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words: lettery


DNA on 10th — street art, wayfinding and font


language + fiction

Dark Matter of the English Language—the unwords

Words are easy, like the wind;
Faithful friends are hard to find.
—William Shakespeare

undrugs

These are names generated from a list of 24,454 drug names.

—4—
abur
baca
cict
dars
ebar
flud
gada
ibii
jefs
kafi
lall
mali
naax
opmo
pali
rano
selt
tawe
ucci
vacp
wens
xafa
—5—
abans
babax
calen
dafur
ebane
facol
gacil
iacos
jadan
kadex
labet
makan
nacil
oxags
paflu
quare
rabax
secte
tacin
uccar
vabex
wanda
xaaix
yslel
zasum
—6—
abaloe
babuck
calcyn
dacter
ebalen
facgol
gaadop
hincal
ibinum
jedbit
kabone
laaful
magars
nabrem
oxatho
pactug
quafen
rabine
secteg
tabora
ucicin
vabaib
wanosa
xabert
yrsect
zalace
—7—
abaacyd
baadate
calchox
dactsal
ebancel
facacon
gabaxin
iakinic
jedinee
kabcale
labigen
magunal
nacamin
oxaciol
pacterh
qausans
raamene
salivac
tacicyn
uccosil
vababen
wanptax
xabiban
zinomem
—8—
abadixal
bababate
cainecin
dactagul
ebalicin
fabrolil
gablexal
hikazium
ialmloxe
jedlotin
kabomide
laberome
majcogen
nabcidel
otrustin
pactecin
quactowa
rabimist
sebumest
tacillep
ucbucine
vabafora
wedamate
xabatyce
ylyutate
zalcperm
—9—
abadarone
babaridol
calbimyne
dacriness
ebacycate
facantase
gabrigine
hyticelin
iamasdist
jefarinon
kadolilol
labromine
majyctied
naccyfius
oxamprens
pactitone
quafedate
rabinozil
sdavotrin
taaknolse
ucchidemt
vababular
wancromin
xabancald
zenezumin
—10—
abisarprin
baborastin
calbenzode
dabotarone
ebaldentan
fabridibil
gabrizelin
iarareblol
jedcinimib
kabletesin
laalfemate
malbevoled
nacatemine
oximucaine
pacteticin
quaminevra
rabibretan
sectexasin
tacraldran
uclocollan
vabacloxan
wemgmittex
xacirdosal
zolkopacul

—11—
abithyltine
babaszolate
calbicyrone
dactavirine
ebarmolofal
fabatrastin
gabacpromat
hentrocaine
iamicaptide
jenxesamlan
kabentiquin
lacinylfare
mahygsotrou
naceguldine
omimefcaile
pactricofyl
quadiradine
rabionimone
seclonedine
tacoilcuria
udobycerino
vabfazupine
wantdabinal
xabotrazole
—12—
abithyzyrose
babsserizide
calbicyldine
dadtylditrol
ebadregepsil
fabolapeptin
gabridiamide
iazolamicide
kalachoglate
labrossasone
malbitoprime
nabpriletone
oxilophenape
palbinolenal
quaraleniont
rabinilamide
sectallolaen
taclocarbral
udobentitone
vacisastamin
wenosanterix
xalmuziquine
ysictanamine
—13—
abrvanrinabin
baadilocyctos
calchantrolec
danphorpophin
ebapyfenazine
fabocrocalise
gadizocilcein
ibormormidine
kacumycansint
laciveliamide
maldimiszidis
nacciricillin
oxiprimetmine
pacthinatesul
quadrintroram
rachometremin
seginuskatate
tabconcaneute
udloxexeneate
vabagraineone
xencoonyprone
—14—
abisulgoradine
babelozadrocin
calbonamperine
daploseinticyl
ecloincolthose
factismaztosta
gacroscelazine
ibectilycravon
jedipronobreke
kalsvinitherat
laditamastinic
malmistolamine
narbadoloquine
palbiflapritar
quaquinonostiq
raccilchocalte
seliglhytririd
talinohydracin
ulophynonamide
valisulfatrium
xastumyphideve
—15—
abrinechedrophe
badoriprozamine
calbidomycinnix
dehydrocyrfoide
ebavhmacetamide
fentafanfenthol
gamasoponeferox
henthichloreder
icophortitinase
kallucinroylmax
lantimethranone
maldoglotranone
natiphretamicid
panssormvestisa
quaminpropyrate
rabidratethotel
secpherinesetol
talphomectivine
ulnimachcrabine
vanaibevyllsten
xenozeroracitic

—16—
abistartolexbant
bacthifulvastols
calphamycinsapol
deltrocalfromide
eclacateproficel
fentencarbetosin
galicalcyacpiran
halitsiongoneoko
icarvisonediranc
kalkundyprimicin
lamorfertellucid
malivitaplothium
narbegeneictosol
panstantrinebune
quardinecaaptine
rafinesytkutoril
selbongathiazode
talinatromethine
ulopachlipralone
vacliclehanazole
winnasdinuelilus
—17—
abitionesanserxan
babetulsosportrin
caldinephhenosone
dehydichotagelgil
ellocirlicmedhyne
fentaguufsanodine
gaditoxypuniticin
icgronumtatogycid
karfinebenthichin
lapasinidobeptone
malcidochlirocate
narbamymineterone
paflerfanophyllea
quateylmatithives
ralinkoumfapheton
senicttynetemersh
taliocarfonitrate
ulvutomethonguine
valumindesuanvart
—18—
acamisumsindewobun
bacintypilacingeen
centacagcorteamide
demotetromotoxecin
elirfelateciclazol
fenparmecrilhiculc
galonimaclecrilast
imanacetofyrtazole
kenithadebatreciga
ladisylprabumamide
mantheralbistrocin
natroneshinetrofol
oxirinechloraplite
panprapethinteride
quinhyllazoxamines
rafentrolpaccelgor
seltastrelsortonem
talichloreytrimino
valycrastolefloryl
xorethroxydipantsh
—19—
acedetkesurlumoteen
balinegademetsapine
calfitholeminofuryl
dapsareminephafline
ebalbolnotetrecolen
fadunaziquinonhazol
gankyomicorcatuthri
ickansuecubicanacik
kanizinoessodeinesa
laltostenoxitrogall
mantrinonysrogarone
narbesemanthlacoate
otocrooneserbaaprod
parbimineaprokaprin
ractadadotancmudein
sentapcixynethionen
talicuroidslutorate
ventitalportigastis
xarbethymylazoquine

Below are some families of drugs.

–nines

—6—
binine
kenine
lenine
penine
ranine
sonine
—7—
alinine
bernine
emunine
imanine
leonine
maonine
pernine
sernine
trenine
valnine
—8—
actinine
banenine
dixinine
embonine
ginonine
idranine
letonine
medunine
nemonine
perinine
raconine
semenine
teginine
vanonine
—9—
adefinine
bandonine
cicronine
dapganine
ebapinine
gentanine
imidinine
lentenine
marbinine
nestinine
parbonine
rachenine
senrinine
teldanine
varpenine
—10—
abustanine
balosanine
centrenine
detavenine
ebastinine
fenoranine
galulonine
icosrinine
ledorinine
mantranine
navalanine
pentronine
quartinine
ramoconine
selutinine
talotanine
valipenine
xinezinine
—11—
acinofenine
banefgonine
centazonine
demotrinine
emalitinine
fafvuranine
ganficonine
imatitonine
ladrogenine
maluphenine
naxibrinine
parbidinine
quinitonine
recrotinine
serbabinine
telletinine
urisominine
ventipanine
—12—
aconophanine
baldrifinine
centridonine
dibhustanine
emipormunine
gentrofynine
imbomylinine
lenocenonine
meatastanine
nefectaonine
pelquinonine
rapatalonine
temoceginine
vassingenine

–caines

—8—
bancaine
emucaine
imocaine
silcaine
tescaine
—9—
aclicaine
bericaine
cimocaine
ecuocaine
ferecaine
gapmcaine
icnocaine
kenocaine
letocaine
mexocaine
nexacaine
pallcaine
redocaine
sectcaine
tarocaine
—10—
alidacaine
bandtcaine
centocaine
denticaine
emilocaine
fentocaine
gampacaine
impmacaine
kentecaine
ladricaine
metracaine
netrocaine
oximucaine
pantocaine
rerpacaine
sertacaine
termacaine
vavfycaine
—11—
adronicaine
bentrocaine
galimycaine
hentrocaine
imbonacaine
kallascaine
lezinocaine
methylcaine
nibriscaine
penetacaine
quasalcaine
rerapycaine
sentrocaine
telinecaine
—12—
alfagrecaine
bistipacaine
centomicaine
estarcicaine
galmoxocaine
imodicecaine
mantolacaine
northrocaine
penanfocaine
restolocaine
sulfolucaine
tenthricaine
—13—
antiethycaine
entrodrocaine
fentionicaine
intiminocaine
norfydrocaine
penittelcaine
relonolacaine
testotrocaine

–cillins

—8—
docillin
incillin
—9—
barcillin
icocillin
malcillin
vescillin
—10—
alfacillin
bimocillin
dicocillin
esvocillin
impocillin
kalocillin
lamocillin
muticillin
pericillin
senicillin
timocillin
vanacillin
—11—
aminocillin
baloncillin
ekitocillin
fenticillin
iminecillin
kipracillin
ledrocillin
mectocillin
pellacillin
quinecillin
serbicillin
termacillin
vertocillin
—12—
amtomicillin
barilucillin
gentiocillin
imoprocillin
letinocillin
metimucillin
nephricillin
pentracillin
renucicillin
teroxacillin
—13—
badergicillin
centobicillin
eximabicillin
laglyrocillin
mecurpicillin
nacciricillin
pentoumcillin
theroxocillin

–ycins

—8—
alomycin
barbycin
dermycin
egamycin
imamycin
leezycin
morxycin
pertycin
sincycin
teprycin
udomycin
—9—
aclomycin
balomycin
camisycin
deximycin
emdimycin
fovemycin
gantrycin
icoaxycin
kaxamycin
lenomycin
metamycin
nemulycin
paramycin
ratomycin
sexocycin
tefomycin
vanimycin
—10—
alifomycin
baclazycin
centohycin
dibromycin
elaromycin
fentimycin
gentomycin
imalomycin
kalmomycin
ledromycin
mantomycin
natromycin
pantobycin
ranafhycin
selkomycin
tectamycin
valmomycin
—11—
aclefomycin
balacomycin
centramycin
deletomycin
emathamycin
fulpremycin
gamutamycin
imminemycin
lenfrimycin
mepaxidycin
nerolamycin
pangetbycin
quinaclycin
remazonycin
seremylycin
tamopomycin
valoxamycin
—12—
alfunnemycin
bamneramycin
diclodomycin
ercrolomycin
ferlonomycin
ganostamycin
imcairimycin
letophomycin
marbinomycin
narbetamycin
pelbetamycin
rexopromycin
serbitomycin
tafofrimycin
vatithamycin
—13—
alfaginamycin
balfolromycin
dichloromycin
emimestomycin
ferrinoplycin
imcitadolycin
lestaclimycin
mantogremycin
norphenimycin
pantrolimycin
siclocolmycin
telivedicycin

–virs

—6—
alovir
banvir
emovir
kenvir
penvir
—7—
adrovir
balevir
dinovir
genevir
iclyvir
linovir
medavir
nefovir
penevir
quarvir
ramivir
temovir
valivir
—8—
alflovir
balmivir
cenmavir
dermevir
ecthavir
fermovir
indravir
kinnuvir
lectovir
nefluvir
oxonivir
pentivir
restevir
serbevir
tentavir
ventivir
xydrivir
—9—
allolovir
balynevir
embitevir
ferolivir
gadilovir
iblosivir
kenolavir
laxitavir
nacinivir
paritovir
renonivir
sergofvir
tegabivir
vartrovir
—10—
alopolovir
baflenovir
diclofavir
endatlivir
ixryasevir
northrivir
paloglevir
restomavir
sertumavir
teneflovir
—11—
alilathevir
borotehivir
embroprovir
intralmovir
lixacycevir
monpretovir
perdabrevir
synonshavir
terglumavir
—12—
antimatlavir
pentimurovir
sulfavinavir
terinobravir
vavinactyvir

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue

Sat 30-03-2019
Robust regression generates more reliable estimates by detecting and downweighting outliers.

Outliers can degrade the fit of linear regression models when the estimation is performed using the ordinary least squares. The impact of outliers can be mitigated with methods that provide robust inference and greater reliability in the presence of anomalous values.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. (read)

We discuss MM-estimation and show how it can be used to keep your fitting sane and reliable.

Greco, L., Luta, G., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. Nature Methods 16:275–276.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2016) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Influential or nuisance. Nature Methods 13:281–282.

Two-level factorial experiments

Fri 22-03-2019
To find which experimental factors have an effect, simultaneously examine the difference between the high and low levels of each.

Two-level factorial experiments, in which all combinations of multiple factor levels are used, efficiently estimate factor effects and detect interactions—desirable statistical qualities that can provide deep insight into a system.

They offer two benefits over the widely used one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments: efficiency and ability to detect interactions.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Two-level factorial experiments. (read)

Since the number of factor combinations can quickly increase, one approach is to model only some of the factorial effects using empirically-validated assumptions of effect sparsity and effect hierarchy. Effect sparsity tells us that in factorial experiments most of the factorial terms are likely to be unimportant. Effect hierarchy tells us that low-order terms (e.g. main effects) tend to be larger than higher-order terms (e.g. two-factor or three-factor interactions).

Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Two-level factorial experiments Nature Methods 16:211–212.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Designing comparative experiments.. Nature Methods 11:597–598.

Happy 2019 `\pi` Day—
Digits, internationally

Tue 12-03-2019

Celebrate `\pi` Day (March 14th) and set out on an exploration explore accents unknown (to you)!

This year is purely typographical, with something for everyone. Hundreds of digits and hundreds of languages.

A special kids' edition merges math with color and fat fonts.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
116 digits in 64 languages. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
223 digits in 102 languages. (details)

Check out art from previous years: 2013 `\pi` Day and 2014 `\pi` Day, 2015 `\pi` Day, 2016 `\pi` Day, 2017 `\pi` Day and 2018 `\pi` Day.

Tree of Emotional Life

Sun 17-02-2019

One moment you're :) and the next you're :-.

Make sense of it all with my Tree of Emotional life—a hierarchical account of how we feel.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A section of the Tree of Emotional Life.

Find and snap to colors in an image

Sat 29-12-2018

One of my color tools, the colorsnap application snaps colors in an image to a set of reference colors and reports their proportion.

Below is Times Square rendered using the colors of the MTA subway lines.


Colors used by the New York MTA subway lines.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Times Square in New York City.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Times Square in New York City rendered using colors of the MTA subway lines.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Granger rainbow snapped to subway lines colors from four cities. (zoom)

Take your medicine ... now

Wed 19-12-2018

Drugs could be more effective if taken when the genetic proteins they target are most active.

Design tip: rediscover CMYK primaries.

More of my American Scientific Graphic Science designs

Ruben et al. A database of tissue-specific rhythmically expressed human genes has potential applications in circadian medicine Science Translational Medicine 10 Issue 458, eaat8806.