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data visualization + art

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Like algorithms?
Enjoy even more `\\pi` art.

Hola Mundo and Hello `\pi`

Art is science in love.
— E.F. Weisslitz

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Remix of the cover design of Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Remix of the cover design of Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Remix of the cover design of Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. (zoom)

art and algorithms

Some algorithms connect us and some keep us apart—we need them to remind us what it is to be human and what it is to be a computer.

My cover design for Hannah Fry's Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms is based on my 2013 `\pi` Day art. The book is published by Blackie Books.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Published by Blackie Books. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. The front cover of the book shows a network based on the first 1,418 digits of `\pi`. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Published by Blackie Books. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. The back cover of the book shows a network based on the first 837 digits of `\pi`. (zoom)

creating the cover

The cover begins with a 57 × 35 matrix of 1,995 colored circles. Each circle encodes a digit of `\pi`, starting with 3.1415.... Inside each circle is a smaller circle whose color is based on the next digit. The radius of the inner circle is `1/\phi^2` where `1/\phi = 0.618` is the Golden Ratio.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The beginning of the cover design. 1,995 colored circles encode digits of `\pi`. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Each circle has a smaller circle inside it that encodes the next digit. (zoom)

Once the circles are drawn, neighbouring circles that correspond to the same digit are connected with thick lines. The thickness of these lines is `t_0 = 3/(2\phi^2)`, relative to the outer circle radius. Circles that correspond to digits whose difference is `1` or `-1` are connected by a slightly thinner line with thickness `t_1 = t_0/\phi`.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Neighbouring identical digits are connected with thick lines. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Neighbouring digits that are off by 1 are connected by thinner lines. (zoom)

More lines are drawn that connect digits with a larger difference, `|d| > 1`. The thickness for these lines is `t_d = t_0/\phi^{|d|}`. When all differences up to `|d| < 6` are accounted for, we get a pleasant jumble of lines.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Neighbouring digits whose difference is greater than one are connected by progressively thinner lines. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circles representing the digits of `\pi` with all lines connecting neighbouring digits. (zoom)

To accommodate the title and other text on the cover, the design was generated by avoiding drawing any circles within a certain distance of the text.

This way, the network of digits wraps around the text. In the final design, the front page has 1,418 digits and the back has 878 digits.

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Hola Mundo by Hannah Fry. Translation by Francisco J. Ramos Mena. Cover design by Martin Krzywinski. (zoom)

cover remixes

just the lines

Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Just the connecting lines. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Triangle color is the average color of their corners. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Inner circles punched out. (zoom)
Cover design by Martin Krzywinski of Hola Mundo (Hannah Fry) / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Just the triangles. (zoom)
news + thoughts

Cell Genomics cover

Mon 16-01-2023

Our cover on the 11 January 2023 Cell Genomics issue depicts the process of determining the parent-of-origin using differential methylation of alleles at imprinted regions (iDMRs) is imagined as a circuit.

Designed in collaboration with with Carlos Urzua.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Our Cell Genomics cover depicts parent-of-origin assignment as a circuit (volume 3, issue 1, 11 January 2023). (more)

Akbari, V. et al. Parent-of-origin detection and chromosome-scale haplotyping using long-read DNA methylation sequencing and Strand-seq (2023) Cell Genomics 3(1).

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Science Advances cover

Thu 05-01-2023

My cover design on the 6 January 2023 Science Advances issue depicts DNA sequencing read translation in high-dimensional space. The image showss 672 bases of sequencing barcodes generated by three different single-cell RNA sequencing platforms were encoded as oriented triangles on the faces of three 7-dimensional cubes.

More details about the design.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Science Advances cover that encodes sequence onto hypercubes (volume 9, issue 1, 6 January 2023). (more)

Kijima, Y. et al. A universal sequencing read interpreter (2023) Science Advances 9

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring

Mon 21-11-2022

If you sit on the sofa for your entire life, you’re running a higher risk of getting heart disease and cancer. —Alex Honnold, American rock climber

In a follow-up to our Survival analysis — time-to-event data and censoring article, we look at how regression can be used to account for additional risk factors in survival analysis.

We explore accelerated failure time regression (AFTR) and the Cox Proportional Hazards model (Cox PH).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. Nature Methods 19.

Music video for Max Cooper's Ascent

Tue 25-10-2022

My 5-dimensional animation sets the visual stage for Max Cooper's Ascent from the album Unspoken Words. I have previously collaborated with Max on telling a story about infinity for his Yearning for the Infinite album.

I provide a walkthrough the video, describe the animation system I created to generate the frames, and show you all the keyframes

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Frame 4897 from the music video of Max Cooper's Asent.

The video recently premiered on YouTube.

Renders of the full scene are available as NFTs.

Gene Cultures exhibit — art at the MIT Museum

Tue 25-10-2022

I am more than my genome and my genome is more than me.

The MIT Museum reopened at its new location on 2nd October 2022. The new Gene Cultures exhibit featured my visualization of the human genome, which walks through the size and organization of the genome and some of the important structures.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My art at the MIT Museum Gene Cultures exhibit tells shows the scale and structure of the human genome. Pay no attention to the pink chicken.

Annals of Oncology cover

Wed 14-09-2022

My cover design on the 1 September 2022 Annals of Oncology issue shows 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers. Each case shows the number and type of actionable genomic alterations that were detected and the length of therapies that resulted from the analysis.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
An organic arrangement of 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers showing genomic changes and therapies. Apperas on Annals of Oncology cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022).

Pleasance E et al. Whole-genome and transcriptome analysis enhances precision cancer treatment options (2022) Annals of Oncology 33:939–949.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Annals of Oncology 570 cancer cohort cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

© 1999–2023 Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA