Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
I'm not real and I deny I won't heal unless I cry.Cocteau Twinslet it gomore quotes

genomes: hypnotizing


PNAS Cover: Earth BioGenome Project


data visualization + art
The Personal OncoGenomics Program (POG) is a research initiative to study the impact of embedding genomic sequencing into real-time treatment planning for BC patients with metastatic cancers. Based out of the BC Cancer Research Centre and the GSC, POG is a large world-class clinical research collaboration of BC Cancer oncologists, pathologists and other clinical staff, researchers and technical personnel throughout BC healthcare facilities.
Interested in more art based on the POG570 cohort from the Personal OncoGenomics Program? Check out our 5-year POG anniversary posters and desktops.

Science Magazine cover — Human Genome Special Issue

The issue explores lessons from past studies of human genomics, with an eye toward future research efforts | 24 September 2021 | Volume 373 | Issue 6562

data sources
1. Amberger JS, Bocchini CA, Schiettecatte FJM, Scott AF, Hamosh A. OMIM.org: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), an online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Nucleic Acids Research 43:D789–98 (2015).
2. Pleasance E, Titmuss E, Williamson L et al. (2020) Pan-cancer analysis of advanced patient tumors reveals interactions between therapy and genomic landscapes. Nature Cancer 1:452–468.

Here, you can read about the method behind the design and download images to bring the cover to your wall or desktop.

Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Human genome: chromosomes, genes and mutations. Visualization of the human genome as a spiral (scale: 1 million bases per centimeter), with colored segments representing different chromosomes. Circle size denotes the number of genes associated with Mendelian disorders and hollow circles indicate the number of mutation clusters from a pan-cancer analysis. Science (cover) | vol 373 | issue 6562 | 24 September 2021.

design elements

Each element is described in more detail in the methods section.

Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The genome is arranged in an (almost) Archimedean spiral.
Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Chromosomes are coded by maximally colors.

Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Cytogenetic bands are colored by conventional grey tones used to depict Giemsa staining
Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Bands are superimposed on chromosomes at 30% opacity

Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Genes associated with Mendelian disorders are drawn as solid circles, whose size depicts the number of such genes in 250 kb bins
Martin Krzywinski / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Clusters of mutations from a pan-cancer analysis are shown as hollow circles, whose size depicts the number of clusters in 250 kb bins.

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news + thoughts

Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring

Fri 05-08-2022

Love's the only engine of survival. —L. Cohen

We begin a series on survival analysis in the context of its two key complications: skew (which calls for the use of probability distributions, such as the Weibull, that can accomodate skew) and censoring (required because we almost always fail to observe the event in question for all subjects).

We discuss right, left and interval censoring and how mishandling censoring can lead to bias and loss of sensitivity in tests that probe for differences in survival times.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. Nature Methods 19:906–908.

3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps

Fri 05-08-2022

See How Scientists Put Together the Complete Human Genome.

My graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the August 2022 issue shows the full history of the human genome assembly — from its humble shotgun beginnings to the gapless telomere-to-telomere assembly.

Read about the process and methods behind the creation of the graphic.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
3,117,275,501 Bases, 0 Gaps. Text by Clara Moskowitz (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: UCSC Genome Browser.

See all my Scientific American Graphic Science visualizations.

Anatomy of SARS-Cov-2

Tue 31-05-2022

My poster showing the genome structure and position of mutations on all SARS-CoV-2 variants appears in the March/April 2022 issue of American Scientist.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Deadly Genomes: Genome Structure and Size of Harmful Bacteria and Viruses (zoom)

An accompanying piece breaks down the anatomy of each genome — by gene and ORF, oriented to emphasize relative differences that are caused by mutations.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Deadly Genomes: Genome Structure and Size of Harmful Bacteria and Viruses (zoom)

Cancer Cell cover

Sat 23-04-2022

My cover design on the 11 April 2022 Cancer Cell issue depicts depicts cellular heterogeneity as a kaleidoscope generated from immunofluorescence staining of the glial and neuronal markers MBP and NeuN (respectively) in a GBM patient-derived explant.

LeBlanc VG et al. Single-cell landscapes of primary glioblastomas and matched explants and cell lines show variable retention of inter- and intratumor heterogeneity (2022) Cancer Cell 40:379–392.E9.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Cancer Cell kaleidoscope cover (volume 40, issue 4, 11 April 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Nature Biotechnology cover

Sat 23-04-2022

My cover design on the 4 April 2022 Nature Biotechnology issue is an impression of a phylogenetic tree of over 200 million sequences.

Konno N et al. Deep distributed computing to reconstruct extremely large lineage trees (2022) Nature Biotechnology 40:566–575.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Nature Biotechnology phylogenetic tree cover (volume 40, issue 4, 4 April 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)