Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Genome Sciences Center / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert Curve
syncopation & accordionCafe de Flore (Doctor Rockit)like France, but no dog poopmore quotes

numbers: fun


DNA on 10th — street art, wayfinding and font


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2019 Pi Day art celebrates digits of `\pi` with hundreds of languages and alphabets. If you're a kid at heart—rejoice—there's a special edition for you!

`\pi` Day 2019 Art Posters - Digits, internationally.


Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2019 Art Posters  - Digits, internationally.
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

How many ages hence
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over
In states unborn and accents yet unknown!
—Willian Shakespeare (Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 1)

Welcome to this year's celebration of `\pi` and mathematics.

The theme this year is typographical and pure—in contrast to last year's extremely elaborate computational art. This year is also the first time I have made a special kids' edition!

This year's poem is by Viorica Hrincu and it is about complications.

This year's `\pi` day song is Tshinanu by Kashtin.

If you enjoy art based on type, explore my other typographical works.

The posters were generated automatically with some optimization for avoiding word wrapping, balancing different alphabets across the page, word lengths, specific digit terminations (e.g. international kids poster ends in a 3) and so on.

download multi-language number word list

You can download my list of numbers 0 to 9 in various languages. The list has some in-line annotations used in this process.

Download number word list
v0.1 12 Mar 2019

Below are the digit and word lists for each poster. The format is

digit_index[digit](language)word

Kids, English (127 digits)

0[3]THREE 1[1]ONE 2[4]FOUR 3[1]ONE 4[5]FIVE 5[9]NINE 6[2]TWO 7[6]SIX 8[5]FIVE 9[3]THREE 10[5]FIVE 11[8]EIGHT 12[9]NINE 13[7]SEVEN 14[9]NINE 15[3]THREE 16[2]TWO 17[3]THREE 18[8]EIGHT 19[4]FOUR 20[6]SIX 21[2]TWO 22[6]SIX 23[4]FOUR 24[3]THREE 25[3]THREE 26[8]EIGHT 27[3]THREE 28[2]TWO 29[7]SEVEN 30[9]NINE 31[5]FIVE 32[0]ZERO 33[2]TWO 34[8]EIGHT 35[8]EIGHT 36[4]FOUR 37[1]ONE 38[9]NINE 39[7]SEVEN 40[1]ONE 41[6]SIX 42[9]NINE 43[3]THREE 44[9]NINE 45[9]NINE 46[3]THREE 47[7]SEVEN 48[5]FIVE 49[1]ONE 50[0]ZERO 51[5]FIVE 52[8]EIGHT 53[2]TWO 54[0]ZERO 55[9]NINE 56[7]SEVEN 57[4]FOUR 58[9]NINE 59[4]FOUR 60[4]FOUR 61[5]FIVE 62[9]NINE 63[2]TWO 64[3]THREE 65[0]ZERO 66[7]SEVEN 67[8]EIGHT 68[1]ONE 69[6]SIX 70[4]FOUR 71[0]ZERO 72[6]SIX 73[2]TWO 74[8]EIGHT 75[6]SIX 76[2]TWO 77[0]ZERO 78[8]EIGHT 79[9]NINE 80[9]NINE 81[8]EIGHT 82[6]SIX 83[2]TWO 84[8]EIGHT 85[0]ZERO 86[3]THREE 87[4]FOUR 88[8]EIGHT 89[2]TWO 90[5]FIVE 91[3]THREE 92[4]FOUR 93[2]TWO 94[1]ONE 95[1]ONE 96[7]SEVEN 97[0]ZERO 98[6]SIX 99[7]SEVEN 100[9]NINE 101[8]EIGHT 102[2]TWO 103[1]ONE 104[4]FOUR 105[8]EIGHT 106[0]ZERO 107[8]EIGHT 108[6]SIX 109[5]FIVE 110[1]ONE 111[3]THREE 112[2]TWO 113[8]EIGHT 114[2]TWO 115[3]THREE 116[0]ZERO 117[6]SIX 118[6]SIX 119[4]FOUR 120[7]SEVEN 121[0]ZERO 122[9]NINE 123[3]THREE 124[8]EIGHT 125[4]FOUR 126[4]FOUR

Kids, International (116 digits, 64 languages )

0[3](English)THREE, 1[1](Samoan)TASI, 2[4](Zenaga)AKOZ, 3[1](Sesotho)NNGWE, 4[5](Zenaga)SHAMMUSH, 5[9](Croatian)DEVET, 6[2](Latvian)DIVI, 7[6](Maltese)SITTA, 8[5](Solresol)RELALA, 9[3](Lithuanian)TRYS, 10[5](Catalan)CINC, 11[8](Irish)OCHT, 12[9](French)NEUF, 13[7](Portuguese)SETE, 14[9](Dutch)NEGEN, 15[3](French)TROIS, 16[2](Cebuano)DUHA, 17[3](Gongduk)TAWA, 18[8](English)EIGHT, 19[4](Frisian)FJOUWER, 20[6](Gongduk)KUPA, 21[2](Afrikaans)TWEE, 22[6](Frisian)SEIS, 23[4](Malagasy)EFATRA, 24[3](Finnish)KOLME, 25[3](Estonian)KOLM, 26[8](Croatian)OSAM, 27[3](Corsican)QUATTRU, 28[2](Khasi)AR, 29[7](Nao)TESSEN, 30[9](Hausa)TARA, 31[5](Zulu)KUHLANU, 32[0](Xhosa)UNOTHI, 33[2](Puyuma)ZUWA, 34[8](Shona)SERE, 35[8](Ladan)NIB, 36[4](Somali)AFAR, 37[1](Esperanto)UNU, 38[9](Welsh)NAW, 39[7](Latin)SEPTEM, 40[1](Spanish)UNO, 41[6](French)SIX, 42[9](Lithuanian)DEVYNI, 43[3](Haitian_creole)TWA, 44[9](German)NEUN, 45[9](Zenaga)TUZA, 46[3](Catalan)TRES, 47[7](Cebuano)PITO, 48[5](Maori)RIMA, 49[1](Maori)TAHI, 50[0](Galician)CERO, 51[5](Icelandic)FIMM, 52[8](Finnish)KAHDEKSAN, 53[2](Zenaga)SHINAN, 54[0](Tagalog)SERO, 55[9](English)NINE, 56[7](Malagasy)FITO, 57[4](Indonesian)EMPAT, 58[9](Turkish)DOKUZ, 59[4](Lithuanian)KETURI, 60[4](Swahili)NNE, 61[5](Latvian)PIECI, 62[9](Dothraki)QAZAT, 63[2](Swahili)MBILI, 64[3](Cebuano)TULO, 65[0](Azerbaijani)SIFIR, 66[7](Dothraki)FEKH, 67[8](Slovenian)OSEM, 68[1](Tetun)IDA, 69[6](Hawaiian)EONO, 70[4](Tetun)HAT, 71[0](Corsican)ZERU, 72[6](Xhosa)ZINTANDATHU, 73[2](Maori)RUA, 74[8](Nao)ZYAD, 75[6](Dutch)ZES, 76[2](Hausa)BIYU, 77[0](Swedish)NOLL, 78[8](Danish)OTTE, 79[9](Scots_gaelic)NAOI, 80[9](Spanish)NUEVE, 81[8](Ro)ZAQ, 82[6](Ro)ZAL, 83[2](Ladan)SHIN, 84[8](Esperanto)OK, 85[0](Hausa)SIFILI, 86[3](Polish)TRZY, 87[4](Basque)LAU, 88[8](Basque)ZORTZI, 89[2](Haitian_creole)DE, 90[5](Xhosa)ZINTLANU, 91[3](Welsh)TRI, 92[4](Afrikaans)VIER, 93[2](Albanian)DY, 94[1](Frisian)IEN, 95[1](Tenerife)BEN, 96[7](Norwegian)SJU, 97[0](Dothraki)SOM, 98[6](Solon)NINGUN, 99[7](Slovak)SEDEM, 100[9](Tetun)SIA, 101[8](Welsh)WYTH, 102[2](Yoruba)MEJI, 103[1](Slovak)JEDEN, 104[4](Danish)FIRE, 105[8](Luxembourgish)AACHT, 106[0](German)NULL, 107[8](Maltese)TMIENJA, 108[6](Huastec_mayan)ACAC, 109[5](Welsh)PUMP, 110[1](Solon)YMUN, 111[3](Danish)TRE, 112[2](Dothraki)AKAT, 113[8](Scots_gaelic)OCHD, 114[2](Italian)DUE, 115[3](English)THREE

words, international (223 digits, 102 languages)

Some characters may not display on your screen if you do not have the supporting font. The lists below include the row of the word

digit_index:row[digit](language)word
0:0[3](English)THREE
1:0[1](Turkish)BİR
2:0[4](Greek_old)𐀤𐀵𐀫
3:0[1](Danish)EN
4:0[5](Igbo)ISE
5:0[9](Hindi)नौ
6:0[2](Urdu)دو
7:0[6](Koreansino)육
8:0[5](Gujarati)પાંચ
9:1[5](Bulgarian)ПЕТ
10:1[8](Korean)여덟
11:1[9](Etruscan)𐌍𐌖𐌓𐌘
12:1[7](Ladino)סִייֵּטִי
13:1[9](Koreansino)구
14:1[3](Hindi)तीन
15:1[2](Greek_old)𐀉𐀺
16:1[3](Ainu)レ
17:1[8](Japanese_sino)はち
18:2[6](Afrikaans)SES
19:2[2](Hungarian)KÉT
20:2[6](Irish)SÉ
21:2[4](Japanese_sino)よん
22:2[3](Macedonian)ТРИ
23:2[3](Urdu)تین
24:2[8](Ro)ZAQ
25:2[3](Pashto)درې
26:2[2](Khmer)ពីរ
27:3[9](Yiddish)נײַן
28:3[5](Ladino)סִינְקוּ
29:3[0](Myanmar)သုည
30:3[2](Malay)دوا
31:3[8](Avestan)𐬀𐬱𐬙𐬀
32:3[8](Gothic)𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰𐌿
33:3[4](Biblical_arameic)אַרְבְּעָה
34:3[1](Dothraki)AT
35:4[7](Norse)ᛋᛁᚢ
36:4[1](Telugu)ఒకటి
37:4[6](Swedish)SEX
38:4[9](Punjabi)ਨੌ
39:4[3](Sundanese)ᮒᮤᮜᮥ
40:4[9](Norwegian)NI
41:4[9](Khmer)ប្រាំបួន
42:4[3](Arabic)ثلاثة
43:4[7](Yi)ʂɿ
44:5[1](Kazakh)БІР
45:5[0](Mongolianclassical)ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ
46:5[5](Swahili)TANO
47:5[8](Hindi)आठ
48:5[2](Chinese)二
49:5[0](Dothraki)SOM
50:5[9](Samaritan)ࠕࠔࠏ
51:5[7](Lao)ເຈັດ
52:5[4](Bengali)চার
53:6[4](Old_english)ᚠᛇᚹᛖᚱ
54:6[4](Arabic)أربعة
55:6[5](Wyandot)WIŠ
56:6[9](Javanese)ꦱꦔ
57:6[2](Myanmar)နှစ်
58:6[3](Kazakh)ҮШ
59:6[0](Chinese)零
60:6[7](Mongolianclassical)ᠳᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ
61:7[1](Slovak)JEDEN
62:7[6](Phoenician)𐤔𐤔
63:7[4](Mandaic)ࡀࡓࡁࡉ
64:7[0](Persian)صفر
65:7[6](Buginese)ᨕᨛᨊᨛ
66:7[2](Albanian)DY
67:7[8](Bengali)আট
68:7[6](Hindi)छः
69:7[2](Japanese_sino)に
70:8[8](Banjar)والو
71:8[9](Amharic)ዘጠኝ
72:8[9](Pashto)نهه
73:8[8](Danish)OTTE
74:8[6](Chinese)六
75:8[2](Gujarati)બે
76:8[8](Sesotho)ROBONG
77:8[0](Lao)ສູນ
78:9[4](Hindi)चार
79:9[8](Latvian)ASTOŅI
80:9[2](Kyrgyz)ЭКИ
81:9[5](Myanmar)ငါး
82:9[3](Tajik)СЕ
83:9[4](Klallam)ŊÚS
84:9[2](Sanskrit)द्वे
85:9[1](Gujarati)એક
86:9[1](Bengali)এক
87:10[0](Igbo)EFU
88:10[6](Yonaguni)む
89:10[7](Ugaritic)𐎌𐎁𐎓
90:10[9](Norse)ᚾᛁᚢ
91:10[8](Swedish)ÅTTA
92:10[2](Bumthang)ཟོན་་
93:10[1](Ladino)אוּנוּ
94:10[4](Chinese)四
95:10[8](Sindhi)اٺ
96:11[8](Malagasy)VALO
97:11[6](Cherokee)ᏑᏓᎵ
98:11[5](Punjabi)ਪੰਜ
99:11[1](Coptic)ⲟⲩⲁ
100:11[3](Mandaic)ࡕࡋࡀࡕࡀ
101:11[2](Danish)TO
102:11[8](Yi)hi
103:11[2](Old_turkic)𐰚𐰃
104:12[0](Yiddish)נול
105:12[6](Malay)انم
106:12[6](Ugaritic)𐎘𐎘
107:12[4](Syriac)ܐܰܪܒܥܳܐ
108:12[7](Klallam)C̓ÚʔKʷS
109:12[0](Sinhala)ශුන්යය
110:12[9](Banjar)ساڠ
111:12[3](Sylheti)ꠔꠤꠘ
112:12[8](Pashto)اته
113:13[4](Yonaguni)どぅ
114:13[6](Yi)fu
115:13[0](Catalan)ZERO
116:13[9](Esperanto)NAŬ
117:13[5](Welsh)PUMP
118:13[5](Malay)ليم
119:13[0](Amharic)ዜሮ
120:13[5](Khmer)ប្រាំ
121:14[2](Punjabi)ਦੋ
122:14[2](Frisian)TWA
123:14[3](Sindhi)ٽي
124:14[1](Syriac)ܚܰܕ
125:14[7](Azerbaijani)YEDDİ
126:14[2](Inuktitut)ᒪᕐᕉᒃ
127:14[5](Sylheti)ꠙꠣꠌ
128:14[3](Latvian)TRĪS
129:15[9](Coptic)ⲫⲓⲧ
130:15[4](Tetun)HAT
131:15[0](Punjabi)ਿਸਫਰ
132:15[8](Amharic)ስምት
133:15[1](Albanian)NJË
134:15[2](Biblical_arameic)תְּרֵין
135:15[8](Sylheti)ꠀꠑ
136:15[4](Sindhi)چار
137:15[8](Myanmar)ရှစ်
138:16[1](Buginese)ᨔᨙᨉᨗ
139:16[1](Lao)ນຶ່ງ
140:16[7](Sinhala)හත
141:16[4](Gaulish)𐌐𐌄𐌕𐌏𐌓
142:16[5](Sanskrit)पञ्च
143:16[0](Javanese)ꦤꦺꦴꦭ꧀
144:16[2](Ainu)トゥ
145:16[8](Esperanto)OK
146:16[4](Thai)สี่
147:17[0](Slovenian)NIČ
148:17[2](Avestan)𐬛𐬬𐬀
149:17[7](Hindi)सात
150:17[0](Samoan)SELO
151:17[1](Greek_old)𐀁𐀕
152:17[9](Mongolianclassical)ᠢᠰᠦᠨ
153:17[3](Malayalam)മുന്ന്
154:17[8](Punjabi)ਅੱਠ
155:17[5](Koreansino)오
156:18[1](Spanish)UNO
157:18[1](Samaritan)ࠇࠠࠃࠠࠄ
158:18[0](Ro)ZAX
159:18[5](Ainu)アシㇰネ
160:18[5](Telugu)ఐదు
161:18[5](Bumthang)ཡ་ང་་
162:18[9](Yi)ɡu
163:18[6](Gujarati)છ
164:19[4](Sundanese)ᮇᮕᮒ᮪
165:19[6](Romanian)ŞASE
166:19[2](Hebrew)שתיים
167:19[2](Kazakh)ЕКІ
168:19[9](Phoenician)𐤕𐤔𐤏
169:19[4](Yiddish)פֿיר
170:19[8](Chinese)八
171:19[9](Sindhi)نو
172:20[4](Phoenician)𐤀𐤓𐤁
173:20[9](Balinese)ᬲᬶᬬ
174:20[3](Persian)سه
175:20[0](Galician)CERO
176:20[3](Klallam)ꞭÍXʷ
177:20[8](Ladan)NIB
178:20[1](Kannada)ಒಂದು
179:20[9](Sanskrit)नव
180:21[4](Lao)ສີ່
181:21[4](Xhosa)ZINE
182:21[2](Proto_germanic)ᛏᚹᚨ
183:21[8](Koreansino)팔
184:21[8](Sinhala)අට
185:21[1](Old_english)ᚪᚾ
186:21[0](Malagasy)AOTRA
187:21[9](Persian)نه
188:22[5](Norwegian)FEM
189:22[6](Hopi)NAVAY
190:22[6](Syriac)ܐܶܫܬܳܐ
191:22[5](Czech)PĚT
192:22[9](Gujarati)નવ
193:22[3](Kannada)ಮೂರು
194:22[3](Khmer)បី
195:22[4](Samoan)FĀ
196:23[6](Sanskrit)षष्
197:23[1](Georgian)ერთი
198:23[2](Mandaic)ࡕࡓࡉࡍ
199:23[8](Georgian_old)ႰႥႠჂ
200:23[4](Swahili)NNE
201:23[7](Banjar)ڤيتو
202:23[5](Chinese)五
203:23[6](Armenian)վեց
204:24[8](Mongolianclassical)ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ
205:24[2](Sindhi)ٻه
206:24[3](Thompson)KEʔŁÉS
207:24[3](Ugaritic)𐎘𐎍𐎘
208:24[7](Slavonic)СЕДМЬ
209:24[8](Sanskrit)अष्ट
210:24[6](Urdu)چھ
211:24[7](Gujarati)સાત
212:25[3](Biblical_arameic)תְּלָתָה
213:25[1](Phoenician)𐤀𐤇𐤃
214:25[6](Balinese)ᬦᭂᬦᭂᬫ᭄
215:25[5](Yiddish)פֿינף
216:25[2](Malayalam)രണ്ട്
217:25[7](Sindhi)ست
218:25[1](Cia-cia)루아
219:25[2](Arabic)اثنان
220:25[0](Ladino)זִרוֹ
221:26[9](Greekkoine)ἐννέα
222:26[9](Iglulingmiutut)ᖁᓕᖃᙱᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ 

single glyphs, international (351 digits, 54 alphabets)

Below "Numbers" for the language indicates the Roman alphabet digits 0...9.

0:0[3](Numbers)3
1:0[1](Odia)୧
2:0[4](Sumerian)𒐼
3:0[1](Ethiopic)፩
4:0[5](Limbu)᥋
5:0[9](Rumi)𐹨
6:0[2](Koreansino)이
7:0[6](Gujarati)છ
8:0[5](Klingon)5
9:0[3](Sundanese)᮳
10:0[5](Lepcha)᱅
11:0[8](Burmese)၈
12:0[9](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇩
13:0[7](Malayalam)൭
14:0[9](Osmanya)𐒩
15:0[3](Yi)ꌕ
16:1[3](Numbers)3
17:1[8](Cham)꩘
18:1[4](Oriya)୪
19:1[6](Yi)ꃘ
20:1[2](Kayahli)꤂
21:1[6](Tibetan)༦
22:1[4](Sanskrit)४
23:1[3](Tamil)௩
24:1[3](Lepcha)᱃
25:1[8](Burmese)၈
26:1[3](Telugu)౩
27:1[2](Sinhala)෨
28:1[7](Malayalam)൭
29:1[9](Arabic)٩
30:1[5](Nko)߅
31:1[0](Osmanya)𐒠
32:2[8](Kannada)೮
33:2[8](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇨
34:2[4](Arabic)٤
35:2[1](Balinese)᭑
36:2[9](Chinese)九
37:2[7](Yi)ꏃ
38:2[1](Lao)໑
39:2[6](Nko)߆
40:2[9](Shan)႙
41:2[3](Copticepact)𐋣
42:2[9](Brahmi)𑁯
43:2[9](Sanskrit)९
44:2[3](Gurmukhi)੩
45:2[7](Bengali)৭
46:2[5](Telugu)౫
47:2[1](Burmese)၁
48:3[5](Sumerian)𒐊
49:3[8](Yi)ꉆ
50:3[2](Kharoshthi)𐩁
51:3[0](Lepcha)᱀
52:3[9](Bengali)৯
53:3[7](Koreansino)칠
54:3[4](Limbu)᥊
55:3[9](Balinese)᭙
56:3[4](Kayahli)꤄
57:3[4](Lao)໔
58:3[5](Kannada)೫
59:3[9](Chinese)九
60:3[2](Copticepact)𐋢
61:3[3](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇣
62:3[0](Tibetan)༠
63:3[7](Arabic)٧
64:4[1](Kharoshthi)𐩀
65:4[6](Hebrew)ו
66:4[4](Osmanya)𐒤
67:4[0](Sundanese)᮰
68:4[6](Khmer)៦
69:4[2](Brahmi)𑁨
70:4[8](Oriya)୮
71:4[6](Javanese)꧖
72:4[2](Klingon)2
73:4[0](Lepcha)᱀
74:4[8](Burmese)၈
75:4[9](Sanskrit)९
76:4[9](Olchiki)᱙
77:4[8](Arabic)٨
78:4[6](Yonaguni)む
79:4[2](Punjabi)੨
80:5[0](Burmese)၀
81:5[3](Ainu)レ
82:5[4](Odia)୪
83:5[8](Lao)໘
84:5[2](Yi)ꑍ
85:5[5](Sundanese)᮵
86:5[3](Osmanya)𐒣
87:5[4](Limbu)᥊
88:5[2](Sinhala)෨
89:5[1](Copticepact)𐋡
90:5[1](Sumerian)𒁹
91:5[7](Khmer)៧
92:5[0](Tibetan)༠
93:5[6](Thai)๖
94:5[7](Koreansino)칠
95:5[9](Japanese_sino)く
96:6[2](Rumi)𐹡
97:6[1](Nko)߁
98:6[4](Javanese)꧔
99:6[8](Telugu)౮
100:6[0](Sinhala)෦
101:6[8](Ethiopic)፰
102:6[6](Thai)๖
103:6[5](Roman)V
104:6[1](Koreansino)일
105:6[3](Copticepact)𐋣
106:6[2](Limbu)᥈
107:6[8](Yonaguni)だ
108:6[2](Kannada)೨
109:6[3](Mongolian)᠓
110:6[0](Vai)꘠
111:6[6](Punjabi)੬
112:7[4](Klingon)4
113:7[7](Nko)߇
114:7[0](Kayahli)꤀
115:7[9](Brahmi)𑁯
116:7[3](Chakma)𑄹
117:7[8](Yi)ꉆ
118:7[4](Sundanese)᮴
119:7[4](Osmanya)𐒤
120:7[6](Sinhala)෬
121:7[0](Arabic)٠
122:7[9](Saurashtra)꣙
123:7[5](Meeteimayek)꯵
124:7[5](Adlam)𞥕
125:7[0](Koreansino)공
126:7[5](Numbers)5
127:7[8](Gurmukhi)੮
128:8[2](Tibetan)༢
129:8[3](Vai)꘣
130:8[1](Sinhala)෧
131:8[7](Lepcha)᱇
132:8[2](Gujaranti)૨
133:8[5](Chakma)𑄻
134:8[3](Brahmi)𑁩
135:8[5](Hebrew)ה
136:8[9](Odia)୯
137:8[4](Copticepact)𐋤
138:8[0](Kayahli)꤀
139:8[8](Sumerian)𒑄
140:8[1](Sanskrit)१
141:8[2](Rumi)𐹡
142:8[8](Sundanese)᮸
143:8[4](Telugu)౪
144:9[1](Odia)୧
145:9[1](Ethiopic)፩
146:9[1](Chinese)一
147:9[7](Gujaranti)૭
148:9[4](Koreansino)사
149:9[5](Khmer)៥
150:9[0](Kayahli)꤀
151:9[2](Osmanya)𐒢
152:9[8](Sinhala)෮
153:9[4](Olchiki)᱔
154:9[1](Kharoshthi)𐩀
155:9[0](Lepcha)᱀
156:9[2](Kannada)೨
157:9[7](Telugu)౭
158:9[0](Numbers)0
159:9[1](Bengali)১
160:10[3](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇣
161:10[8](Telugu)౮
162:10[5](Meeteimayek)꯵
163:10[2](Sumerian)𒈫
164:10[1](Arabic)١
165:10[1](Thai)๑
166:10[0](Shan)႐
167:10[5](Hebrew)ה
168:10[5](Bengali)৫
169:10[5](Malayalam)൫
170:10[9](Brahmi)𑁯
171:10[6](Oriya)୬
172:10[4](Burmese)၄
173:10[4](Kharoshthi)𐩃
174:10[6](Balinese)᭖
175:10[2](Japanese_sino)に
176:11[9](Tamil)௯
177:11[4](Telugu)౪
178:11[8](Punjabi)੮
179:11[9](Osmanya)𐒩
180:11[5](Khmer)៥
181:11[4](Chinese)四
182:11[9](Arabic)٩
183:11[3](Kayahli)꤃
184:11[0](Sinhala)෦
185:11[3](Nko)߃
186:11[8](Copticepact)𐋨
187:11[1](Lao)໑
188:11[9](Thai)๙
189:11[6](Tibetan)༦
190:11[4](Sundanese)᮴
191:11[4](Odia)୪
192:12[8](Lao)໘
193:12[8](Javanese)꧘
194:12[1](Roman)I
195:12[0](Burmese)၀
196:12[9](Bengali)৯
197:12[7](Lepcha)᱇
198:12[5](Copticepact)𐋥
199:12[6](Gujaranti)૬
200:12[6](Tibetan)༦
201:12[5](Sundanese)᮵
202:12[9](Klingon)9
203:12[3](Sanskrit)३
204:12[3](Yi)ꌕ
205:12[4](Vai)꘤
206:12[4](Korean)넷
207:12[6](Tamil)௬
208:13[2](Khmer)២
209:13[8](Meeteimayek)꯸
210:13[4](Kannada)೪
211:13[7](Brahmi)𑁭
212:13[5](Tibetan)༥
213:13[6](Balinese)᭖
214:13[4](Lepcha)᱄
215:13[8](Saurashtra)꣘
216:13[2](Burmese)၂
217:13[3](Mongolian)᠓
218:13[3](Rumi)𐹢
219:13[7](Limbu)᥍
220:13[8](Arabic)٨
221:13[6](Chinese)六
222:13[7](Numbers)7
223:13[8](Osmanya)𐒨
224:14[1](Olchiki)᱑
225:14[6](Sundanese)᮶
226:14[5](Yi)ꉬ
227:14[2](Koreansino)이
228:14[7](Vai)꘧
229:14[1](Balinese)᭑
230:14[2](Hebrew)ב
231:14[0](Brahmi)𑁦
232:14[1](Oriya)୧
233:14[9](Gurmukhi)੯
234:14[0](Arabic)٠
235:14[9](Saurashtra)꣙
236:14[1](Odia)୧
237:14[4](Meeteimayek)꯴
238:14[5](Telugu)౫
239:14[6](Cham)꩖
240:15[8](Sinhala)෮
241:15[5](Limbu)᥋
242:15[6](Thai)๖
243:15[6](Copticepact)𐋦
244:15[9](Tamil)௯
245:15[2](Shan)႒
246:15[3](Telugu)౩
247:15[4](Vai)꘤
248:15[6](Odia)୬
249:15[0](Osmanya)𐒠
250:15[3](Klingon)3
251:15[4](Hebrew)ד
252:15[8](Javanese)꧘
253:15[6](Oriya)୬
254:15[1](Adlam)𞥑
255:15[0](Tibetan)༠
256:16[5](Arabic)٥
257:16[4](Gujaranti)૪
258:16[3](Shan)႓
259:16[2](Japanese_sino)に
260:16[6](Odia)୬
261:16[6](Javanese)꧖
262:16[4](Osmanya)𐒤
263:16[8](Sundanese)᮸
264:16[2](Hebrew)ב
265:16[1](Kharoshthi)𐩀
266:16[3](Nko)߃
267:16[3](Ainu)レ
268:16[9](Kayahli)꤉
269:16[3](Chakma)𑄹
270:16[6](Kannada)೬
271:16[0](Klingon)0
272:17[2](Klingon)2
273:17[6](Tamil)௬
274:17[0](Numbers)0
275:17[2](Kharoshthi)𐩁
276:17[4](Lepcha)᱄
277:17[9](Sundanese)᮹
278:17[1](Mongolian)᠑
279:17[4](Meeteimayek)꯴
280:17[1](Khmer)១
281:17[2](Kannada)೨
282:17[7](Bengali)৭
283:17[3](Sumerian)𒐈
284:17[7](Saurashtra)꣗
285:17[2](Copticepact)𐋢
286:17[4](Hebrew)ד
287:17[5](Koreansino)오
288:18[7](Klingon)7
289:18[0](Arabic)٠
290:18[0](Osmanya)𐒠
291:18[6](Lepcha)᱆
292:18[6](Malayalam)൬
293:18[0](Sinhala)෦
294:18[6](Shan)႖
295:18[3](Vai)꘣
296:18[1](Bengali)১
297:18[5](Yi)ꉬ
298:18[5](Khmer)៥
299:18[8](Punjabi)੮
300:18[8](Mongolian)᠘
301:18[1](Thai)๑
302:18[7](Koreansino)칠
303:18[4](Cham)꩔
304:19[8](Meeteimayek)꯸
305:19[1](Gurmukhi)੧
306:19[5](Malayalam)൫
307:19[2](Kayahli)꤂
308:19[0](Numbers)0
309:19[9](Limbu)᥏
310:19[2](Javanese)꧒
311:19[0](Osmanya)𐒠
312:19[9](Tamil)௯
313:19[6](Telugu)౬
314:19[2](Sinhalaarchaic)𑇢
315:19[8](Punjabi)੮
316:19[2](Sinhala)෨
317:19[9](Koreansino)구
318:19[2](Kharoshthi)𐩁
319:19[5](Ethiopic)፭
320:20[0](Shan)႐
321:20[9](Nko)߉
322:20[1](Mongolian)᠑
323:20[7](Koreansino)칠
324:20[1](Chinese)一
325:20[5](Copticepact)𐋥
326:20[3](Kharoshthi)𐩂
327:20[6](Numbers)6
328:20[4](Meeteimayek)꯴
329:20[3](Kayahli)꤃
330:20[6](Yi)ꃘ
331:20[7](Olchiki)᱗
332:20[8](Lepcha)᱈
333:20[9](Ethiopic)፱
334:20[2](Malayalam)൨
335:20[5](Tibetan)༥
336:21[0](Osmanya)𐒠
337:21[3](Lepcha)᱃
338:21[6](Tamil)௬
339:21[0](Shan)႐
340:21[0](Klingon)0
341:21[1](Kannada)೧
342:21[1](Gujaranti)૧
343:21[3](Tibetan)༣
344:21[3](Nko)߃
345:21[0](Sinhala)෦
346:21[5](Oriya)୫
347:21[3](Yi)ꌕ
348:21[0](Brahmi)𑁦
349:21[5](Japanese_sino)ご
350:21[4](Mongolian)᠔
351:21[8](Saurashtra)꣘
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news + thoughts

Markov Chains

Tue 30-07-2019

You can look back there to explain things,
but the explanation disappears.
You'll never find it there.
Things are not explained by the past.
They're explained by what happens now.
—Alan Watts

A Markov chain is a probabilistic model that is used to model how a system changes over time as a series of transitions between states. Each transition is assigned a probability that defines the chance of the system changing from one state to another.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Markov Chains. (read)

Together with the states, these transitions probabilities define a stochastic model with the Markov property: transition probabilities only depend on the current state—the future is independent of the past if the present is known.

Once the transition probabilities are defined in matrix form, it is easy to predict the distribution of future states of the system. We cover concepts of aperiodicity, irreducibility, limiting and stationary distributions and absorption.

This column is the first part of a series and pairs particularly well with Alan Watts and Blond:ish.

Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Markov Chains. Nature Methods 16:663–664.

1-bit zoomable gigapixel maps of Moon, Solar System and Sky

Mon 22-07-2019

Places to go and nobody to see.

Exquisitely detailed maps of places on the Moon, comets and asteroids in the Solar System and stars, deep-sky objects and exoplanets in the northern and southern sky. All maps are zoomable.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
3.6 gigapixel map of the near side of the Moon, annotated with 6,733. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
100 megapixel and 10 gigapixel map of the Solar System on 20 July 2019, annotated with 758k asteroids, 1.3k comets and all planets and satellites. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
100 megapixle and 10 gigapixel map of the Northern Celestial Hemisphere, annotated with 44 million stars, 74,000 deep-sky objects and 3,000 exoplanets. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
100 megapixle and 10 gigapixel map of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere, annotated with 69 million stars, 88,000 deep-sky objects and 1000 exoplanets. (details)

Quantile regression

Sat 01-06-2019
Quantile regression robustly estimates the typical and extreme values of a response.

Quantile regression explores the effect of one or more predictors on quantiles of the response. It can answer questions such as "What is the weight of 90% of individuals of a given height?"

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Quantile regression. (read)

Unlike in traditional mean regression methods, no assumptions about the distribution of the response are required, which makes it practical, robust and amenable to skewed distributions.

Quantile regression is also very useful when extremes are interesting or when the response variance varies with the predictors.

Das, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Quantile regression. Nature Methods 16:451–452.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Simple linear regression. Nature Methods 12:999–1000.

Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue

Sat 30-03-2019
Robust regression generates more reliable estimates by detecting and downweighting outliers.

Outliers can degrade the fit of linear regression models when the estimation is performed using the ordinary least squares. The impact of outliers can be mitigated with methods that provide robust inference and greater reliability in the presence of anomalous values.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. (read)

We discuss MM-estimation and show how it can be used to keep your fitting sane and reliable.

Greco, L., Luta, G., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. Nature Methods 16:275–276.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2016) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Influential or nuisance. Nature Methods 13:281–282.

Two-level factorial experiments

Fri 22-03-2019
To find which experimental factors have an effect, simultaneously examine the difference between the high and low levels of each.

Two-level factorial experiments, in which all combinations of multiple factor levels are used, efficiently estimate factor effects and detect interactions—desirable statistical qualities that can provide deep insight into a system.

They offer two benefits over the widely used one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments: efficiency and ability to detect interactions.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Two-level factorial experiments. (read)

Since the number of factor combinations can quickly increase, one approach is to model only some of the factorial effects using empirically-validated assumptions of effect sparsity and effect hierarchy. Effect sparsity tells us that in factorial experiments most of the factorial terms are likely to be unimportant. Effect hierarchy tells us that low-order terms (e.g. main effects) tend to be larger than higher-order terms (e.g. two-factor or three-factor interactions).

Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Two-level factorial experiments Nature Methods 16:211–212.

Background reading

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Designing comparative experiments.. Nature Methods 11:597–598.

Happy 2019 `\pi` Day—
Digits, internationally

Tue 12-03-2019

Celebrate `\pi` Day (March 14th) and set out on an exploration explore accents unknown (to you)!

This year is purely typographical, with something for everyone. Hundreds of digits and hundreds of languages.

A special kids' edition merges math with color and fat fonts.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
116 digits in 64 languages. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
223 digits in 102 languages. (details)

Check out art from previous years: 2013 `\pi` Day and 2014 `\pi` Day, 2015 `\pi` Day, 2016 `\pi` Day, 2017 `\pi` Day and 2018 `\pi` Day.