latest newsbuy art
music + dance + projected visualsNosaj Thingmarvel at perfect timingmore quotes
very clickable
fun + Amusement
Will the egg survive? Learn about the results of the UBC Rocket Challenge.
Discover what the world is asking in my World's Most Popular Questions.

Search Globe — Global Visualization of Google Searches by Language

Shown here is a globe visualization of world-wide Google searches, categorized by one of 21 languages. The visualization is created with WebGL toolkit and bundled data from Chrome Experiments.

1 · Data annotations — geotagged and ranked

I have annotated the data with geographical information from MaxMind, to include city, region, and country for each search location. The closest city was determined by finding the entry in the MaxMind data set (2.8M cities) with the smallest haversine distance to the coordinates of the search term. Note that latitude and longitude were provided to 3 decimal places in the original data file but are available to 7 decimal places in the MaxMind set.

The annotated data file includes new fields

  • rank (1-indexed rank of magnitude of search data point)
  • cumulative_value (fractional total of all search terms with equal or smaller magnitude)
  • language_name (name of the search language)
  • city (closest city to latitude/longitude of search data point)
  • region (region of closest city)
  • country (country of closest city)
  • city_latitude, city_longitude (coordinates of closest city)

Download geotagged data

Thanks to Evan Applegate from UC Davis for requesting an explanation of the additional fields. They were not obvious.

2 · Google search volume

2.1 · Search options

2.1.1 · By language

View all languages or individual data for the following languages: Arabic Belgian Chinese Dutch English Finnish French German Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish

2.1.2 · By magnitude

View top 5%, 10%, 15% of data.

2.1.3 · By location

View top 10 20 50 100 search locations.

2.1.4 · By density

View search density.

2.2 · Search results

Showing all languages.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca

The color legend was created based on the color scheme used in the original webgl-globe code.

3 · Observations on the data

3.1 · I'm an illegal alien

There are 11 locations in the US with searches in Spanish: Dillard, Douglas, Flint Hill, Floyds Knobs, Great Falls, Orrs Island, Redwood Estates, Simpsonville, Spanish Fork, Spanish Fort, and Washington. Conspicuously, Los Angeles is missing.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of Spanish searches from continental US. (see results)

The northern-most town in Mexico with a Spanish search is Mexicali (Baja Californa, lat 32.65 long -115.47).

3.2 · Chinese takeout

The Chinese takeover (but not takeout) has been largely overestimated. Only two towns in the US participate in Chinese language searches: Williamsport and Evensville.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of Chinese searches from continental US. (see results)

3.3 · English around the world

3.3.1 · English in South America

With the exception of Albouystown (Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana) and Paramaribo (Suriname), South America shows no English searches.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in South America. (see results)

3.3.2 · English in Asia

Asia shows interesting patterns. Namely, no English searches are seen from China. No doubt, political firewalls are the cause. By country, India leads with 82 searches, followed by Malaysia (64) and Pakistan (11). The full list is India (82), Malaysia (64), Pakistan (11), United (5), Bangladesh (4), Sri (3), Philippines (3), Nepal (3), Korea (3), Japan (2), Iran (2), Singapore (1), Papua (1), Myanmar (1), Maldives (1), Cambodia (1), Brunei (1), Bhutan (1), Afghanistan (1).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in Asia. (see results)

3.3.3 · English in the Far North

There are 25 locations with English language searches at latitude ≥ 60°. There are 15 cities in Alaska with searches (Anchorage, Barrow, Bethel, Cordova, Delta Junction, Eagle River, Fairbanks, Kenai, Nome, North Pole, Palmer, Seward, Soldotna, Valdez, Wasilla), of which Barrow is furthest north (lat 71.29°). The other 10 cities are mostly in Canada: Lerwick (Shetland Islands, United Kingdom, lat 60.160°), Whitehorse (Yukon Territory, Canada, lat 60.720°), Jarstad (Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, lat 61.360°), Fort Providence (Northwest Territories, Canada, lat 61.380°), Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada, lat 62.450°), Frobisher Bay (Nunavut, Canada, lat 63.750°), Keflavík Gullbringusysla Iceland lat 64.010°), Inuvik (Northwest Territories, Canada, lat 68.340°), Gjoa Haven (Nunavut, Canada, lat 68.630°), Igloolik (Nunavut, Canada, lat 69.380°).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in the Far North. (see results)

3.3.4 · English in the Far South

New Zealand and Australia dominate search loations in the far south. The southermost English search is from Invercargill (Southland, New Zealand, lat -46.4° — compare this to the northmost search from Barrow in Alaska at lat 71.29°). In Australia, the southermost search is from Davenport (Tasmania, Australia, lat -41.17°). In South Africa, the southermost search is from Hermanus (Western Cape, South Africa, lat -34.42°).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in the Far South. (see results)

3.4 · Most remote locations

What is the most remote search location? Here, I define distance between locations by the haversine distance.

I tabulate three types of remote locations, by language, by finding

  • most remote, regardless of language of nearest city
  • most remote, with nearest city searching in the same language
  • most remote, with nearest city searching in a different language

3.4.1 · Most remote

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Three of the most remote search locations. (see results)

Cities, by language, most distant from their closest city.

The most remote search location of alll is Papeete, whose closest search data point is 2,287 km away — Fusi in American Samoa. Also interesting is the Belgian-speakinng Westerschelling in the Netherlands, which has the smallest maximum distance to its nearest city, by language. It is 25 km from Harlingen, Netherlands.

  1. French Papeete (French Polynesia, lat -17.540° long -149.570°) 2287 km from English Fusi (American Samoa, United States)
  2. English Mahé (Beau Vallon, Seychelles, lat -4.620° long 55.440°) 1347 km from English Hamar (Banaadir, Somalia)
  3. Russian Yakutsk (Sakha, Russian Federation, lat 62.040° long 129.750°) 1119 km from Chinese Kuchiku (Heilongjiang, China)
  4. Dutch Godthaab (Vestgronland, Greenland, lat 64.180° long -51.720°) 818 km from English Frobisher Bay (Nunavut, Canada)
  5. Portuguese Boa Vista (Roraima, Brazil, lat 2.820° long -60.670°) 522 km from English Albouystown (Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana)
  6. Indonesian Lette (Indonesia, lat -5.150° long 119.410°) 516 km from Indonesian Balikpapan (Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia)
  7. Spanish San Juan de Miraflores (Loreto, Peru, lat -3.760° long -73.270°) 458 km from Spanish San Martin (San Martin, Peru)
  8. Chinese Hotan (Xinjiang, China, lat 37.110° long 79.920°) 431 km from Chinese Kaschgar (Xinjiang, China)
  9. Arabic Ara`ar (Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Saudi Arabia, lat 30.980° long 41.030°) 390 km from Arabic Hael (Ha'il, Saudi Arabia)
  10. Japanese Nase (Kagoshima, Japan, lat 28.380° long 129.490°) 248 km from Japanese Nago (Okinawa, Japan)
  11. Thai Amphoe Muang Ranong (Ranong, Thailand, lat 9.970° long 98.640°) 225 km from Thai Amphoe Muang Nakhon Si Thammarat (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand)
  12. Turkish Thospia (Van, Turkey, lat 38.490° long 43.380°) 177 km from English Sangar-e Beru Khan (Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Iran)
  13. Norwegian Guovdagæidno (Finnmark, Norway, lat 69.010° long 23.040°) 107 km from Norwegian Bosekop (Finnmark, Norway)
  14. Swedish Lofsdalen (Jamtlands Lan, Sweden, lat 62.120° long 13.270°) 106 km from Norwegian Nybergsund (Hedmark, Norway)
  15. Finnish Kansela (Oulu, Finland, lat 65.970° long 29.170°) 98 km from Finnish Märkäjärvi (Lapland, Finland)
  16. Romanian Sisesti (Gorj, Romania, lat 45.060° long 23.300°) 68 km from Romanian Drobeta-Turnu Severin (Mehedinti, Romania)
  17. Italian Nuoro (Sardegna, Italy, lat 40.320° long 9.330°) 60 km from Italian Santu Lussurgiu (Sardegna, Italy)
  18. Polish Vlodava (Poland, lat 51.550° long 23.550°) 45 km from Polish Bielawin (Poland)
  19. Korean Bontoku (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea, lat 36.410° long 129.370°) 43 km from Korean Eijitsu (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea)
  20. German Monplaisir (Brandenburg, Germany, lat 53.060° long 14.270°) 39 km from German Prenzlau (Brandenburg, Germany)
  21. Belgian Westerschelling (Friesland, Netherlands, lat 53.360° long 5.220°) 25 km from Belgian Harlingen (Friesland, Netherlands)

3.4.2 · Most remote — nearest city searching in the same language

Cities, by language, most distant from their closest city, in which people speak (i.e. search) in the same language.

English searches are the most spread out on the globe. Of all search languuages, Mahe in Seychelles is furthest from its same-language nearest loccation of all other languages. It is 1,347 from Hamar in Somalia, in which English searches are found.

  1. English Mahé (Beau Vallon, Seychelles, lat -4.620° long 55.440°) 1347 km from English Hamar (Banaadir, Somalia)
  2. Indonesian Lette (Indonesia, lat -5.150° long 119.410°) 516 km from Indonesian Balikpapan (Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia)
  3. Spanish San Juan de Miraflores (Loreto, Peru, lat -3.760° long -73.270°) 458 km from Spanish San Martin (San Martin, Peru)
  4. Chinese Hotan (Xinjiang, China, lat 37.110° long 79.920°) 431 km from Chinese Kaschgar (Xinjiang, China)
  5. Arabic Ara`ar (Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Saudi Arabia, lat 30.980° long 41.030°) 390 km from Arabic Hael (Ha'il, Saudi Arabia)
  6. Japanese Nase (Kagoshima, Japan, lat 28.380° long 129.490°) 248 km from Japanese Nago (Okinawa, Japan)
  7. Thai Amphoe Muang Ranong (Ranong, Thailand, lat 9.970° long 98.640°) 225 km from Thai Amphoe Muang Nakhon Si Thammarat (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand)
  8. Norwegian Guovdagæidno (Finnmark, Norway, lat 69.010° long 23.040°) 107 km from Norwegian Bosekop (Finnmark, Norway)
  9. Finnish Kansela (Oulu, Finland, lat 65.970° long 29.170°) 98 km from Finnish Märkäjärvi (Lapland, Finland)
  10. Romanian Sisesti (Gorj, Romania, lat 45.060° long 23.300°) 68 km from Romanian Drobeta-Turnu Severin (Mehedinti, Romania)
  11. Italian Nuoro (Sardegna, Italy, lat 40.320° long 9.330°) 60 km from Italian Santu Lussurgiu (Sardegna, Italy)
  12. Polish Vlodava (Poland, lat 51.550° long 23.550°) 45 km from Polish Bielawin (Poland)
  13. Korean Bontoku (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea, lat 36.410° long 129.370°) 43 km from Korean Eijitsu (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea)
  14. German Monplaisir (Brandenburg, Germany, lat 53.060° long 14.270°) 39 km from German Prenzlau (Brandenburg, Germany)
  15. Belgian Westerschelling (Friesland, Netherlands, lat 53.360° long 5.220°) 25 km from Belgian Harlingen (Friesland, Netherlands)

3.4.3 · Most remote — nearest city searching in a different language

Cities, by language, most distant from their closest city, which is foreign (i.e. searching in a different language).

  1. French Papeete (French Polynesia, lat -17.540° long -149.570°) 2287 km from English Fusi (American Samoa, United States)
  2. Russian Yakutsk (Sakha, Russian Federation, lat 62.040° long 129.750°) 1119 km from Chinese Kuchiku (Heilongjiang, China)
  3. Dutch Godthaab (Vestgronland, Greenland, lat 64.180° long -51.720°) 818 km from English Frobisher Bay (Nunavut, Canada)
  4. Portuguese Boa Vista (Roraima, Brazil, lat 2.820° long -60.670°) 522 km from English Albouystown (Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana)
  5. Turkish Thospia (Van, Turkey, lat 38.490° long 43.380°) 177 km from English Sangar-e Beru Khan (Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Iran)
  6. Swedish Lofsdalen (Jamtlands Lan, Sweden, lat 62.120° long 13.270°) 106 km from Norwegian Nybergsund (Hedmark, Norway)

3.5 · Top 10 locations

About 10% of all searches come from the top 10 locations.

  1. English New York (United States)
  2. French Paris (France)
  3. Turkish Istanbul (Turkey)
  4. English London (United Kingdom)
  5. Portuguese Sao Paolo (Brazil)
  6. English Miami (United States)
  7. German Berlin (Germany)
  8. Spanish Madrid (Spain)
  9. Spanish Mexico City (Mexico)
  10. Thai Bangkok (Thailand)

I am surprised to see Miami here (bored retirees?) as well as Istanbul — I don't have a theory for that one.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Top 10 cities by search volume. (see results)

3.6 · Top 100 locations

38% of all searches come from the top 100 locations (out of 22,826), with English dominating (33/100) followed by Spanish (11/100).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Top 100 cities by search volume. (see results)

The full breakdown for the top 100 locations by language is English (33), Spanish (11), German (8), Japanese (6), Dutch (6), Portuguese (5), French (5), Turkish (4), Italian (4), Chinese (4), Russian (3), Arabic (3), Polish (2), Thai (1), Swedish (1), Romanian (1), Korean (1), Indonesian (1), Finnish (1).

By country, the top 100 locations fall in United States (11), Germany (6), India (6), Japan (6), Brazil (5), United Kingdom (5), Italy (4), Turkey (4), Australia (3), France (3), Mexico (3), Russian Federation (3), Canada (2), China (2), Colombia (2), Poland (2), Saudi Arabia (2), Spain (2), Vietnam (2), Algeria (1), Argentina (1), Austria (1), Chile (1), Egypt (1), Finland (1), Greece (1), Hong Kong (1), Hungary (1), Indonesia (1), Ireland (1), Israel (1), Korea (1), Malaysia (1), Peru (1), Philippines (1), Romania (1), Serbia (1), Singapore (1), Sweden (1), Switzerland (1), Taiwan (1), Thailand (1), Tunisia (1), Ukraine (1), United Arab Emirates (1), Venezuela (1)

The top 100 locations are

  1. English New York (New York, United States)
  2. French Saint-Merri (Ile-de-France, France)
  3. Turkish Küçükpazar (Istanbul, Turkey)
  4. English City of London (Essex, United Kingdom)
  5. Portuguese Liberdade (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
  6. English Miami (Florida, United States)
  7. German Berlin (Berlin, Germany)
  8. Spanish Entrevías (Madrid, Spain)
  9. Spanish Ciudad de México (Distrito Federal, Mexico)
  10. Thai Amphoe Bang Rak (Krung Thep, Thailand)
  11. Spanish Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia)
  12. English City of Sydney (New South Wales, Australia)
  13. Spanish Hacienda Huachipa (Lima, Peru)
  14. Spanish San Telmo (Distrito Federal, Argentina)
  15. Italian Roma (Lazio, Italy)
  16. Polish Powisle (Poland)
  17. Italian Mailand (Lombardia, Italy)
  18. English South Melbourne (Victoria, Australia)
  19. English Los Angeles (California, United States)
  20. Portuguese São Cristavem (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
  21. Russian Moscou (Moscow City, Russian Federation)
  22. Turkish Maltepe (Ankara, Turkey)
  23. Indonesian Pasarmanggis (Jakarta Raya, Indonesia)
  24. Dutch Ho Chi Minh City (Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam)
  25. Spanish Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain)
  26. English Toronto (Ontario, Canada)
  27. Spanish La Reina (Region Metropolitana, Chile)
  28. Spanish Los Caobas (Distrito Federal, Venezuela)
  29. English Chicago (Illinois, United States)
  30. Russian KievPetrovsky Port (Kyyivs'ka Oblast', Ukraine)
  31. Arabic Az Zahra' (Ar Riyad, Saudi Arabia)
  32. Dutch Xóm Trong (Vietnam)
  33. German München (Bayern, Germany)
  34. English Connaught Place (Delhi, India)
  35. Portuguese Venda Nova (Minas Gerais, Brazil)
  36. Dutch Afini (Attiki, Greece)
  37. English Bangalore (Karnataka, India)
  38. English Kampong Haji Abdullah Hukum (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
  39. German Hamburg (Hamburg, Germany)
  40. Chinese Beijing (Beijing, China)
  41. Arabic Rawd al Faraj (Al Qahirah, Egypt)
  42. English Singapore City (Singapore)
  43. English Houston (Texas, United States)
  44. English Paddington (Essex, United Kingdom)
  45. Turkish Azmir (Izmir, Turkey)
  46. Japanese Nishi-okubo (Tokyo, Japan)
  47. English Spring Hill (Victoria, Australia)
  48. English Bombay Wadala (Maharashtra, India)
  49. Dutch Hakiriah (Tel Aviv, Israel)
  50. French Fourvière (Rhone-Alpes, France)
  51. Chinese Shanghaishih (Shanghai, China)
  52. Arabic Bani Malik (Makkah, Saudi Arabia)
  53. English Daira (Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
  54. Dutch Kiyabo (Manila, Philippines)
  55. German Inner City (Wien, Austria)
  56. Italian Naples (Campania, Italy)
  57. English Montreal (Quebec, Canada)
  58. English Kilmainham (Dublin, Ireland)
  59. German Alt-Wiedikon (Zurich, Switzerland)
  60. Japanese Kyobashi (Osaka, Japan)
  61. Dutch Buda (Budapest, Hungary)
  62. Romanian Bucarest (Bucuresti, Romania)
  63. Chinese Central District (Hong Kong)
  64. Japanese Sengendai (Kanagawa, Japan)
  65. Japanese Hibiyakoen (Tokyo, Japan)
  66. English Thousand Lights (Tamil Nadu, India)
  67. English San Francisco (California, United States)
  68. English Farragut Square (District of Columbia, United States)
  69. English Victoria Park (Manchester, United Kingdom)
  70. Swedish Norrmalm (Stockholms Lan, Sweden)
  71. German Frankford-on-Main (Hessen, Germany)
  72. German Augusta Ubiorum (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany)
  73. Chinese Fantzupo (T'ai-pei, Taiwan)
  74. Korean Kyedong (Seoul-t'ukpyolsi, Korea)
  75. English Lambeth (Lambeth, United Kingdom)
  76. German Stutengarten (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
  77. Japanese Sarugakucho (Tokyo, Japan)
  78. English Seattle (Washington, United States)
  79. Finnish Gloet (Southern Finland, Finland)
  80. Italian Borgo Po (Piemonte, Italy)
  81. Spanish Guadalajara (Jalisco, Mexico)
  82. Spanish Alpujarra (Antioquia, Colombia)
  83. French Toulouse (Midi-Pyrenees, France)
  84. English San Diego (California, United States)
  85. English Dallas (Texas, United States)
  86. English Denver (Colorado, United States)
  87. English Dorcol (Serbia)
  88. English Aston (Essex, United Kingdom)
  89. English Romanovskiy (Moskva, Russian Federation)
  90. Polish Kleparz (Poland)
  91. Russian Aptekarskiy (Leningrad, Russian Federation)
  92. Spanish Monterrey (Nuevo Leon, Mexico)
  93. French El Bia (Alger, Algeria)
  94. French Al `Umran (Tunisia)
  95. Portuguese Bahia (Bahia, Brazil)
  96. Portuguese Brasília (Distrito Federal, Brazil)
  97. Turkish Adana (Adana, Turkey)
  98. Japanese Edo (Tokyo, Japan)
  99. English Bhaganagar (Andhra Pradesh, India)
  100. English Mali and Munjeri (Maharashtra, India)
news + thoughts

Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring

Mon 21-11-2022

If you sit on the sofa for your entire life, you’re running a higher risk of getting heart disease and cancer. —Alex Honnold, American rock climber

In a follow-up to our Survival analysis — time-to-event data and censoring article, we look at how regression can be used to account for additional risk factors in survival analysis.

We explore accelerated failure time regression (AFTR) and the Cox Proportional Hazards model (Cox PH).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. Nature Methods 19.

Music video for Max Cooper's Ascent

Tue 25-10-2022

My 5-dimensional animation sets the visual stage for Max Cooper's Ascent from the album Unspoken Words. I have previously collaborated with Max on telling a story about infinity for his Yearning for the Infinite album.

I provide a walkthrough the video, describe the animation system I created to generate the frames, and show you all the keyframes

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Frame 4897 from the music video of Max Cooper's Asent.

The video recently premiered on YouTube.

Renders of the full scene are available as NFTs.

Gene Cultures exhibit — art at the MIT Museum

Tue 25-10-2022

I am more than my genome and my genome is more than me.

The MIT Museum reopened at its new location on 2nd October 2022. The new Gene Cultures exhibit featured my visualization of the human genome, which walks through the size and organization of the genome and some of the important structures.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My art at the MIT Museum Gene Cultures exhibit tells shows the scale and structure of the human genome. Pay no attention to the pink chicken.

Annals of Oncology cover

Wed 14-09-2022

My cover design on the 1 September 2022 Annals of Oncology issue shows 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers. Each case shows the number and type of actionable genomic alterations that were detected and the length of therapies that resulted from the analysis.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
An organic arrangement of 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers showing genomic changes and therapies. Apperas on Annals of Oncology cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022).

Pleasance E et al. Whole-genome and transcriptome analysis enhances precision cancer treatment options (2022) Annals of Oncology 33:939–949.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Annals of Oncology 570 cancer cohort cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring

Fri 05-08-2022

Love's the only engine of survival. —L. Cohen

We begin a series on survival analysis in the context of its two key complications: skew (which calls for the use of probability distributions, such as the Weibull, that can accomodate skew) and censoring (required because we almost always fail to observe the event in question for all subjects).

We discuss right, left and interval censoring and how mishandling censoring can lead to bias and loss of sensitivity in tests that probe for differences in survival times.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. Nature Methods 19:906–908.

3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps

Sun 21-08-2022

See How Scientists Put Together the Complete Human Genome.

My graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the August 2022 issue shows the full history of the human genome assembly — from its humble shotgun beginnings to the gapless telomere-to-telomere assembly.

Read about the process and methods behind the creation of the graphic.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps. Text by Clara Moskowitz (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: UCSC Genome Browser.

See all my Scientific American Graphic Science visualizations.


© 1999–2022 Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA