Carpalx optimizes keyboard layouts to create ones that require less effort and significantly reduced carpal strain!
X11 layouts are available! Patches to include Carpalx layouts in xkeyboard-config and kbd have been submitted by Perry Thompson. Meanwhile, many thanks to Sven Hallberg for providing X11 configuration for Carpalx layouts. Richard Gomes contributed an archive of these files for KDE/Gnome users.
Have ideas? Tell me.
25/may/18 — The BBC article Why we can't give up this off way of typing by Tim McDonald discusses the history and persistence of QWERTY and my Carpalx work.
16/aug/16 — Ergonomic Keyboard Layout Designed for the Filipino Language at AHFE2016 derives layout for Filipino language using Carpalx
18/apr/16 — Carpalx layouts soon to appear in freedesktop (package xkeyboard-config) and kbd. Thanks to Perry Thompson.
ON THIS PAGE
This is typing hell.
Using knowledge for evil is sometimes a lot more fun than using it for good. By having a model of typing effort, we can ask the question "What layout has the largest effort?".
I applied the effort minimization simulation to QWERTY, but this time asked carpalx to maximize typing effort. In other words, find the layout which is hardest to use. The result is the finger-breaking TNWMLC, which increases effort by almost 90% over QWERTY.
In a collaboration that brings keyboard layout design and fashion together — what a combination! — Brazilian designer Julia Valle used the carpalx worst layout (TNWMLC) as a design element in her Winter 2011 line.
This project is nearly an cosmic alignment of eclectic interests. Keyboard layout research is subverted to generate the most difficult English layout, which is then transformed into beautiful clothing design. This cross-pollination of ideas has particular meaning to me, since I once dabbled in fashion photography.
The effort of TNWMLC is nearly 2x that of QWERTY. A huge penalty increase of 180% is seen - look at that finger-based penalty increase of 200%!
|model||keyboard||total effortrel%||effort contributionsrel%|
Stroke statistics for TNWMLC are frightening, even when compared to the already suboptimal QWERTY. Hand asymetry is 51% - the left hand is absolutely hammered ... just look at those left hand stroke runs! For ~70% of key strokes, the left hand is used for two or more successive key strokes. The bottom row is used 45% of all strokes and the home row is used only 13% of the time. The pinky is used 34% of the time and the middle finger is extremely underused (9%).
|carpalx effort optimization||keyboard name||statistics||effort|
|rowh||rowb||hand asym||finger freq||cumulative run distribution||mod_01|
|0.13||0.45||0.51||0.34 0.24 0.09 0.34||
|0.34||0.15||0.15||0.10 0.21 0.27 0.42||
Using the typing effort model described in Carpalx - Typing Effort, I ranked 6-12 character words by their corresponding effort (effort is normalized to word length) using a dictionary of 480,000 words (/usr/share/dict/words, Red Hat 4 Enterprise). Below is a table that shows sets of words representing effort percentiles.
|TNWMLC ENGLISH Word Efforts|
|10.5||hardest||teetee11.5 teeter11.2 aeetes10.9 ateeter10.8 teetan10.8 thetes10.7 teethe10.7 teeters10.6 teethes10.5 tetter10.4 rehete10.4 teether10.4 teetery10.4 settees10.3 hetter10.3 testees10.2 teeterer10.2 meeteetse10.2 sheeter10.1 teethy10.1 teethed10.1 tether10.1 retest10.1 hetero10.1 teethers10.1|
|6.4||90%||anastomosis6.4 apehood6.4 apparentness6.4 cherie6.4 fresser6.4 hushed6.4 pegeen6.4 rostella6.4 rottock6.4 shahidi6.4 tabulates6.4|
|5.9||80%||angeronalia5.9 antigo5.9 clementi5.9 crampette5.9 hadendoa5.9 hexereis5.9 imparters5.9 lunulites5.9 matuta5.9 outthrobs5.9 unwheel5.9|
|5.6||70%||aeriform5.6 antilipase5.6 catamarca5.6 echolalic5.6 milanion5.6 predread5.6 subcarinate5.6 toryweed5.6 turbinotome5.6 unspitted5.6 whaleries5.6|
|5.4||60%||aparai5.4 blendes5.4 cionocranian5.4 comptonite5.4 myrrhed5.4 preprinted5.4 questrist5.4 richart5.4 semiflint5.4 unchannelled5.4 uncoloredly5.4|
|5.1||50%||bunglesome5.1 cyperus5.1 flouting5.1 grunewald5.1 huppert5.1 ischiocerite5.1 miltier5.1 phyciodes5.1 recompact5.1 semimucous5.1 unfingered5.1|
|4.9||40%||bombasts4.9 carcassonne4.9 engoue4.9 grewitz4.9 hypobasis4.9 microanalyst4.9 participancy4.9 prologs4.9 signwriter4.9 sladen4.9 stroking4.9|
|4.7||30%||allosaur4.7 darwinism4.7 disdeceive4.7 footballer4.7 garrons4.7 hailproof4.7 invertible4.7 maiocco4.7 oofbird4.7 sapremic4.7 simdars4.7|
|4.5||20%||apophyllous4.5 bookboard4.5 dialogged4.5 drinkability4.5 foraker4.5 guachipilin4.5 myersville4.5 orchialgia4.5 passback4.5 procaccia4.5 underwarmth4.5|
|4.1||10%||bedbug4.1 carking4.1 culmed4.1 jurassic4.1 knocking4.1 lollygagged4.1 mordvin4.1 piercingly4.1 subnormal4.1 subrailway4.1 vicaire4.1|
|1.4||easiest||jazzed1.0 jizzen1.1 zizzle1.1 gizzen1.2 kizzie1.2 kizzee1.2 jazzes1.2 fizzed1.2 fuzzed1.3 jazzer1.3 quizzee1.4 fizzle1.4 quizzed1.4 fuzzle1.4 guzzle1.4 fizzes1.4 gozzan1.4 fuzzes1.5 dizzen1.5 wizzen1.5 fizzer1.5 zigzag1.5 sizzle1.5 lizzie1.5 quizzes1.6 fezzed1.6|