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Trance opera—Spente le Stellebe dramaticmore quotes

language: fun


EMBO Practical Course: Bioinformatics and Genome Analysis, 5–17 June 2017.


fun + amusement

Search Globe — Global Visualization of Google Searches by Language

Shown here is a globe visualization of world-wide Google searches, categorized by one of 21 languages. The visualization is created with WebGL toolkit and bundled data from Chrome Experiments.

Data Annotations — Geotagged and Ranked

I have annotated the data with geographical information from MaxMind, to include city, region, and country for each search location. The closest city was determined by finding the entry in the MaxMind data set (2.8M cities) with the smallest haversine distance to the coordinates of the search term. Note that latitude and longitude were provided to 3 decimal places in the original data file but are available to 7 decimal places in the MaxMind set.

The annotated data file includes new fields

  • rank (1-indexed rank of magnitude of search data point)
  • cumulative_value (fractional total of all search terms with equal or smaller magnitude)
  • language_name (name of the search language)
  • city (closest city to latitude/longitude of search data point)
  • region (region of closest city)
  • country (country of closest city)
  • city_latitude, city_longitude (coordinates of closest city)

Download geotagged data

Thanks to Evan Applegate from UC Davis for requesting an explanation of the additional fields. They were not obvious.

By language

View all languages or individual data for the following languages: Arabic Belgian Chinese Dutch English Finnish French German Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish

By magnitude

View top 5%, 10%, 15% of data.

By location

View top 10 20 50 100 search locations.

By density

View search density.

Google Search Volume

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca

The color legend was created based on the color scheme used in the original webgl-globe code.

Observations on the data

Illegal Mexican aliens in US

There are 11 locations in the US with searches in Spanish: Dillard, Douglas, Flint Hill, Floyds Knobs, Great Falls, Orrs Island, Redwood Estates, Simpsonville, Spanish Fork, Spanish Fort, and Washington. Conspicuously, Los Angeles is missing.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of Spanish searches from continental US.

The northern-most town in Mexico with a Spanish search is Mexicali (Baja Californa, lat 32.65 long -115.47).

Chinese Take Out

The Chinese takeover has been largely overestimated. Only two towns in the US participate in Chinese language searches: Williamsport and Evensville.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of Chinese searches from continental US.

English Around the World

English in South America

With the exception of Albouystown (Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana) and Paramaribo (Suriname), South America shows no English searches.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in South America.

English in Asia

Asia shows interesting patterns. Namely, no English searches are seen from China. No doubt, political firewalls are the cause. By country, India leads with 82 searches, followed by Malaysia (64) and Pakistan (11). The full list is India (82), Malaysia (64), Pakistan (11), United (5), Bangladesh (4), Sri (3), Philippines (3), Nepal (3), Korea (3), Japan (2), Iran (2), Singapore (1), Papua (1), Myanmar (1), Maldives (1), Cambodia (1), Brunei (1), Bhutan (1), Afghanistan (1).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in Asia.

English in the Far North

There are 25 locations with English language searches at latitude ≥ 60°. There are 15 cities in Alaska with searches (Anchorage, Barrow, Bethel, Cordova, Delta Junction, Eagle River, Fairbanks, Kenai, Nome, North Pole, Palmer, Seward, Soldotna, Valdez, Wasilla), of which Barrow is furthest north (lat 71.29°). The other 10 cities are mostly in Canada: Lerwick (Shetland Islands, United Kingdom, lat 60.160°), Whitehorse (Yukon Territory, Canada, lat 60.720°), Jarstad (Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, lat 61.360°), Fort Providence (Northwest Territories, Canada, lat 61.380°), Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada, lat 62.450°), Frobisher Bay (Nunavut, Canada, lat 63.750°), Keflavík Gullbringusysla Iceland lat 64.010°), Inuvik (Northwest Territories, Canada, lat 68.340°), Gjoa Haven (Nunavut, Canada, lat 68.630°), Igloolik (Nunavut, Canada, lat 69.380°).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in the Far North.

English in the Far South

New Zealand and Australia dominate search loations in the far south. The southermost English search is from Invercargill (Southland, New Zealand, lat -46.4° — compare this to the northmost search from Barrow in Alaska at lat 71.29°). In Australia, the southermost search is from Davenport (Tasmania, Australia, lat -41.17°). In South Africa, the southermost search is from Hermanus (Western Cape, South Africa, lat -34.42°).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Concentration of English searches in the Far South.

Most Remote Locations

What is the most remote search location? Here, I define distance between locations by the haversine distance.

I tabulate three types of remote locations, by language, by finding

  • most remote, regardless of language of nearest city
  • most remote, with nearest city searching in the same language
  • most remote, with nearest city searching in a different language

Most Remote

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Three of the most remote search locations.

Cities, by language, most distant from their closest city.

The most remote search location of alll is Papeete, whose closest search data point is 2,287 km away — Fusi in American Samoa. Also interesting is the Belgian-speakinng Westerschelling in the Netherlands, which has the smallest maximum distance to its nearest city, by language. It is 25 km from Harlingen, Netherlands.

  1. French Papeete (French Polynesia, lat -17.540° long -149.570°) 2287 km from English Fusi (American Samoa, United States)
  2. English Mahé (Beau Vallon, Seychelles, lat -4.620° long 55.440°) 1347 km from English Hamar (Banaadir, Somalia)
  3. Russian Yakutsk (Sakha, Russian Federation, lat 62.040° long 129.750°) 1119 km from Chinese Kuchiku (Heilongjiang, China)
  4. Dutch Godthaab (Vestgronland, Greenland, lat 64.180° long -51.720°) 818 km from English Frobisher Bay (Nunavut, Canada)
  5. Portuguese Boa Vista (Roraima, Brazil, lat 2.820° long -60.670°) 522 km from English Albouystown (Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana)
  6. Indonesian Lette (Indonesia, lat -5.150° long 119.410°) 516 km from Indonesian Balikpapan (Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia)
  7. Spanish San Juan de Miraflores (Loreto, Peru, lat -3.760° long -73.270°) 458 km from Spanish San Martin (San Martin, Peru)
  8. Chinese Hotan (Xinjiang, China, lat 37.110° long 79.920°) 431 km from Chinese Kaschgar (Xinjiang, China)
  9. Arabic Ara`ar (Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Saudi Arabia, lat 30.980° long 41.030°) 390 km from Arabic Hael (Ha'il, Saudi Arabia)
  10. Japanese Nase (Kagoshima, Japan, lat 28.380° long 129.490°) 248 km from Japanese Nago (Okinawa, Japan)
  11. Thai Amphoe Muang Ranong (Ranong, Thailand, lat 9.970° long 98.640°) 225 km from Thai Amphoe Muang Nakhon Si Thammarat (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand)
  12. Turkish Thospia (Van, Turkey, lat 38.490° long 43.380°) 177 km from English Sangar-e Beru Khan (Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Iran)
  13. Norwegian Guovdagæidno (Finnmark, Norway, lat 69.010° long 23.040°) 107 km from Norwegian Bosekop (Finnmark, Norway)
  14. Swedish Lofsdalen (Jamtlands Lan, Sweden, lat 62.120° long 13.270°) 106 km from Norwegian Nybergsund (Hedmark, Norway)
  15. Finnish Kansela (Oulu, Finland, lat 65.970° long 29.170°) 98 km from Finnish Märkäjärvi (Lapland, Finland)
  16. Romanian Sisesti (Gorj, Romania, lat 45.060° long 23.300°) 68 km from Romanian Drobeta-Turnu Severin (Mehedinti, Romania)
  17. Italian Nuoro (Sardegna, Italy, lat 40.320° long 9.330°) 60 km from Italian Santu Lussurgiu (Sardegna, Italy)
  18. Polish Vlodava (Poland, lat 51.550° long 23.550°) 45 km from Polish Bielawin (Poland)
  19. Korean Bontoku (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea, lat 36.410° long 129.370°) 43 km from Korean Eijitsu (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea)
  20. German Monplaisir (Brandenburg, Germany, lat 53.060° long 14.270°) 39 km from German Prenzlau (Brandenburg, Germany)
  21. Belgian Westerschelling (Friesland, Netherlands, lat 53.360° long 5.220°) 25 km from Belgian Harlingen (Friesland, Netherlands)

Most Remote — nearest city searching in same language

Cities, by language, most distant from their closest city, in which people speak (i.e. search) in the same language.

English searches are the most spread out on the globe. Of all search languuages, Mahe in Seychelles is furthest from its same-language nearest loccation of all other languages. It is 1,347 from Hamar in Somalia, in which English searches are found.

  1. English Mahé (Beau Vallon, Seychelles, lat -4.620° long 55.440°) 1347 km from English Hamar (Banaadir, Somalia)
  2. Indonesian Lette (Indonesia, lat -5.150° long 119.410°) 516 km from Indonesian Balikpapan (Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia)
  3. Spanish San Juan de Miraflores (Loreto, Peru, lat -3.760° long -73.270°) 458 km from Spanish San Martin (San Martin, Peru)
  4. Chinese Hotan (Xinjiang, China, lat 37.110° long 79.920°) 431 km from Chinese Kaschgar (Xinjiang, China)
  5. Arabic Ara`ar (Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Saudi Arabia, lat 30.980° long 41.030°) 390 km from Arabic Hael (Ha'il, Saudi Arabia)
  6. Japanese Nase (Kagoshima, Japan, lat 28.380° long 129.490°) 248 km from Japanese Nago (Okinawa, Japan)
  7. Thai Amphoe Muang Ranong (Ranong, Thailand, lat 9.970° long 98.640°) 225 km from Thai Amphoe Muang Nakhon Si Thammarat (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand)
  8. Norwegian Guovdagæidno (Finnmark, Norway, lat 69.010° long 23.040°) 107 km from Norwegian Bosekop (Finnmark, Norway)
  9. Finnish Kansela (Oulu, Finland, lat 65.970° long 29.170°) 98 km from Finnish Märkäjärvi (Lapland, Finland)
  10. Romanian Sisesti (Gorj, Romania, lat 45.060° long 23.300°) 68 km from Romanian Drobeta-Turnu Severin (Mehedinti, Romania)
  11. Italian Nuoro (Sardegna, Italy, lat 40.320° long 9.330°) 60 km from Italian Santu Lussurgiu (Sardegna, Italy)
  12. Polish Vlodava (Poland, lat 51.550° long 23.550°) 45 km from Polish Bielawin (Poland)
  13. Korean Bontoku (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea, lat 36.410° long 129.370°) 43 km from Korean Eijitsu (Kyongsang-bukto, Korea)
  14. German Monplaisir (Brandenburg, Germany, lat 53.060° long 14.270°) 39 km from German Prenzlau (Brandenburg, Germany)
  15. Belgian Westerschelling (Friesland, Netherlands, lat 53.360° long 5.220°) 25 km from Belgian Harlingen (Friesland, Netherlands)

Most Remote — nearest city searching in different language

Cities, by language, most distant from their closest city, which is foreign (i.e. searching in a different language).

  1. French Papeete (French Polynesia, lat -17.540° long -149.570°) 2287 km from English Fusi (American Samoa, United States)
  2. Russian Yakutsk (Sakha, Russian Federation, lat 62.040° long 129.750°) 1119 km from Chinese Kuchiku (Heilongjiang, China)
  3. Dutch Godthaab (Vestgronland, Greenland, lat 64.180° long -51.720°) 818 km from English Frobisher Bay (Nunavut, Canada)
  4. Portuguese Boa Vista (Roraima, Brazil, lat 2.820° long -60.670°) 522 km from English Albouystown (Demerara-Mahaica, Guyana)
  5. Turkish Thospia (Van, Turkey, lat 38.490° long 43.380°) 177 km from English Sangar-e Beru Khan (Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Iran)
  6. Swedish Lofsdalen (Jamtlands Lan, Sweden, lat 62.120° long 13.270°) 106 km from Norwegian Nybergsund (Hedmark, Norway)

Top 10 Locations

About 10% of all searches come from the top 10 locations.

  1. English New York (United States)
  2. French Paris (France)
  3. Turkish Istanbul (Turkey)
  4. English London (United Kingdom)
  5. Portuguese Sao Paolo (Brazil)
  6. English Miami (United States)
  7. German Berlin (Germany)
  8. Spanish Madrid (Spain)
  9. Spanish Mexico City (Mexico)
  10. Thai Bangkok (Thailand)

I am surprised to see Miami here (bored retirees?) as well as Istanbul — I don't have a theory for that one.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Top 10 cities by search volume.

Top 100 Locations

38% of all searches come from the top 100 locations (out of 22,826), with English dominating (33/100) followed by Spanish (11/100).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Top 100 cities by search volume.

The full breakdown for the top 100 locations by language is English (33), Spanish (11), German (8), Japanese (6), Dutch (6), Portuguese (5), French (5), Turkish (4), Italian (4), Chinese (4), Russian (3), Arabic (3), Polish (2), Thai (1), Swedish (1), Romanian (1), Korean (1), Indonesian (1), Finnish (1).

By country, the top 100 locations fall in United States (11), Germany (6), India (6), Japan (6), Brazil (5), United Kingdom (5), Italy (4), Turkey (4), Australia (3), France (3), Mexico (3), Russian Federation (3), Canada (2), China (2), Colombia (2), Poland (2), Saudi Arabia (2), Spain (2), Vietnam (2), Algeria (1), Argentina (1), Austria (1), Chile (1), Egypt (1), Finland (1), Greece (1), Hong Kong (1), Hungary (1), Indonesia (1), Ireland (1), Israel (1), Korea (1), Malaysia (1), Peru (1), Philippines (1), Romania (1), Serbia (1), Singapore (1), Sweden (1), Switzerland (1), Taiwan (1), Thailand (1), Tunisia (1), Ukraine (1), United Arab Emirates (1), Venezuela (1)

The top 100 locations are

  1. English New York (New York, United States)
  2. French Saint-Merri (Ile-de-France, France)
  3. Turkish Küçükpazar (Istanbul, Turkey)
  4. English City of London (Essex, United Kingdom)
  5. Portuguese Liberdade (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
  6. English Miami (Florida, United States)
  7. German Berlin (Berlin, Germany)
  8. Spanish Entrevías (Madrid, Spain)
  9. Spanish Ciudad de México (Distrito Federal, Mexico)
  10. Thai Amphoe Bang Rak (Krung Thep, Thailand)
  11. Spanish Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia)
  12. English City of Sydney (New South Wales, Australia)
  13. Spanish Hacienda Huachipa (Lima, Peru)
  14. Spanish San Telmo (Distrito Federal, Argentina)
  15. Italian Roma (Lazio, Italy)
  16. Polish Powisle (Poland)
  17. Italian Mailand (Lombardia, Italy)
  18. English South Melbourne (Victoria, Australia)
  19. English Los Angeles (California, United States)
  20. Portuguese São Cristavem (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
  21. Russian Moscou (Moscow City, Russian Federation)
  22. Turkish Maltepe (Ankara, Turkey)
  23. Indonesian Pasarmanggis (Jakarta Raya, Indonesia)
  24. Dutch Ho Chi Minh City (Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam)
  25. Spanish Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain)
  26. English Toronto (Ontario, Canada)
  27. Spanish La Reina (Region Metropolitana, Chile)
  28. Spanish Los Caobas (Distrito Federal, Venezuela)
  29. English Chicago (Illinois, United States)
  30. Russian KievPetrovsky Port (Kyyivs'ka Oblast', Ukraine)
  31. Arabic Az Zahra' (Ar Riyad, Saudi Arabia)
  32. Dutch Xóm Trong (Vietnam)
  33. German München (Bayern, Germany)
  34. English Connaught Place (Delhi, India)
  35. Portuguese Venda Nova (Minas Gerais, Brazil)
  36. Dutch Afini (Attiki, Greece)
  37. English Bangalore (Karnataka, India)
  38. English Kampong Haji Abdullah Hukum (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
  39. German Hamburg (Hamburg, Germany)
  40. Chinese Beijing (Beijing, China)
  41. Arabic Rawd al Faraj (Al Qahirah, Egypt)
  42. English Singapore City (Singapore)
  43. English Houston (Texas, United States)
  44. English Paddington (Essex, United Kingdom)
  45. Turkish Azmir (Izmir, Turkey)
  46. Japanese Nishi-okubo (Tokyo, Japan)
  47. English Spring Hill (Victoria, Australia)
  48. English Bombay Wadala (Maharashtra, India)
  49. Dutch Hakiriah (Tel Aviv, Israel)
  50. French Fourvière (Rhone-Alpes, France)
  51. Chinese Shanghaishih (Shanghai, China)
  52. Arabic Bani Malik (Makkah, Saudi Arabia)
  53. English Daira (Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
  54. Dutch Kiyabo (Manila, Philippines)
  55. German Inner City (Wien, Austria)
  56. Italian Naples (Campania, Italy)
  57. English Montreal (Quebec, Canada)
  58. English Kilmainham (Dublin, Ireland)
  59. German Alt-Wiedikon (Zurich, Switzerland)
  60. Japanese Kyobashi (Osaka, Japan)
  61. Dutch Buda (Budapest, Hungary)
  62. Romanian Bucarest (Bucuresti, Romania)
  63. Chinese Central District (Hong Kong)
  64. Japanese Sengendai (Kanagawa, Japan)
  65. Japanese Hibiyakoen (Tokyo, Japan)
  66. English Thousand Lights (Tamil Nadu, India)
  67. English San Francisco (California, United States)
  68. English Farragut Square (District of Columbia, United States)
  69. English Victoria Park (Manchester, United Kingdom)
  70. Swedish Norrmalm (Stockholms Lan, Sweden)
  71. German Frankford-on-Main (Hessen, Germany)
  72. German Augusta Ubiorum (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany)
  73. Chinese Fantzupo (T'ai-pei, Taiwan)
  74. Korean Kyedong (Seoul-t'ukpyolsi, Korea)
  75. English Lambeth (Lambeth, United Kingdom)
  76. German Stutengarten (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
  77. Japanese Sarugakucho (Tokyo, Japan)
  78. English Seattle (Washington, United States)
  79. Finnish Gloet (Southern Finland, Finland)
  80. Italian Borgo Po (Piemonte, Italy)
  81. Spanish Guadalajara (Jalisco, Mexico)
  82. Spanish Alpujarra (Antioquia, Colombia)
  83. French Toulouse (Midi-Pyrenees, France)
  84. English San Diego (California, United States)
  85. English Dallas (Texas, United States)
  86. English Denver (Colorado, United States)
  87. English Dorcol (Serbia)
  88. English Aston (Essex, United Kingdom)
  89. English Romanovskiy (Moskva, Russian Federation)
  90. Polish Kleparz (Poland)
  91. Russian Aptekarskiy (Leningrad, Russian Federation)
  92. Spanish Monterrey (Nuevo Leon, Mexico)
  93. French El Bia (Alger, Algeria)
  94. French Al `Umran (Tunisia)
  95. Portuguese Bahia (Bahia, Brazil)
  96. Portuguese Brasília (Distrito Federal, Brazil)
  97. Turkish Adana (Adana, Turkey)
  98. Japanese Edo (Tokyo, Japan)
  99. English Bhaganagar (Andhra Pradesh, India)
  100. English Mali and Munjeri (Maharashtra, India)
VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

Happy 2017 `\pi` Day—Star Charts, Creatures Once Living and a Poem

Tue 14-03-2017


on a brim of echo,

capsized chamber
drawn into our constellation, and cooling.
—Paolo Marcazzan

Celebrate `\pi` Day (March 14th) with star chart of the digits. The charts draw 40,000 stars generated from the first 12 million digits.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
12,000,000 digits of `\pi` interpreted as a star catalogue. (details)

The 80 constellations are extinct animals and plants. Here you'll find old friends and new stories. Read about how Desmodus is always trying to escape or how Megalodon terrorizes the poor Tecopa! Most constellations have a story.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Find friends and stories among the 80 constellations of extinct animals and plants. Oh look, a Dodo guardings his eggs! (details)

This year I collaborate with Paolo Marcazzan, a Canadian poet, who contributes a poem, Of Black Body, about space and things we might find and lose there.

Check out art from previous years: 2013 `\pi` Day and 2014 `\pi` Day, 2015 `\pi` Day and and 2016 `\pi` Day.

Data in New Dimensions: convergence of art, genomics and bioinformatics

Tue 07-03-2017

Art is science in love.
— E.F. Weisslitz

A behind-the-scenes look at the making of our stereoscopic images which were at display at the AGBT 2017 Conference in February. The art is a creative collaboration with Becton Dickinson and The Linus Group.

Its creation began with the concept of differences and my writeup of the creative and design process focuses on storytelling and how concept of differences is incorporated into the art.

Oh, and this might be a good time to pick up some red-blue 3D glasses.

BD Genomics 3D art exhibit - AGBT 2017 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A stereoscopic image and its interpretive panel of single-cell transcriptomes of blood cells: diseased versus healthy control.

Interpreting P values

Thu 02-03-2017
A P value measures a sample’s compatibility with a hypothesis, not the truth of the hypothesis.

This month we continue our discussion about `P` values and focus on the fact that `P` value is a probability statement about the observed sample in the context of a hypothesis, not about the hypothesis being tested.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Interpreting P values. (read)

Given that we are always interested in making inferences about hypotheses, we discuss how `P` values can be used to do this by way of the Benjamin-Berger bound, `\bar{B}` on the Bayes factor, `B`.

Heuristics such as these are valuable in helping to interpret `P` values, though we stress that `P` values vary from sample to sample and hence many sources of evidence need to be examined before drawing scientific conclusions.

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of Significance: Interpreting P values. Nature Methods 14:213–214.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2017) Points of significance: P values and the search for significance. Nature Methods 14:3–4.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of significance: Significance, P values and t–tests. Nature Methods 10:1041–1042.

...more about the Points of Significance column

Snellen Charts—Typography to Really Look at

Sat 18-02-2017

Another collection of typographical posters. These ones really ask you to look.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Snellen charts designed using physical constants, Braille and elemental abundances in the universe and human body.

The charts show a variety of interesting symbols and operators found in science and math. The design is in the style of a Snellen chart and typset with the Rockwell font.


me as a keyword list

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