carpalx - keyboard layout optimizer - save your carpals

Carpalx optimizes keyboard layouts to create ones that require less effort and significantly reduced carpal strain!

Have ideas? Tell me.

the best layout

Partially optimized QWKRFY and fully optimized QGMLWY layouts are the last word in easier typing.

the worst layout

A fully anti-optimized TNWMLC layout is a joke and a nightmare to type. It's also the only keyboard layout that has its own fashion line.

download and explore

Download keyboard layouts, or run the code yourself to explore new layouts. Carpalx is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0.

layouts

Download and install the layouts.

25 Oct 21 — Added vertical and horizontal alphabetic layouts to the layouts analysis.

19 Mar 21 — Added BEAKL 15, Hieamtsr, Colemak Mod-DH and Mtgap 2.0 layouts to the layouts analysis.

15 Mar 21 — Added the Engram layout by Arno Klein to the layouts analysis.

6 Aug 20 — The search for the world’s best keyboard layout by Paul Guerin

4 May 20 — An interview with Bloomberg's Arianne Cohen Splurge on a Better Keyboard, It's Worth It.

25 May 18 — The BBC article Why we can't give up this off way of typing by Tim McDonald discusses the history and persistence of QWERTY and my Carpalx work.

16 Aug 16 — Ergonomic Keyboard Layout Designed for the Filipino Language at AHFE2016 derives layout for Filipino language using Carpalx

18 Apr 16 — Carpalx layouts soon to appear in freedesktop (package xkeyboard-config) and kbd. Thanks to Perry Thompson.

Summary of Keyboard Layouts

Standards and Popular Alternative Layouts

The entries in the table below are current popular layouts, along with my own optimized layouts. Some like QWERTY and Dvorak are popularly used, though Dvorak much less so, while others like Colemak, Arensito and Engram are proposed variants that improve on Dvorak.

The table shows QWERTY first, Dvorak second and then all remaining layouts in increasing order of typing effort. Punctuation or spaces in the corpus are not used in my evaluation and all layouts are evaluated as mapped onto the standard 101-key PC keyboard.

Each layout is characterized in the table by its stroke and run length statistics, which should be compared to the layouts' typing effort.

Hand asymmetry is the difference between the fraction of strokes typed with the left and right hands. Asymmetry is negative if the right hand is favoured, and positive if the left hand is favoured.

Finger frequency is irrespective of hand and shows usage frequency of pinky, ring, middle and index fingers.

Run length distributions are cumulative and show the number of consecutive uses of left hand (rhl), right hand (rhr), either hand (rh), top row (rtr), home row (rrh), bottom row (rrb), any row (rr), and any finger (rf). Same-hand row jump distance is rj.

keyboard name statistics effort
rowh rowb hand asym finger freq cumulative run distribution mod_01
QWERTY standard
QWERTYUIOP[]\
ASDFGHJKL;'
ZXCVBNM,./
0.34 0.15 0.15 0.10
0.21
0.27
0.42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.42 0.69 0.83 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1
rhr 0.61 0.83 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.51 0.76 0.88 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.55 0.78 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rrh 0.68 0.91 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrb 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.68 0.88 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rf 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.68 0.83 0.94 0.96 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
3.000
1.00033.3%
1.00033.3%
1.00033.3%
Dvorak standard
',.PYFGCRL/=\
AOEUIDHTNS-
;QJKXBMWVZ
0.71 0.09 -0.14 0.18
0.21
0.26
0.34
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.76 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.47 0.81 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.62 0.88 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.80 0.97 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.33 0.54 0.67 0.77 0.85 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.97
rrb 0.96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.60 0.77 0.84 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.98
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.84 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
2.098
0.39718.9%
0.93744.7%
0.76536.4%
Colemak
QWFPGJLUY;[]\
ARSTDHNEIO'
ZXCVBKM,./
0.74 0.09 -0.06 0.16
0.17
0.26
0.41
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.55 0.85 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.49 0.77 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.79 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.95 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.57 0.73 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.83 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.842
0.34418.7%
0.76341.4%
0.73539.9%
Klausler
K,UYPWLMFC/=\
OAEIDRNTHS-
Q.';ZXVGBJ
0.74 0.05 -0.06 0.17
0.18
0.29
0.35
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.70 0.90 0.96 0.99 0.99 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.55 0.85 0.97 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.62 0.88 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.79 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.97 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.56 0.72 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.86 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.867
0.34118.3%
0.79742.7%
0.72939.0%
Asset
QWJFGYPUL;[]\
ASETDHNIOR'
ZXCVBKM,./
0.74 0.09 0.04 0.14
0.21
0.25
0.40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.48 0.76 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.57 0.80 0.92 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.78 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.79 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.95 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.57 0.73 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.82 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.894
0.35618.8%
0.76640.4%
0.77240.8%
BEAKL 15
QHOUXGCRFZ[]\
YIEA.DSTNB;
J/,K'WMLPV
0.57 0.13 -0.05 0.05
0.24
0.39
0.32
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.65 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.53 0.88 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.59 0.90 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.69 0.90 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.43 0.68 0.82 0.90 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 1
rrb 0.88 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.61 0.82 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rf 0.91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.80 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.945
0.47324.3%
0.66334.1%
0.80941.6%
Hieamtsrn
BYOU'KDCLPQ=\
HIEA,MTSRNV
X-'.?WGFJZ
0.65 0.07 -0.04 0.18
0.19
0.31
0.32
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.64 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.54 0.88 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.59 0.90 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.67 0.88 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.30 0.52 0.68 0.79 0.86 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.98
rrb 0.95 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.54 0.73 0.83 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.85 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.948
0.38019.5%
0.84843.5%
0.72037.0%
Colemak Mod-DH
QWFPBJLUY;[]\
ARSTGMNEIO'
ZXCDVKH,./
0.68 0.15 -0.06 0.16
0.17
0.26
0.41
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.55 0.85 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.49 0.77 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.77 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.36 0.58 0.73 0.83 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98
rrb 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.61 0.79 0.87 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.78 0.94 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.958
0.33517.1%
0.84243.0%
0.78139.9%
Mtgap 2.0
,FHDKJCUL.[]\
OANTGMSERI/
QXBPZYW'V;
0.68 0.09 0.02 0.15
0.21
0.30
0.34
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.47 0.73 0.86 0.93 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rhr 0.48 0.75 0.88 0.94 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rh 0.48 0.74 0.87 0.94 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.83 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.36 0.58 0.73 0.83 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98
rrb 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.62 0.79 0.87 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.76 0.92 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.981
0.32716.5%
0.83942.3%
0.81541.1%
Capewell-Dvorak
',.PYQFGRK/=\
OAEIUDHTNS-
ZXCVJLMWB;
0.71 0.15 -0.09 0.15
0.22
0.28
0.35
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.70 0.90 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.48 0.82 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.59 0.86 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.87 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.33 0.54 0.67 0.77 0.85 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.97
rrb 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.62 0.78 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.98
rf 0.92 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.82 0.94 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.985
0.33316.8%
0.87844.2%
0.77439.0%
Norman
QWDFKJURL;[]\
ASETGYNIOH'
ZXCVBPM,./
0.68 0.10 0.05 0.15
0.21
0.32
0.33
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.47 0.76 0.89 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.56 0.80 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.78 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.79 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.37 0.58 0.72 0.82 0.88 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98
rrb 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.62 0.79 0.87 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.90 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.77 0.92 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.992
0.34217.2%
0.81240.8%
0.83842.1%
Workman
QDRWBJFUP;[]\
ASHTGYNEOI,
ZXMCVKL,./
0.68 0.11 0.05 0.15
0.20
0.30
0.35
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.47 0.77 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.57 0.80 0.92 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.79 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.80 0.97 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.37 0.58 0.72 0.82 0.88 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98
rrb 0.88 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.62 0.79 0.87 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.79 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.993
0.33616.9%
0.84842.5%
0.80940.6%
c-qwerty n
QWDRFJYPL;[]\
ASETGHUNIO'
ZXCVBKM,./
0.68 0.09 0.15 0.16
0.20
0.28
0.36
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.42 0.69 0.83 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1
rhr 0.61 0.83 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.51 0.76 0.88 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.77 0.96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.35 0.57 0.71 0.81 0.87 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98
rrb 0.95 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.60 0.79 0.86 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
rf 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.77 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
2.068
0.36617.7%
0.84540.9%
0.85741.4%
Capewell
.MYDG:WH<"?+
ARESFKTNIO-
XCZVJBPLUQ
0.66 0.14 -0.01 0.16
0.21
0.31
0.32
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.48 0.74 0.87 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1
rhr 0.46 0.74 0.86 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1
rh 0.47 0.74 0.87 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.85 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.37 0.60 0.76 0.85 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99
rrb 0.79 0.97 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.61 0.80 0.89 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.75 0.93 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
2.078
0.33115.9%
0.93144.8%
0.81639.3%
abKey
FGHJKLMN
AEIOUPQRST;'\
BCDVWXYZ
0.62 0.13 0.15 0.08
0.32
0.22
0.35
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.49 0.79 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.67 0.92 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.58 0.85 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.84 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.47 0.70 0.83 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1
rrb 0.91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.69 0.86 0.93 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99 1 1
rf 0.90 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.74 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
2.109
0.34416.3%
0.88542.0%
0.88041.7%
c-qwerty
QWDRFJYPLK[]\
ASETGHUIO,'
ZXCVBNM;./
0.62 0.15 0.15 0.09
0.21
0.28
0.42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.42 0.69 0.83 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1
rhr 0.61 0.83 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.51 0.76 0.88 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.77 0.96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.46 0.69 0.82 0.90 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
rrb 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.67 0.85 0.92 0.96 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rf 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.71 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
2.119
0.43920.7%
0.75535.6%
0.92643.7%
Engram
BYOU'"LDWVZ#@
CIEA,.HTSNQ
GXJK-?RMFP
0.58 0.15 -0.05 0.16
0.20
0.36
0.28
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.69 0.89 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.53 0.85 0.97 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.61 0.87 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.70 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.38 0.61 0.77 0.87 0.93 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99
rrb 0.87 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.60 0.80 0.89 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99 1
rf 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.82 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
2.171
0.41919.3%
0.95043.7%
0.80337.0%
Arensito
QL,P';FUDK[]\
ARENBGSITO'
ZW.HJVCYMX
0.67 0.17 -0.01 0.17
0.28
0.24
0.30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.47 0.77 0.89 0.95 0.98 0.99 0.99 1 1
rhr 0.47 0.74 0.88 0.94 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rh 0.47 0.76 0.89 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.81 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.38 0.61 0.76 0.85 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99
rrb 0.88 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.63 0.80 0.89 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.75 0.93 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
2.230
0.32514.6%
1.10949.7%
0.79635.7%
Halmak
WLRBZ;QUDJ[]
SHNT,.AEOI'
FMVC/GPXKY
0.64 0.15 0.01 0.20
0.26
0.29
0.25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.58 0.88 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.67 0.87 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.63 0.88 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.78 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.41 0.63 0.77 0.86 0.92 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99
rrb 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.64 0.82 0.90 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99 1
rf 0.93 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.81 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
2.322
0.32514.0%
1.17550.6%
0.82335.4%
c-qwerty 0.5
QWDRTJYKLP[]\
ASEFGHUIO;'
ZXCVBNM,./
0.55 0.15 0.15 0.10
0.21
0.27
0.42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.42 0.69 0.83 0.91 0.95 0.97 0.99 0.99 1
rhr 0.61 0.83 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.51 0.76 0.88 0.94 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 1
rrt 0.74 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.53 0.82 0.92 0.96 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrb 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.69 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rf 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.68 0.88 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
2.354
0.55623.6%
0.83235.4%
0.96541.0%

Partially Optimized Layouts

Below are keyboard layouts optimized for typing English text. The training set was Alice in Wonderland, Dracula, Great Expectations, Huckleberry Finn, Moby Dick, Picture of Dorian Grey, Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Count of Monte Cristo, Ulysses, Walden (7371647 characters, 3085666 triads, 7967 unique triads).

In partial optimization only letter keys were subject to relocation.

carpalx effort optimization keyboard name statistics effort
rowh rowb hand asym finger freq cumulative run distribution mod_01
partial min (10 swap) 10 steps to typing heaven version 1
QWYRFMLUBP[]\
DSATNHOEI;'
ZXCVJGK,./
0.68 0.07 0.02 0.06
0.17
0.28
0.48
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.51 0.80 0.91 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.52 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.81 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.72 0.94 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.37 0.56 0.70 0.80 0.87 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.97
rrb 0.95 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.58 0.77 0.85 0.90 0.94 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
rf 0.89 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.79 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.755
0.42824.4%
0.50528.8%
0.82246.9%
partial min (5 swap) 5 steps to typing heaven version 1
QWKRFYUIJP[]\
DSATNHOEL;'
ZXCVBGM,./
0.65 0.10 0.02 0.06
0.13
0.31
0.50
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.51 0.81 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.54 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.79 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.39 0.59 0.74 0.84 0.90 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98
rrb 0.96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.64 0.80 0.88 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
rf 0.87 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.79 0.93 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.868
0.49526.5%
0.48726.1%
0.88647.4%
partial optimization with 6 swaps CarpalxQ (by Jay Walker)
QWKRFYULP;[]\
ASDTGHNEIO'
ZXCVBJM,./
0.70 0.08 -0.07 0.16
0.17
0.24
0.42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.57 0.85 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.48 0.76 0.90 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rh 0.52 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.76 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.35 0.53 0.66 0.76 0.83 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.96
rrb 0.96 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.60 0.77 0.84 0.89 0.92 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98
rf 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.81 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
1.954
0.37219.0%
0.79040.4%
0.79340.6%

Fully Optimized Layouts

carpalx effort optimization keyboard name statistics effort
rowh rowb hand asym finger freq cumulative run distribution mod_01
full Colemak-like optimization qgmlwb
QGMLWBYUV;[]\
DSTNRIAEOH'
ZXCFJKP,./
0.74 0.07 -0.03 0.11
0.17
0.29
0.43
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.56 0.90 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.58 0.86 0.95 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.57 0.88 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.79 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.92 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.56 0.73 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.84 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.668
0.38222.9%
0.57034.2%
0.71642.9%
full Colemak-like optimization, ZXCV fixed qgmlwy
QGMLWYFUB;[]\
DSTNRIAEOH'
ZXCVJKP,./
0.74 0.06 -0.06 0.11
0.18
0.29
0.42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.60 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.56 0.85 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.58 0.88 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.77 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.93 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.55 0.72 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.92 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.85 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.670
0.38523.0%
0.57134.2%
0.71542.8%
full QWERTY optimization qfmlwy
QFMLWYUOBJ[]\
DSTNRIAEH;'
ZVGCXPK,./
0.66 0.08 -0.02 0.05
0.17
0.34
0.44
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.57 0.90 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.60 0.88 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.58 0.89 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.59 0.87 0.96 0.99 0.99 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.29 0.50 0.66 0.77 0.84 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.97
rrb 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.51 0.72 0.83 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.98
rf 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.85 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.722
0.51029.6%
0.47627.6%
0.73642.8%
colemak improvement 1 colemak-imp-01
PBFMWJLUY;[]\
SNATDHOEIR'
ZVGCQXK,./
0.74 0.07 0.01 0.14
0.18
0.28
0.40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.50 0.80 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1
rhr 0.51 0.81 0.92 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.50 0.80 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrt 0.76 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.95 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.55 0.72 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.92 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.83 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.738
0.33219.1%
0.67538.8%
0.73142.1%
colemak improvement 2 colemak-imp-02
GYLMWPFUB;[]\
RSNTDHAEOI'
ZXCVQJK,./
0.74 0.05 -0.02 0.15
0.18
0.28
0.39
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.57 0.88 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.57 0.87 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.57 0.88 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.75 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.26 0.46 0.60 0.71 0.79 0.85 0.89 0.92 0.94
rrb 0.94 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.53 0.72 0.80 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.84 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.756
0.34119.4%
0.70039.9%
0.71540.7%

Fully Optimized Foreign Language Layouts

Dutch

carpalx effort optimization keyboard name statistics effort
rowh rowb hand asym finger freq cumulative run distribution mod_01
full De Correspondent 2
QFKLMWVUJY[]\
SDTNRIAEOG'
;ZBHXPC,./
0.74 0.08 -0.06 0.07
0.15
0.31
0.46
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.54 0.93 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.52 0.84 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rh 0.53 0.89 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.83 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.27 0.48 0.61 0.72 0.80 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95
rrb 0.86 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.57 0.74 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rf 0.88 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.81 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.555
0.38124.5%
0.47430.5%
0.70145.1%
full De Correspondent 1
XKGLMPUVWY[]\
SDTNRIAEO;'
QBJHFZC,./
0.71 0.09 0.01 0.04
0.17
0.32
0.46
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.49 0.90 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rhr 0.59 0.88 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.54 0.89 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrt 0.84 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.30 0.53 0.67 0.78 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.97
rrb 0.87 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.59 0.77 0.84 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99
rf 0.87 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.79 0.95 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
1.608
0.41926.1%
0.45528.3%
0.73445.6%

Worst Layouts

When typing effort is maximized, expect the worst layout.

carpalx effort optimization keyboard name statistics effort
rowh rowb hand asym finger freq cumulative run distribution mod_01
maximized effort tnwclr
TNWCLRBFMH[]\
SKJXGPQZV;'
EODIAUY,./
0.12 0.45 0.47 0.34
0.19
0.09
0.38
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.33 0.50 0.64 0.74 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.95
rhr 0.81 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.57 0.73 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.97
rrt 0.65 0.91 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.89 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrb 0.74 0.93 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.73 0.93 0.98 1 1 1 1 1 1
rf 0.83 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.65 0.69 0.84 0.86 0.93 0.94 0.97 0.97 0.98
5.495
1.51127.5%
2.64248.1%
1.34224.4%

Alphabetic Layouts

Alphabetic layouts. Mere curios.

carpalx effort optimization keyboard name statistics effort
rowh rowb hand asym finger freq cumulative run distribution mod_01
none Alphabetic V
ADGJMPSVXZ[]\
BEHKNQTWY;'
CFILORU,./
0.41 0.32 0.37 0.12
0.21
0.19
0.48
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.30 0.55 0.69 0.80 0.87 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.98
rhr 0.70 0.93 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.50 0.74 0.84 0.90 0.93 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
rrt 0.73 0.94 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.60 0.82 0.92 0.97 0.99 0.99 1 1 1
rrb 0.63 0.87 0.96 0.99 0.99 1 1 1 1
rr 0.65 0.87 0.96 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rf 0.83 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.66 0.82 0.91 0.95 0.98 0.99 0.99 1 1
3.193
0.91228.6%
1.16536.5%
1.11634.9%
none Alphabetic H
ABCDEFGHIJ[]\
KLMNOPQRS;'
TUVWXYZ,./
0.36 0.18 0.33 0.18
0.22
0.18
0.42
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
rhl 0.39 0.59 0.74 0.83 0.89 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.98
rhr 0.72 0.92 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rh 0.55 0.76 0.86 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.98 0.98 0.99
rrt 0.55 0.83 0.94 0.98 0.99 1 1 1 1
rrh 0.69 0.89 0.97 0.99 1 1 1 1 1
rrb 0.87 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
rr 0.68 0.89 0.96 0.99 0.99 1 1 1 1
rf 0.83 0.96 0.99 1 1 1 1 1 1
rj 0.69 0.83 0.92 0.95 0.98 0.99 0.99 1 1
3.376
0.95028.1%
1.30638.7%
1.12033.2%