Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
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algorithms: iterative


PNAS Cover: Earth BioGenome Project


data visualization + art

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Like algorithms?
Enjoy even more `\\pi` art.

Hola Mundo and Hello `\pi`

Art is science in love.
— E.F. Weisslitz

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Remix of the cover design of Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Remix of the cover design of Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Remix of the cover design of Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. (zoom)

art and algorithms

Some algorithms connect us and some keep us apart—we need them to remind us what it is to be human and what it is to be a computer.

My cover design for Hannah Fry's Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms is based on my 2013 `\pi` Day art. The book is published by Blackie Books.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Published by Blackie Books. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. The front cover of the book shows a network based on the first 1,418 digits of `\pi`. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Published by Blackie Books. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. The back cover of the book shows a network based on the first 837 digits of `\pi`. (zoom)

creating the cover

The cover begins with a 57 × 35 matrix of 1,995 colored circles. Each circle encodes a digit of `\pi`, starting with 3.1415.... Inside each circle is a smaller circle whose color is based on the next digit. The radius of the inner circle is `1/\phi^2` where `1/\phi = 0.618` is the Golden Ratio.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The beginning of the cover design. 1,995 colored circles encode digits of `\pi`. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Each circle has a smaller circle inside it that encodes the next digit. (zoom)

Once the circles are drawn, neighbouring circles that correspond to the same digit are connected with thick lines. The thickness of these lines is `t_0 = 3/(2\phi^2)`, relative to the outer circle radius. Circles that correspond to digits whose difference is `1` or `-1` are connected by a slightly thinner line with thickness `t_1 = t_0/\phi`.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Neighbouring identical digits are connected with thick lines. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Neighbouring digits that are off by 1 are connected by thinner lines. (zoom)

More lines are drawn that connect digits with a larger difference, `|d| > 1`. The thickness for these lines is `t_d = t_0/\phi^{|d|}`. When all differences up to `|d| < 6` are accounted for, we get a pleasant jumble of lines.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Neighbouring digits whose difference is greater than one are connected by progressively thinner lines. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circles representing the digits of `\pi` with all lines connecting neighbouring digits. (zoom)

To accommodate the title and other text on the cover, the design was generated by avoiding drawing any circles within a certain distance of the text.

This way, the network of digits wraps around the text. In the final design, the front page has 1,418 digits and the back has 878 digits.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. (zoom)

cover remixes

just the lines

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Just the connecting lines. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Triangle color is the average color of their corners. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Inner circles punched out. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Just the triangles. (zoom)

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news + thoughts

Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring

Fri 05-08-2022

Love's the only engine of survival. —L. Cohen

We begin a series on survival analysis in the context of its two key complications: skew (which calls for the use of probability distributions, such as the Weibull, that can accomodate skew) and censoring (required because we almost always fail to observe the event in question for all subjects).

We discuss right, left and interval censoring and how mishandling censoring can lead to bias and loss of sensitivity in tests that probe for differences in survival times.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. Nature Methods 19:906–908.

3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps

Fri 05-08-2022

See How Scientists Put Together the Complete Human Genome.

My graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the August 2022 issue shows the full history of the human genome assembly — from its humble shotgun beginnings to the gapless telomere-to-telomere assembly.

Read about the process and methods behind the creation of the graphic.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps. Text by Clara Moskowitz (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: UCSC Genome Browser.

See all my Scientific American Graphic Science visualizations.

Anatomy of SARS-Cov-2

Tue 31-05-2022

My poster showing the genome structure and position of mutations on all SARS-CoV-2 variants appears in the March/April 2022 issue of American Scientist.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Deadly Genomes: Genome Structure and Size of Harmful Bacteria and Viruses (zoom)

An accompanying piece breaks down the anatomy of each genome — by gene and ORF, oriented to emphasize relative differences that are caused by mutations.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Deadly Genomes: Genome Structure and Size of Harmful Bacteria and Viruses (zoom)

Cancer Cell cover

Sat 23-04-2022

My cover design on the 11 April 2022 Cancer Cell issue depicts depicts cellular heterogeneity as a kaleidoscope generated from immunofluorescence staining of the glial and neuronal markers MBP and NeuN (respectively) in a GBM patient-derived explant.

LeBlanc VG et al. Single-cell landscapes of primary glioblastomas and matched explants and cell lines show variable retention of inter- and intratumor heterogeneity (2022) Cancer Cell 40:379–392.E9.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Cancer Cell kaleidoscope cover (volume 40, issue 4, 11 April 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Nature Biotechnology cover

Sat 23-04-2022

My cover design on the 4 April 2022 Nature Biotechnology issue is an impression of a phylogenetic tree of over 200 million sequences.

Konno N et al. Deep distributed computing to reconstruct extremely large lineage trees (2022) Nature Biotechnology 40:566–575.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Nature Biotechnology phylogenetic tree cover (volume 40, issue 4, 4 April 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Nature cover — Gene Genie

Sat 23-04-2022

My cover design on the 17 March 2022 Nature issue depicts the evolutionary properties of sequences at the extremes of the evolvability spectrum.

Vaishnav ED et al. The evolution, evolvability and engineering of gene regulatory DNA (2022) Nature 603:455–463.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Nature squiggles cover (volume 603, issue 7901, 17 March 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)