2023 Pi Daylatest newsbuy art
Thoughts rearrange, familiar now strange.Holly Golightly & The Greenhornes break flowersmore quotes
very clickable
thermodynamics + art
The Earth BioGenome Project (EBP) is a moonshot for biology, aims to sequence, catalog and characterize the genomes of all of Earth’s eukaryotic biodiversity over a period of ten years. The articles in this special issue of PNAS explore aspects of the project including a review of progress, descriptions of major scientific goals, exemplar projects, examinations of ethical, legal, and social issues, and applications of biodiversity genomics.

It's Snowing in my CPU — a Snowflake catalogue

The snowflake was born on a cold, winter's day far up in the sky, many miles above earth.
— Paul Gallico, Snowflake

Go ahead, meet some snowflakes.


Somewhere in the world, it's snowing. But you don't need to go far—it's always snowing on this page. Explore light flurries, snowflake families and individual flakes. There are many unusual snowflakes and snowflake family 12 and family 46 are very interesting.

But don't settle for only pixel snowflakes—make an STL file and 3D print your own flakes!

Ad blockers may interfere with some flake images—the names of flakes can trigger ad filters.

And if after reading about my flakes you want more, get your frozen fix with Kenneth Libbrecht's excellent work and Paul Gallico's Snowflake.

Show a random flake or a random flake from this family.

snowflake ellart

name ellart
gender boy
family 48
hex 13, 21
t-SNE 53.7, 75.7

ρ vapor mass 0.4828057236 –1.02   17%
κ freezing 0.0174544334 0.70   70%
μ melting 0.0343181595 –0.77   28%
γ melting 0.0000920063 1.21   85%
α attachment 0.0208194827 –1.61   5%
β attachment 1.3856508196 0.78   83%
θ attachment 0.0215739801 –0.68   30%
n growth steps 17477 0.98   86%

The flake's ranking relative to other flakes with respect to each parameter is shown as a z-score (`(x-\mu)/\sigma`) and percentile.

snowflake files and resources

Download the snowflake's runfile.

Generate STL file for 3D printing.

high-resolution snowflake images

These are the original simulation images. Each snowflake was grown on a 800 × 800 hexagonal grid.

cartesian grid

hex grid

cartesian grid with vapor

hex grid with vapor

© 1999–2023 Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA