Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert Curve
Poetry is just the evidence of life. If your life is burning well, poetry is just the ashLeonard Cohenburn somethingmore quotes

disease: not obvious


In Silico Flurries: Computing a world of snow. Scientific American. 23 December 2017


data visualization + art

Genes that make us sick

It is said that for money you can have everything, but you cannot. You can buy food, but not appetite; medicine, but not health; knowledge, but not wisdom; glitter, but not beauty; fun, but not joy; acquaintances, but not friends; servants, but not faithfulness; leisure, but not peace. You can have the husk of everything for money, but not the kernel.
— Arne Garborg

I have recently had the opportunity to contribute to The Objects that Power the Global Economy, a book by Quartz.

The book is about objects that have impact on our world and our lives. "Each chapter of this book examines an object that is driving radical change in the global economy: how we communicate, what we eat, the way we spend our money. The stories are told through global reporting, original photography and illustration by award-winning artists, contributions from business visionaries, data visualization, and interactive features." (Quartz).

the posters

The human genome is shown as a spiral, starting at the top with chromosome 1 and proceeding clockwise. The spiral is formed by 10,087 segments that correspond to 286,000 bases each. Segments that contain genes implicated in disease are indicated by dots, sized by the number of genes. Chromosomes X and Y are not shown.


 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
White on black, full version. (BUY ARTWORK)

 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
White on black, mysterious version. (BUY ARTWORK)

 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
Color, full version. (BUY ARTWORK)

 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
Color, mysterious version. (BUY ARTWORK)

 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
Black on white, full version. (BUY ARTWORK)

 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
Black on white, mysterious version. (BUY ARTWORK)

where disease hides in the genome

My illustration is of the human genome with a focus on the genes that have been implicated in disease.

We have about 30,000 genes and about half of these play some role in disease.

You can peruse what we know about the connection between genetics and illness at the Online Mendelean Inheritance of Man database. For example, a cursory search for "cancer" results in over 3,500 entries.

It's important to realize that these aren't genes that cause disease—its misregulation and mutations in them that are associated with disease (causality is complicated).

the visualization

The illustration shows the genome as a single line, wound in an Archimedean spiral. Chromosomes 1–22 are shown binned into about 10,000 regions along the spiral. Regions that have genes associated with disease are marked with dots—the size of the dot shows how many such genes are found. Each region corresponds to about 286,000 bases.

In about 73% of the 286 kb regions, there are no genes. In about 18%, there is a single gene and in roughly 11% two genes or more.

  regions  genes
    7,321  0
    1,812  1
      556  2
      221  3
       85  4
       93  5+

Winding the genome up in a spiral creates a compact representation. Squishing a line onto a page can be tricky.

Luckily, space filling curves like the Hilbert curve are very efficient at doing this. I've previously shown the genome along a Hilbert curve for a Scientific American Graphic Science page.

the artwork

In the book, the image is printed on a black background.


 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The human genome is shown as a spiral, starting at the top with chromosome 1 and proceeding clockwise. The spiral is formed by 10,087 segments that correspond to 286,000 bases each. Segments that contain genes implicated in disease are indicated by dots, sized by the number of genes. Chromosomes X and Y are not shown. (zoom)
VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

Find and snap to colors in an image

Sat 29-12-2018

One of my color tools, the colorsnap application snaps colors in an image to a set of reference colors and reports their proportion.

Below is Times Square rendered using the colors of the MTA subway lines.


Colors used by the New York MTA subway lines.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Times Square in New York City.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Times Square in New York City rendered using colors of the MTA subway lines.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Granger rainbow snapped to subway lines colors from four cities. (zoom)

Take your medicine ... now

Wed 19-12-2018

Drugs could be more effective if taken when the genetic proteins they target are most active.

Design tip: rediscover CMYK primaries.

More of my American Scientific Graphic Science designs

Ruben et al. A database of tissue-specific rhythmically expressed human genes has potential applications in circadian medicine Science Translational Medicine 10 Issue 458, eaat8806.

Predicting with confidence and tolerance

Wed 07-11-2018
I abhor averages. I like the individual case. —J.D. Brandeis.

We focus on the important distinction between confidence intervals, typically used to express uncertainty of a sampling statistic such as the mean and, prediction and tolerance intervals, used to make statements about the next value to be drawn from the population.

Confidence intervals provide coverage of a single point—the population mean—with the assurance that the probability of non-coverage is some acceptable value (e.g. 0.05). On the other hand, prediction and tolerance intervals both give information about typical values from the population and the percentage of the population expected to be in the interval. For example, a tolerance interval can be configured to tell us what fraction of sampled values (e.g. 95%) will fall into an interval some fraction of the time (e.g. 95%).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Predicting with confidence and tolerance. (read)

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2018) Points of significance: Predicting with confidence and tolerance Nature Methods 15:843–844.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of significance: Importance of being uncertain. Nature Methods 10:809–810.

4-day Circos course

Wed 31-10-2018

A 4-day introductory course on genome data parsing and visualization using Circos. Prepared for the Bioinformatics and Genome Analysis course in Institut Pasteur Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Composite of the kinds of images you will learn to make in this course.

Oryza longistaminata genome cake

Mon 24-09-2018

Data visualization should be informative and, where possible, tasty.

Stefan Reuscher from Bioscience and Biotechnology Center at Nagoya University celebrates a publication with a Circos cake.

The cake shows an overview of a de-novo assembled genome of a wild rice species Oryza longistaminata.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circos cake celebrating Reuscher et al. 2018 publication of the Oryza longistaminata genome.

Optimal experimental design

Tue 31-07-2018
Customize the experiment for the setting instead of adjusting the setting to fit a classical design.

The presence of constraints in experiments, such as sample size restrictions, awkward blocking or disallowed treatment combinations may make using classical designs very difficult or impossible.

Optimal design is a powerful, general purpose alternative for high quality, statistically grounded designs under nonstandard conditions.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Optimal experimental design. (read)

We discuss two types of optimal designs (D-optimal and I-optimal) and show how it can be applied to a scenario with sample size and blocking constraints.

Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2018) Points of significance: Optimal experimental design Nature Methods 15:599–600.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M., Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Two factor designs. Nature Methods 11:1187–1188.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and blocking. Nature Methods 11:699–700.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Designing comparative experiments. Nature Methods 11:597–598.