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I visually track the progress of the human genome assembly from its inception in 2000 to the gapless telomere-to-telomere CHM13v2 assembly. The graphic was published in Scientific American Graphic Science.

It's Snowing in my CPU — a Snowflake catalogue

She was all stars and arrows, squares and triangles of ice and light, like a church window; she was like a flower with many shining petals; she was like lace and she was like a diamond. But best of all, she was herself and unlike any of her kind.
— Paul Gallico, Snowflake

Go ahead, meet some snowflakes.


Somewhere in the world, it's snowing. But you don't need to go far—it's always snowing on this page. Explore light flurries, snowflake families and individual flakes. There are many unusual snowflakes and snowflake family 12 and family 46 are very interesting.

But don't settle for only pixel snowflakes—make an STL file and 3D print your own flakes!

Ad blockers may interfere with some flake images—the names of flakes can trigger ad filters.

And if after reading about my flakes you want more, get your frozen fix with Kenneth Libbrecht's excellent work and Paul Gallico's Snowflake.

Show a random flake or a random flake from this family.

snowflake danollo

name danollo
gender boy
family 1
hex 21, 23
t-SNE 88.6, 80.8

ρ vapor mass 0.4145181453 –1.97   6%
κ freezing 0.0167556534 0.60   67%
μ melting 0.0227108620 –1.06   18%
γ melting 0.0000910491 1.14   83%
α attachment 0.2984131998 1.12   83%
β attachment 1.3769608977 0.74   82%
θ attachment 0.0141871343 –0.89   19%
n growth steps 23103 1.69   89%

The flake's ranking relative to other flakes with respect to each parameter is shown as a z-score (`(x-\mu)/\sigma`) and percentile.

snowflake files and resources

Download the snowflake's runfile.

Generate STL file for 3D printing.

high-resolution snowflake images

These are the original simulation images. Each snowflake was grown on a 800 × 800 hexagonal grid.

cartesian grid

hex grid

cartesian grid with vapor

hex grid with vapor

© 1999–2023 Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA