
Fansters Park
Gadturon Park
Gandland Park
H Colney Park
Halcourh Park
Ihfielsl Park
Ildendon Park
Jsterlip Park
Julsliwe Park
Kanbwrey Park
Kemblide Park
Lamerses Park
Landborn Park
Maleston Park
Mandan's Park
Nalborte Park
Nanblood Park
Oalesele Park
Oekernon Park
Parkfors Park
Parkorse Park
Qoidgeat Park
Qoidnell Park
Rayterle Park
Readbery Park
Saterxon Park
Satthame Park
Tawonton Park
Tebterle Park
UBlenham Park
Uacerour Park
Varchley Park
Vincerle Park
WackBes Park
Walborne Park
—14—
Achtelhan Park
Adgingame Park
Balingbou Park
Balperham Park
C Beysons Park
Calweldon Park
Dadniwone Park
Dalmetham Park
Ealinghen Park
Eals Bite Park
Falmonton Park
Falnsbury Park
Gadbtidge Park
Gan Surde Park
Hackyyham Park
Hambenrow Park
Ickichgon Park
Ilfuidgay Park
Jichlimin Park
Jutlilley Park
Kanpaloon Park
Kensiwale Park
Lakingdon Park
Larcenles Park
Manbondon Park
Manbord&e Park
Neetilrul Park
Nerhiogto Park
Oeethwate Park
Oek Eaton Park
Paln Stet Park
Paltingam Park
Qaenbends Park
Qoeenbner Park
Raralsaun Park
Rarmenton Park
S iskwark Park
SEdgerlol Park
Talfierdg Park
Tambonnne Park
Uwickston Park
Wamkshouk Park
Wannstind Park

the looss

—9—
Chillloon
Ciayblood
Lood Head
Lood Hill
Ropreyloo
Soudhlood
Weichloo
—10—
Bloodfeach
East Asloo
Harloordow
Lood Brove
Lood Soree
Nordhaloon
Perleslood
South Loon
Tow Haloon
Wichglooat
Wickilloon
—11—
Beonth Loon
Bornhamloou
Carnichlood
Gloog Aiton
Lood Gorder
Loode Green
Menpitloods
Woons Cloon
—12—
Elelham Lood
Gording Lood
Hilloor Loan
Loofor South
Loondan Dood
Maron Haloon
Moloond dane
Pallood Park
West Hallood
Westleblood
—13—
Bickh Hillloo
Eeltewon Lood
Elensgilblood
Hand Widceloo
Harkloos Lene
Laneting Loos
Lood Cronchey
Maolloon Park
Moinsouwiloon
Nanblood Park
Oadnston Loos
Ricghily Loon
Sevensinslood
—14—
Carnslood Lane
Galdondon Lood
Haringloo Park
Kanpaloon Park
Kenslood Green
Leumen Harloow
Linghlood Road
Slooath Morton
South Sloondon

the inges

—9—
Choyninge
Lemstinge
Nem Linge
Roletinge
Wiybringe
—10—
Binge Each
Calarminge
Cary Ginge
Firdylinge
Reyseringe
Wham Kinge
—11—
Boinge Hill
Bouse Binge
Cantinginge
Eanweytinge
Sheeretinge
—12—
Ciminge ford
Foringe Park
Lewinge Cich
Now Delninge
—13—
Admenty Binge
Barminge Lare
Bartinge Park
Calinge South
Canvinge Park
Demringe Road
Eystinge Park
Geryinge Wish
Merringe Gate
Mertinge Wesl
Nent Tomdinge
Oaleslordinge
Parlinge Park
Parvinge Park
Sulevey Linge
—14—
Beostinge Park
Bringe Eadbury
Calninge Harks
Chardinge Minl
Dawinge Street
Femtinge Crocd
Greeninge Palk
Jitch Cerninge
Paorxinge Park
Royle Herlinge
South Hillinge
South Kambinge
Uppinge Gareen

the tons

—5—
Acton
Adton
Caton
Citon
Eaton
Ecton
Gaton
Giton
Icton
Inton
Maton
Meton
Olton
Onton
Upton
Utton
—6—
Aaston
Acston
Balton
Bamton
Calton
Camton
Dagton
Daston
Eacton
Eadton
Falton
Fedton
Galton
Ganton
Hagton
Hapton
Ieston
Kanton
Katton
Lebton
Ledton
Manton
Marton
Nanton
Narton
Oigton
Parton
Paston
Rayton
Relton
Stiton
Surton
Tatton
Tenton
Udcton
Uenton
Wabton
Wafton
—7—
Adeston
Alepton
Backton
Barbton
Caauton
Ceaston
Dackton
Damcton
Eadston
Eddston
Famston
Feenton
Garyton
Geoston
Hackton
Halpton
Jemcton
Juncton
Kendton
Kenton
Lhiyton
Lington
Maryton
Mhoston
Newston
Nitston
Omenton
Osepton
Parkton
Pinston
Qoodton
Queyton
Rackton
Racpton
SKenton
Shedton
Tewyton
Thatton
Ulapton
Uoudton
Vectton
Wackton
Wampton
—8—
Achonton
Admelton
Baln'ton
Baronton
Camenton
Camerton
D Carton
Dagenton
Ealeston
Ealeyton
Faichton
Fertston
Grienton
Guteiton
HaKenton
Hammston
Icherton
Ilepston
Janston
Jorchton
Khampton
Kingston
Laleston
Laterton
Marbaton
Marnston
Nartston
Norbuton
Oacenton
Oakuston
Pamerton
Parkston
Quamcton
Quayston
Reventon
Reworton
Sentiton
Seventon
Tewelton
Thimston
Ucmenton
Uhmonton
Walbuton
Wamenton
—9—
Aakington
Aapington
Badmerton
Barimston
Cadonston
Calangton
Dadenston
Dectenton
Eacherton
Eadborton
Farbonton
Fealiton
Gadington
Garbiston
Halburton
Haldenton
Iakenston
Iakington
Jechcuton
Kambuston
Kenbouton
Lanborton
Lashelton
Manmonton
Masborton
Nedborton
Nemmonton
Oadborton
Ollington
Pachenton
Panciston
Qriangton
Queenston
Rasleyton
Rasserton
Samhatton
Setporton
Tarconton
Toldenton
Udnington
Uetington
Wackbuton
Wamilgton
—10—
A ton Erst
Aalimgeton
Baklington
Balcongton
Cackington
Cahbuctton
Dagton Mom
Daldington
Eaad Ecton
Eactton Le
Faldington
Falsington
Galdington
Ganbilgton
HaCrreston
Hackonston
Icton Down
Icton Holl
Jestington
Juldington
Kellington
Kencington
Landington
Lanhgetton
Maldington
Maleihgton
Nandonston
Narton Dow
Oadossyton
Oak Verton
Packington
Paesvelton
Qooyerston
Queysston
Raldington
Ranmington
S Jownaton
Satdington
Tarnington
Tedlington
Ucton Pilk
Upseadston
Varxington
Visdington
Wacton Hor
Waldington
—11—
Aanton Hill
Aaton Greet
Bagton Town
Balton Road
Cagton Hich
Calton Gare
Dackconcton
Dagongerton
Eagton Eald
Ealton Bauk
Falton Sint
Fanton Dant
Gacton Pird
Ganton Park
Haldsington
Halton Lane
Ias Hington
Ipeedington
Janningston
Jolton Mart
Karton Ciss
Kelton West
Lales Anton
Lanmingeton
Macklandton
Macklondton
Nalton Park
Nandstorton
Oals Auston
Oantimeaton
Pardingston
Parstington
Qadesesston
Qoachington
Racklington
Rapton East
Sank urston
Sarton Hoot
Tarnevelton
Tecton Cill
Uppingeaton
Veston Brad
Vonton Gree
Wadblry ton
Walton Cism

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

Hola Mundo Cover

Sat 21-09-2019

My cover design for Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Published by Blackie Books.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Cover design is based on my 2013 `\pi` day art. (read)

Curious how the design was created? Read the full details.

Markov Chains

Tue 30-07-2019

You can look back there to explain things,
but the explanation disappears.
You'll never find it there.
Things are not explained by the past.
They're explained by what happens now.
—Alan Watts

A Markov chain is a probabilistic model that is used to model how a system changes over time as a series of transitions between states. Each transition is assigned a probability that defines the chance of the system changing from one state to another.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Markov Chains. (read)

Together with the states, these transitions probabilities define a stochastic model with the Markov property: transition probabilities only depend on the current state—the future is independent of the past if the present is known.

Once the transition probabilities are defined in matrix form, it is easy to predict the distribution of future states of the system. We cover concepts of aperiodicity, irreducibility, limiting and stationary distributions and absorption.

This column is the first part of a series and pairs particularly well with Alan Watts and Blond:ish.

Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Markov Chains. Nature Methods 16:663–664.

1-bit zoomable gigapixel maps of Moon, Solar System and Sky

Mon 22-07-2019

Places to go and nobody to see.

Exquisitely detailed maps of places on the Moon, comets and asteroids in the Solar System and stars, deep-sky objects and exoplanets in the northern and southern sky. All maps are zoomable.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
3.6 gigapixel map of the near side of the Moon, annotated with 6,733. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
100 megapixel and 10 gigapixel map of the Solar System on 20 July 2019, annotated with 758k asteroids, 1.3k comets and all planets and satellites. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
100 megapixle and 10 gigapixel map of the Northern Celestial Hemisphere, annotated with 44 million stars, 74,000 deep-sky objects and 3,000 exoplanets. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
100 megapixle and 10 gigapixel map of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, annotated with 69 million stars, 88,000 deep-sky objects and 1000 exoplanets. (details)

Quantile regression

Sat 01-06-2019
Quantile regression robustly estimates the typical and extreme values of a response.

Quantile regression explores the effect of one or more predictors on quantiles of the response. It can answer questions such as "What is the weight of 90% of individuals of a given height?"

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Quantile regression. (read)

Unlike in traditional mean regression methods, no assumptions about the distribution of the response are required, which makes it practical, robust and amenable to skewed distributions.

Quantile regression is also very useful when extremes are interesting or when the response variance varies with the predictors.

Das, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Quantile regression. Nature Methods 16:451–452.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Simple linear regression. Nature Methods 12:999–1000.

Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue

Sat 30-03-2019
Robust regression generates more reliable estimates by detecting and downweighting outliers.

Outliers can degrade the fit of linear regression models when the estimation is performed using the ordinary least squares. The impact of outliers can be mitigated with methods that provide robust inference and greater reliability in the presence of anomalous values.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. (read)

We discuss MM-estimation and show how it can be used to keep your fitting sane and reliable.

Greco, L., Luta, G., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. Nature Methods 16:275–276.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2016) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Influential or nuisance. Nature Methods 13:281–282.

Two-level factorial experiments

Fri 22-03-2019
To find which experimental factors have an effect, simultaneously examine the difference between the high and low levels of each.

Two-level factorial experiments, in which all combinations of multiple factor levels are used, efficiently estimate factor effects and detect interactions—desirable statistical qualities that can provide deep insight into a system.

They offer two benefits over the widely used one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments: efficiency and ability to detect interactions.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Two-level factorial experiments. (read)

Since the number of factor combinations can quickly increase, one approach is to model only some of the factorial effects using empirically-validated assumptions of effect sparsity and effect hierarchy. Effect sparsity tells us that in factorial experiments most of the factorial terms are likely to be unimportant. Effect hierarchy tells us that low-order terms (e.g. main effects) tend to be larger than higher-order terms (e.g. two-factor or three-factor interactions).

Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Two-level factorial experiments Nature Methods 16:211–212.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Designing comparative experiments.. Nature Methods 11:597–598.