Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
What do the trees know.Lalehsway, sway, swaymore quotes

3.14: worthwhile


The Outbreak Poems — artistic emissions in a pandemic


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A `\pi` day music video!: Transcendental Tree Map premieres on 2020 Pi Day from Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself. Watch live from Barbican Centre.
Music video of the “Transcendental Tree Map” Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite album. This video premiered on 2020 Pi Day. Music by Max Cooper. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2020 Pi Day art celebrates digits of `\pi` with piku (パイク) —poetry inspired by haiku.
They serve as the form for The Outbreak Poems.
Tau Day tree map animation of 8,909 digits of `\tau = 2 \pi` created with 40,015 lines. The video is 6:28 minutes long.

`\pi` Day 2019 Art Posters - Digits, internationally.


Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

How many ages hence
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over
In states unborn and accents yet unknown!
—Willian Shakespeare (Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 1)

Welcome to this year's celebration of `\pi` and mathematics.

The theme this year is typographical and pure—in contrast to last year's extremely elaborate computational art. This year is also the first time I have made a special kids' edition!

This year's poem is by Viorica Hrincu and it is about complications.

This year's `\pi` day song is Tshinanu by Kashtin.

If you enjoy art based on type, explore my other typographical works.

The posters were generated automatically with some optimization for avoiding word wrapping, balancing different alphabets across the page, word lengths, specific digit terminations (e.g. international kids poster ends in a 3) and so on.

download multi-language number word list

You can download my list of numbers 0 to 9 in various languages. The list has some in-line annotations used in this process.

Download number word list
v0.1 12 Mar 2019

Below are the digit and word lists for each poster. The format is

digit_index[digit](language)word

Kids, English (127 digits)

0[3]THREE 1[1]ONE 2[4]FOUR 3[1]ONE 4[5]FIVE 5[9]NINE 6[2]TWO 7[6]SIX 8[5]FIVE 9[3]THREE 10[5]FIVE 11[8]EIGHT 12[9]NINE 13[7]SEVEN 14[9]NINE 15[3]THREE 16[2]TWO 17[3]THREE 18[8]EIGHT 19[4]FOUR 20[6]SIX 21[2]TWO 22[6]SIX 23[4]FOUR 24[3]THREE 25[3]THREE 26[8]EIGHT 27[3]THREE 28[2]TWO 29[7]SEVEN 30[9]NINE 31[5]FIVE 32[0]ZERO 33[2]TWO 34[8]EIGHT 35[8]EIGHT 36[4]FOUR 37[1]ONE 38[9]NINE 39[7]SEVEN 40[1]ONE 41[6]SIX 42[9]NINE 43[3]THREE 44[9]NINE 45[9]NINE 46[3]THREE 47[7]SEVEN 48[5]FIVE 49[1]ONE 50[0]ZERO 51[5]FIVE 52[8]EIGHT 53[2]TWO 54[0]ZERO 55[9]NINE 56[7]SEVEN 57[4]FOUR 58[9]NINE 59[4]FOUR 60[4]FOUR 61[5]FIVE 62[9]NINE 63[2]TWO 64[3]THREE 65[0]ZERO 66[7]SEVEN 67[8]EIGHT 68[1]ONE 69[6]SIX 70[4]FOUR 71[0]ZERO 72[6]SIX 73[2]TWO 74[8]EIGHT 75[6]SIX 76[2]TWO 77[0]ZERO 78[8]EIGHT 79[9]NINE 80[9]NINE 81[8]EIGHT 82[6]SIX 83[2]TWO 84[8]EIGHT 85[0]ZERO 86[3]THREE 87[4]FOUR 88[8]EIGHT 89[2]TWO 90[5]FIVE 91[3]THREE 92[4]FOUR 93[2]TWO 94[1]ONE 95[1]ONE 96[7]SEVEN 97[0]ZERO 98[6]SIX 99[7]SEVEN 100[9]NINE 101[8]EIGHT 102[2]TWO 103[1]ONE 104[4]FOUR 105[8]EIGHT 106[0]ZERO 107[8]EIGHT 108[6]SIX 109[5]FIVE 110[1]ONE 111[3]THREE 112[2]TWO 113[8]EIGHT 114[2]TWO 115[3]THREE 116[0]ZERO 117[6]SIX 118[6]SIX 119[4]FOUR 120[7]SEVEN 121[0]ZERO 122[9]NINE 123[3]THREE 124[8]EIGHT 125[4]FOUR 126[4]FOUR

Kids, International (116 digits, 64 languages )

0[3](English)THREE, 1[1](Samoan)TASI, 2[4](Zenaga)AKOZ, 3[1](Sesotho)NNGWE, 4[5](Zenaga)SHAMMUSH, 5[9](Croatian)DEVET, 6[2](Latvian)DIVI, 7[6](Maltese)SITTA, 8[5](Solresol)RELALA, 9[3](Lithuanian)TRYS, 10[5](Catalan)CINC, 11[8](Irish)OCHT, 12[9](French)NEUF, 13[7](Portuguese)SETE, 14[9](Dutch)NEGEN, 15[3](French)TROIS, 16[2](Cebuano)DUHA, 17[3](Gongduk)TAWA, 18[8](English)EIGHT, 19[4](Frisian)FJOUWER, 20[6](Gongduk)KUPA, 21[2](Afrikaans)TWEE, 22[6](Frisian)SEIS, 23[4](Malagasy)EFATRA, 24[3](Finnish)KOLME, 25[3](Estonian)KOLM, 26[8](Croatian)OSAM, 27[3](Corsican)QUATTRU, 28[2](Khasi)AR, 29[7](Nao)TESSEN, 30[9](Hausa)TARA, 31[5](Zulu)KUHLANU, 32[0](Xhosa)UNOTHI, 33[2](Puyuma)ZUWA, 34[8](Shona)SERE, 35[8](Ladan)NIB, 36[4](Somali)AFAR, 37[1](Esperanto)UNU, 38[9](Welsh)NAW, 39[7](Latin)SEPTEM, 40[1](Spanish)UNO, 41[6](French)SIX, 42[9](Lithuanian)DEVYNI, 43[3](Haitian_creole)TWA, 44[9](German)NEUN, 45[9](Zenaga)TUZA, 46[3](Catalan)TRES, 47[7](Cebuano)PITO, 48[5](Maori)RIMA, 49[1](Maori)TAHI, 50[0](Galician)CERO, 51[5](Icelandic)FIMM, 52[8](Finnish)KAHDEKSAN, 53[2](Zenaga)SHINAN, 54[0](Tagalog)SERO, 55[9](English)NINE, 56[7](Malagasy)FITO, 57[4](Indonesian)EMPAT, 58[9](Turkish)DOKUZ, 59[4](Lithuanian)KETURI, 60[4](Swahili)NNE, 61[5](Latvian)PIECI, 62[9](Dothraki)QAZAT, 63[2](Swahili)MBILI, 64[3](Cebuano)TULO, 65[0](Azerbaijani)SIFIR, 66[7](Dothraki)FEKH, 67[8](Slovenian)OSEM, 68[1](Tetun)IDA, 69[6](Hawaiian)EONO, 70[4](Tetun)HAT, 71[0](Corsican)ZERU, 72[6](Xhosa)ZINTANDATHU, 73[2](Maori)RUA, 74[8](Nao)ZYAD, 75[6](Dutch)ZES, 76[2](Hausa)BIYU, 77[0](Swedish)NOLL, 78[8](Danish)OTTE, 79[9](Scots_gaelic)NAOI, 80[9](Spanish)NUEVE, 81[8](Ro)ZAQ, 82[6](Ro)ZAL, 83[2](Ladan)SHIN, 84[8](Esperanto)OK, 85[0](Hausa)SIFILI, 86[3](Polish)TRZY, 87[4](Basque)LAU, 88[8](Basque)ZORTZI, 89[2](Haitian_creole)DE, 90[5](Xhosa)ZINTLANU, 91[3](Welsh)TRI, 92[4](Afrikaans)VIER, 93[2](Albanian)DY, 94[1](Frisian)IEN, 95[1](Tenerife)BEN, 96[7](Norwegian)SJU, 97[0](Dothraki)SOM, 98[6](Solon)NINGUN, 99[7](Slovak)SEDEM, 100[9](Tetun)SIA, 101[8](Welsh)WYTH, 102[2](Yoruba)MEJI, 103[1](Slovak)JEDEN, 104[4](Danish)FIRE, 105[8](Luxembourgish)AACHT, 106[0](German)NULL, 107[8](Maltese)TMIENJA, 108[6](Huastec_mayan)ACAC, 109[5](Welsh)PUMP, 110[1](Solon)YMUN, 111[3](Danish)TRE, 112[2](Dothraki)AKAT, 113[8](Scots_gaelic)OCHD, 114[2](Italian)DUE, 115[3](English)THREE

words, international (223 digits, 102 languages)

Some characters may not display on your screen if you do not have the supporting font. The lists below include the row of the word

digit_index:row[digit](language)word
0:0[3](English)THREE
1:0[1](Turkish)BİR
2:0[4](Greek_old)𐀤𐀵𐀫
3:0[1](Danish)EN
4:0[5](Igbo)ISE
5:0[9](Hindi)नौ
6:0[2](Urdu)دو
7:0[6](Koreansino)육
8:0[5](Gujarati)પાંચ
9:1[5](Bulgarian)ПЕТ
10:1[8](Korean)여덟
11:1[9](Etruscan)𐌍𐌖𐌓𐌘
12:1[7](Ladino)סִייֵּטִי
13:1[9](Koreansino)구
14:1[3](Hindi)तीन
15:1[2](Greek_old)𐀉𐀺
16:1[3](Ainu)レ
17:1[8](Japanese_sino)はち
18:2[6](Afrikaans)SES
19:2[2](Hungarian)KÉT
20:2[6](Irish)SÉ
21:2[4](Japanese_sino)よん
22:2[3](Macedonian)ТРИ
23:2[3](Urdu)تین
24:2[8](Ro)ZAQ
25:2[3](Pashto)درې
26:2[2](Khmer)ពីរ
27:3[9](Yiddish)נײַן
28:3[5](Ladino)סִינְקוּ
29:3[0](Myanmar)သုည
30:3[2](Malay)دوا
31:3[8](Avestan)𐬀𐬱𐬙𐬀
32:3[8](Gothic)𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰𐌿
33:3[4](Biblical_arameic)אַרְבְּעָה
34:3[1](Dothraki)AT
35:4[7](Norse)ᛋᛁᚢ
36:4[1](Telugu)ఒకటి
37:4[6](Swedish)SEX
38:4[9](Punjabi)ਨੌ
39:4[3](Sundanese)ᮒᮤᮜᮥ
40:4[9](Norwegian)NI
41:4[9](Khmer)ប្រាំបួន
42:4[3](Arabic)ثلاثة
43:4[7](Yi)ʂɿ
44:5[1](Kazakh)БІР
45:5[0](Mongolianclassical)ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ
46:5[5](Swahili)TANO
47:5[8](Hindi)आठ
48:5[2](Chinese)二
49:5[0](Dothraki)SOM
50:5[9](Samaritan)ࠕࠔࠏ
51:5[7](Lao)ເຈັດ
52:5[4](Bengali)চার
53:6[4](Old_english)ᚠᛇᚹᛖᚱ
54:6[4](Arabic)أربعة
55:6[5](Wyandot)WIŠ
56:6[9](Javanese)ꦱꦔ
57:6[2](Myanmar)နှစ်
58:6[3](Kazakh)ҮШ
59:6[0](Chinese)零
60:6[7](Mongolianclassical)ᠳᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ
61:7[1](Slovak)JEDEN
62:7[6](Phoenician)𐤔𐤔
63:7[4](Mandaic)ࡀࡓࡁࡉ
64:7[0](Persian)صفر
65:7[6](Buginese)ᨕᨛᨊᨛ
66:7[2](Albanian)DY
67:7[8](Bengali)আট
68:7[6](Hindi)छः
69:7[2](Japanese_sino)に
70:8[8](Banjar)والو
71:8[9](Amharic)ዘጠኝ
72:8[9](Pashto)نهه
73:8[8](Danish)OTTE
74:8[6](Chinese)六
75:8[2](Gujarati)બે
76:8[8](Sesotho)ROBONG
77:8[0](Lao)ສູນ
78:9[4](Hindi)चार
79:9[8](Latvian)ASTOŅI
80:9[2](Kyrgyz)ЭКИ
81:9[5](Myanmar)ငါး
82:9[3](Tajik)СЕ
83:9[4](Klallam)ŊÚS
84:9[2](Sanskrit)द्वे
85:9[1](Gujarati)એક
86:9[1](Bengali)এক
87:10[0](Igbo)EFU
88:10[6](Yonaguni)む
89:10[7](Ugaritic)𐎌𐎁𐎓
90:10[9](Norse)ᚾᛁᚢ
91:10[8](Swedish)ÅTTA
92:10[2](Bumthang)ཟོན་་
93:10[1](Ladino)אוּנוּ
94:10[4](Chinese)四
95:10[8](Sindhi)اٺ
96:11[8](Malagasy)VALO
97:11[6](Cherokee)ᏑᏓᎵ
98:11[5](Punjabi)ਪੰਜ
99:11[1](Coptic)ⲟⲩⲁ
100:11[3](Mandaic)ࡕࡋࡀࡕࡀ
101:11[2](Danish)TO
102:11[8](Yi)hi
103:11[2](Old_turkic)𐰚𐰃
104:12[0](Yiddish)נול
105:12[6](Malay)انم
106:12[6](Ugaritic)𐎘𐎘
107:12[4](Syriac)ܐܰܪܒܥܳܐ
108:12[7](Klallam)C̓ÚʔKʷS
109:12[0](Sinhala)ශුන්යය
110:12[9](Banjar)ساڠ
111:12[3](Sylheti)ꠔꠤꠘ
112:12[8](Pashto)اته
113:13[4](Yonaguni)どぅ
114:13[6](Yi)fu
115:13[0](Catalan)ZERO
116:13[9](Esperanto)NAŬ
117:13[5](Welsh)PUMP
118:13[5](Malay)ليم
119:13[0](Amharic)ዜሮ
120:13[5](Khmer)ប្រាំ
121:14[2](Punjabi)ਦੋ
122:14[2](Frisian)TWA
123:14[3](Sindhi)ٽي
124:14[1](Syriac)ܚܰܕ
125:14[7](Azerbaijani)YEDDİ
126:14[2](Inuktitut)ᒪᕐᕉᒃ
127:14[5](Sylheti)ꠙꠣꠌ
128:14[3](Latvian)TRĪS
129:15[9](Coptic)ⲫⲓⲧ
130:15[4](Tetun)HAT
131:15[0](Punjabi)ਿਸਫਰ
132:15[8](Amharic)ስምት
133:15[1](Albanian)NJË
134:15[2](Biblical_arameic)תְּרֵין
135:15[8](Sylheti)ꠀꠑ
136:15[4](Sindhi)چار
137:15[8](Myanmar)ရှစ်
138:16[1](Buginese)ᨔᨙᨉᨗ
139:16[1](Lao)ນຶ່ງ
140:16[7](Sinhala)හත
141:16[4](Gaulish)𐌐𐌄𐌕𐌏𐌓
142:16[5](Sanskrit)पञ्च
143:16[0](Javanese)ꦤꦺꦴꦭ꧀
144:16[2](Ainu)トゥ
145:16[8](Esperanto)OK
146:16[4](Thai)สี่
147:17[0](Slovenian)NIČ
148:17[2](Avestan)𐬛𐬬𐬀
149:17[7](Hindi)सात
150:17[0](Samoan)SELO
151:17[1](Greek_old)𐀁𐀕
152:17[9](Mongolianclassical)ᠢᠰᠦᠨ
153:17[3](Malayalam)മുന്ന്
154:17[8](Punjabi)ਅੱਠ
155:17[5](Koreansino)오
156:18[1](Spanish)UNO
157:18[1](Samaritan)ࠇࠠࠃࠠࠄ
158:18[0](Ro)ZAX
159:18[5](Ainu)アシㇰネ
160:18[5](Telugu)ఐదు
161:18[5](Bumthang)ཡ་ང་་
162:18[9](Yi)ɡu
163:18[6](Gujarati)છ
164:19[4](Sundanese)ᮇᮕᮒ᮪
165:19[6](Romanian)ŞASE
166:19[2](Hebrew)שתיים
167:19[2](Kazakh)ЕКІ
168:19[9](Phoenician)𐤕𐤔𐤏
169:19[4](Yiddish)פֿיר
170:19[8](Chinese)八
171:19[9](Sindhi)نو
172:20[4](Phoenician)𐤀𐤓𐤁
173:20[9](Balinese)ᬲᬶᬬ
174:20[3](Persian)سه
175:20[0](Galician)CERO
176:20[3](Klallam)ꞭÍXʷ
177:20[8](Ladan)NIB
178:20[1](Kannada)ಒಂದು
179:20[9](Sanskrit)नव
180:21[4](Lao)ສີ່
181:21[4](Xhosa)ZINE
182:21[2](Proto_germanic)ᛏᚹᚨ
183:21[8](Koreansino)팔
184:21[8](Sinhala)අට
185:21[1](Old_english)ᚪᚾ
186:21[0](Malagasy)AOTRA
187:21[9](Persian)نه
188:22[5](Norwegian)FEM
189:22[6](Hopi)NAVAY
190:22[6](Syriac)ܐܶܫܬܳܐ
191:22[5](Czech)PĚT
192:22[9](Gujarati)નવ
193:22[3](Kannada)ಮೂರು
194:22[3](Khmer)បី
195:22[4](Samoan)FĀ
196:23[6](Sanskrit)षष्
197:23[1](Georgian)ერთი
198:23[2](Mandaic)ࡕࡓࡉࡍ
199:23[8](Georgian_old)ႰႥႠჂ
200:23[4](Swahili)NNE
201:23[7](Banjar)ڤيتو
202:23[5](Chinese)五
203:23[6](Armenian)վեց
204:24[8](Mongolianclassical)ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ
205:24[2](Sindhi)ٻه
206:24[3](Thompson)KEʔŁÉS
207:24[3](Ugaritic)𐎘𐎍𐎘
208:24[7](Slavonic)СЕДМЬ
209:24[8](Sanskrit)अष्ट
210:24[6](Urdu)چھ
211:24[7](Gujarati)સાત
212:25[3](Biblical_arameic)תְּלָתָה
213:25[1](Phoenician)𐤀𐤇𐤃
214:25[6](Balinese)ᬦᭂᬦᭂᬫ᭄
215:25[5](Yiddish)פֿינף
216:25[2](Malayalam)രണ്ട്
217:25[7](Sindhi)ست
218:25[1](Cia-cia)루아
219:25[2](Arabic)اثنان
220:25[0](Ladino)זִרוֹ
221:26[9](Greekkoine)ἐννέα
222:26[9](Iglulingmiutut)ᖁᓕᖃᙱᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ 

single glyphs, international (351 digits, 54 alphabets)

Below "Numbers" for the language indicates the Roman alphabet digits 0...9.

0:0[3](Numbers)3
1:0[1](Odia)୧
2:0[4](Sumerian)𒐼
3:0[1](Ethiopic)፩
4:0[5](Limbu)᥋
5:0[9](Rumi)𐹨
6:0[2](Koreansino)이
7:0[6](Gujarati)છ
8:0[5](Klingon)5
9:0[3](Sundanese)᮳
10:0[5](Lepcha)᱅
11:0[8](Burmese)၈
12:0[9](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇩
13:0[7](Malayalam)൭
14:0[9](Osmanya)𐒩
15:0[3](Yi)ꌕ
16:1[3](Numbers)3
17:1[8](Cham)꩘
18:1[4](Oriya)୪
19:1[6](Yi)ꃘ
20:1[2](Kayahli)꤂
21:1[6](Tibetan)༦
22:1[4](Sanskrit)४
23:1[3](Tamil)௩
24:1[3](Lepcha)᱃
25:1[8](Burmese)၈
26:1[3](Telugu)౩
27:1[2](Sinhala)෨
28:1[7](Malayalam)൭
29:1[9](Arabic)٩
30:1[5](Nko)߅
31:1[0](Osmanya)𐒠
32:2[8](Kannada)೮
33:2[8](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇨
34:2[4](Arabic)٤
35:2[1](Balinese)᭑
36:2[9](Chinese)九
37:2[7](Yi)ꏃ
38:2[1](Lao)໑
39:2[6](Nko)߆
40:2[9](Shan)႙
41:2[3](Copticepact)𐋣
42:2[9](Brahmi)𑁯
43:2[9](Sanskrit)९
44:2[3](Gurmukhi)੩
45:2[7](Bengali)৭
46:2[5](Telugu)౫
47:2[1](Burmese)၁
48:3[5](Sumerian)𒐊
49:3[8](Yi)ꉆ
50:3[2](Kharoshthi)𐩁
51:3[0](Lepcha)᱀
52:3[9](Bengali)৯
53:3[7](Koreansino)칠
54:3[4](Limbu)᥊
55:3[9](Balinese)᭙
56:3[4](Kayahli)꤄
57:3[4](Lao)໔
58:3[5](Kannada)೫
59:3[9](Chinese)九
60:3[2](Copticepact)𐋢
61:3[3](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇣
62:3[0](Tibetan)༠
63:3[7](Arabic)٧
64:4[1](Kharoshthi)𐩀
65:4[6](Hebrew)ו
66:4[4](Osmanya)𐒤
67:4[0](Sundanese)᮰
68:4[6](Khmer)៦
69:4[2](Brahmi)𑁨
70:4[8](Oriya)୮
71:4[6](Javanese)꧖
72:4[2](Klingon)2
73:4[0](Lepcha)᱀
74:4[8](Burmese)၈
75:4[9](Sanskrit)९
76:4[9](Olchiki)᱙
77:4[8](Arabic)٨
78:4[6](Yonaguni)む
79:4[2](Punjabi)੨
80:5[0](Burmese)၀
81:5[3](Ainu)レ
82:5[4](Odia)୪
83:5[8](Lao)໘
84:5[2](Yi)ꑍ
85:5[5](Sundanese)᮵
86:5[3](Osmanya)𐒣
87:5[4](Limbu)᥊
88:5[2](Sinhala)෨
89:5[1](Copticepact)𐋡
90:5[1](Sumerian)𒁹
91:5[7](Khmer)៧
92:5[0](Tibetan)༠
93:5[6](Thai)๖
94:5[7](Koreansino)칠
95:5[9](Japanese_sino)く
96:6[2](Rumi)𐹡
97:6[1](Nko)߁
98:6[4](Javanese)꧔
99:6[8](Telugu)౮
100:6[0](Sinhala)෦
101:6[8](Ethiopic)፰
102:6[6](Thai)๖
103:6[5](Roman)V
104:6[1](Koreansino)일
105:6[3](Copticepact)𐋣
106:6[2](Limbu)᥈
107:6[8](Yonaguni)だ
108:6[2](Kannada)೨
109:6[3](Mongolian)᠓
110:6[0](Vai)꘠
111:6[6](Punjabi)੬
112:7[4](Klingon)4
113:7[7](Nko)߇
114:7[0](Kayahli)꤀
115:7[9](Brahmi)𑁯
116:7[3](Chakma)𑄹
117:7[8](Yi)ꉆ
118:7[4](Sundanese)᮴
119:7[4](Osmanya)𐒤
120:7[6](Sinhala)෬
121:7[0](Arabic)٠
122:7[9](Saurashtra)꣙
123:7[5](Meeteimayek)꯵
124:7[5](Adlam)𞥕
125:7[0](Koreansino)공
126:7[5](Numbers)5
127:7[8](Gurmukhi)੮
128:8[2](Tibetan)༢
129:8[3](Vai)꘣
130:8[1](Sinhala)෧
131:8[7](Lepcha)᱇
132:8[2](Gujaranti)૨
133:8[5](Chakma)𑄻
134:8[3](Brahmi)𑁩
135:8[5](Hebrew)ה
136:8[9](Odia)୯
137:8[4](Copticepact)𐋤
138:8[0](Kayahli)꤀
139:8[8](Sumerian)𒑄
140:8[1](Sanskrit)१
141:8[2](Rumi)𐹡
142:8[8](Sundanese)᮸
143:8[4](Telugu)౪
144:9[1](Odia)୧
145:9[1](Ethiopic)፩
146:9[1](Chinese)一
147:9[7](Gujaranti)૭
148:9[4](Koreansino)사
149:9[5](Khmer)៥
150:9[0](Kayahli)꤀
151:9[2](Osmanya)𐒢
152:9[8](Sinhala)෮
153:9[4](Olchiki)᱔
154:9[1](Kharoshthi)𐩀
155:9[0](Lepcha)᱀
156:9[2](Kannada)೨
157:9[7](Telugu)౭
158:9[0](Numbers)0
159:9[1](Bengali)১
160:10[3](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇣
161:10[8](Telugu)౮
162:10[5](Meeteimayek)꯵
163:10[2](Sumerian)𒈫
164:10[1](Arabic)١
165:10[1](Thai)๑
166:10[0](Shan)႐
167:10[5](Hebrew)ה
168:10[5](Bengali)৫
169:10[5](Malayalam)൫
170:10[9](Brahmi)𑁯
171:10[6](Oriya)୬
172:10[4](Burmese)၄
173:10[4](Kharoshthi)𐩃
174:10[6](Balinese)᭖
175:10[2](Japanese_sino)に
176:11[9](Tamil)௯
177:11[4](Telugu)౪
178:11[8](Punjabi)੮
179:11[9](Osmanya)𐒩
180:11[5](Khmer)៥
181:11[4](Chinese)四
182:11[9](Arabic)٩
183:11[3](Kayahli)꤃
184:11[0](Sinhala)෦
185:11[3](Nko)߃
186:11[8](Copticepact)𐋨
187:11[1](Lao)໑
188:11[9](Thai)๙
189:11[6](Tibetan)༦
190:11[4](Sundanese)᮴
191:11[4](Odia)୪
192:12[8](Lao)໘
193:12[8](Javanese)꧘
194:12[1](Roman)I
195:12[0](Burmese)၀
196:12[9](Bengali)৯
197:12[7](Lepcha)᱇
198:12[5](Copticepact)𐋥
199:12[6](Gujaranti)૬
200:12[6](Tibetan)༦
201:12[5](Sundanese)᮵
202:12[9](Klingon)9
203:12[3](Sanskrit)३
204:12[3](Yi)ꌕ
205:12[4](Vai)꘤
206:12[4](Korean)넷
207:12[6](Tamil)௬
208:13[2](Khmer)២
209:13[8](Meeteimayek)꯸
210:13[4](Kannada)೪
211:13[7](Brahmi)𑁭
212:13[5](Tibetan)༥
213:13[6](Balinese)᭖
214:13[4](Lepcha)᱄
215:13[8](Saurashtra)꣘
216:13[2](Burmese)၂
217:13[3](Mongolian)᠓
218:13[3](Rumi)𐹢
219:13[7](Limbu)᥍
220:13[8](Arabic)٨
221:13[6](Chinese)六
222:13[7](Numbers)7
223:13[8](Osmanya)𐒨
224:14[1](Olchiki)᱑
225:14[6](Sundanese)᮶
226:14[5](Yi)ꉬ
227:14[2](Koreansino)이
228:14[7](Vai)꘧
229:14[1](Balinese)᭑
230:14[2](Hebrew)ב
231:14[0](Brahmi)𑁦
232:14[1](Oriya)୧
233:14[9](Gurmukhi)੯
234:14[0](Arabic)٠
235:14[9](Saurashtra)꣙
236:14[1](Odia)୧
237:14[4](Meeteimayek)꯴
238:14[5](Telugu)౫
239:14[6](Cham)꩖
240:15[8](Sinhala)෮
241:15[5](Limbu)᥋
242:15[6](Thai)๖
243:15[6](Copticepact)𐋦
244:15[9](Tamil)௯
245:15[2](Shan)႒
246:15[3](Telugu)౩
247:15[4](Vai)꘤
248:15[6](Odia)୬
249:15[0](Osmanya)𐒠
250:15[3](Klingon)3
251:15[4](Hebrew)ד
252:15[8](Javanese)꧘
253:15[6](Oriya)୬
254:15[1](Adlam)𞥑
255:15[0](Tibetan)༠
256:16[5](Arabic)٥
257:16[4](Gujaranti)૪
258:16[3](Shan)႓
259:16[2](Japanese_sino)に
260:16[6](Odia)୬
261:16[6](Javanese)꧖
262:16[4](Osmanya)𐒤
263:16[8](Sundanese)᮸
264:16[2](Hebrew)ב
265:16[1](Kharoshthi)𐩀
266:16[3](Nko)߃
267:16[3](Ainu)レ
268:16[9](Kayahli)꤉
269:16[3](Chakma)𑄹
270:16[6](Kannada)೬
271:16[0](Klingon)0
272:17[2](Klingon)2
273:17[6](Tamil)௬
274:17[0](Numbers)0
275:17[2](Kharoshthi)𐩁
276:17[4](Lepcha)᱄
277:17[9](Sundanese)᮹
278:17[1](Mongolian)᠑
279:17[4](Meeteimayek)꯴
280:17[1](Khmer)១
281:17[2](Kannada)೨
282:17[7](Bengali)৭
283:17[3](Sumerian)𒐈
284:17[7](Saurashtra)꣗
285:17[2](Copticepact)𐋢
286:17[4](Hebrew)ד
287:17[5](Koreansino)오
288:18[7](Klingon)7
289:18[0](Arabic)٠
290:18[0](Osmanya)𐒠
291:18[6](Lepcha)᱆
292:18[6](Malayalam)൬
293:18[0](Sinhala)෦
294:18[6](Shan)႖
295:18[3](Vai)꘣
296:18[1](Bengali)১
297:18[5](Yi)ꉬ
298:18[5](Khmer)៥
299:18[8](Punjabi)੮
300:18[8](Mongolian)᠘
301:18[1](Thai)๑
302:18[7](Koreansino)칠
303:18[4](Cham)꩔
304:19[8](Meeteimayek)꯸
305:19[1](Gurmukhi)੧
306:19[5](Malayalam)൫
307:19[2](Kayahli)꤂
308:19[0](Numbers)0
309:19[9](Limbu)᥏
310:19[2](Javanese)꧒
311:19[0](Osmanya)𐒠
312:19[9](Tamil)௯
313:19[6](Telugu)౬
314:19[2](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇢
315:19[8](Punjabi)੮
316:19[2](Sinhala)෨
317:19[9](Koreansino)구
318:19[2](Kharoshthi)𐩁
319:19[5](Ethiopic)፭
320:20[0](Shan)႐
321:20[9](Nko)߉
322:20[1](Mongolian)᠑
323:20[7](Koreansino)칠
324:20[1](Chinese)一
325:20[5](Copticepact)𐋥
326:20[3](Kharoshthi)𐩂
327:20[6](Numbers)6
328:20[4](Meeteimayek)꯴
329:20[3](Kayahli)꤃
330:20[6](Yi)ꃘ
331:20[7](Olchiki)᱗
332:20[8](Lepcha)᱈
333:20[9](Ethiopic)፱
334:20[2](Malayalam)൨
335:20[5](Tibetan)༥
336:21[0](Osmanya)𐒠
337:21[3](Lepcha)᱃
338:21[6](Tamil)௬
339:21[0](Shan)႐
340:21[0](Klingon)0
341:21[1](Kannada)೧
342:21[1](Gujaranti)૧
343:21[3](Tibetan)༣
344:21[3](Nko)߃
345:21[0](Sinhala)෦
346:21[5](Oriya)୫
347:21[3](Yi)ꌕ
348:21[0](Brahmi)𑁦
349:21[5](Japanese_sino)ご
350:21[4](Mongolian)᠔
351:21[8](Saurashtra)꣘

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news + thoughts

The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics

Thu 18-06-2020

Realistic models of epidemics account for latency, loss of immunity, births and deaths.

We continue with our discussion about epidemic models and show how births, deaths and loss of immunity can create epidemic waves—a periodic fluctuation in the fraction of population that is infected.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. (read)

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore epidemic waves and introduces the idea of the phase plane, a compact way to understand the evolution of an epidemic over its entire course.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. Nature Methods 17:557–558.

Background reading

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

Gene Machines

Fri 05-06-2020

Shifting soundscapes, textures and rhythmic loops produced by laboratory machines.

In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Segue was commissioned to create an original composition based on audio recordings from the GSC's laboratory equipment, robots and computers—to make “music” from the noise they produce.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gene Machines by Segue. Now available on vinyl.

Virus Mutations Reveal How COVID-19 Really Spread

Mon 01-06-2020

Genetic sequences of the coronavirus tell story of when the virus arrived in each country and where it came from.

Our graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the June 2020 issue shows a phylogenetic tree based on a snapshot of the data model from Nextstrain as of 31 March 2020.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Virus Mutations Reveal How COVID-19 Really Spread. Text by Mark Fischetti (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: Nextstrain (enabled by data from GISAID).

Cover of Nature Cancer April 2020

Mon 27-04-2020

Our design on the cover of Nature Cancer's April 2020 issue shows mutation spectra of patients from the POG570 cohort of 570 individuals with advanced metastatic cancer.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Each ellipse system represents the mutation spectrum of an individual patient. Individual ellipses in the system correspond to the number of base changes in a given class and are layered by mutation count. Ellipse angle is controlled by the proportion of mutations in a class within the sample and its size is determined by a sigmoid mapping of mutation count scaled within the layer. The opacity of each system represents the duration since the diagnosis of advanced disease. (read more)

The cover design accompanies our report in the issue Pleasance, E., Titmuss, E., Williamson, L. et al. (2020) Pan-cancer analysis of advanced patient tumors reveals interactions between therapy and genomic landscapes. Nat Cancer 1:452–468.

Modeling infectious epidemics

Tue 16-06-2020

Every day sadder and sadder news of its increase. In the City died this week 7496; and of them, 6102 of the plague. But it is feared that the true number of the dead this week is near 10,000 ....
—Samuel Pepys, 1665

This month, we begin a series of columns on epidemiological models. We start with the basic SIR model, which models the spread of an infection between three groups in a population: susceptible, infected and recovered.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (read)

We discuss conditions under which an outbreak occurs, estimates of spread characteristics and the effects that mitigation can play on disease trajectories. We show the trends that arise when "flattenting the curve" by decreasing `R_0`.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (read)

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore how the model curves change with parameters such as infectious period, basic reproduction number and vaccination level.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

The Outbreak Poems

Sat 04-04-2020

I'm writing poetry daily to put my feelings into words more often during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Ideas,
light
in a shadow.
Falling Moon
caught
by horizon.
Distant shout
comes 
in a whisper.

Read the poems and learn what a piku is.