Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
This love loves love. It's a strange love, strange love.Liz Fraserfind a way to lovemore quotes

pi: beautiful


The Outbreak Poems — artistic emissions in a pandemic


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A `\pi` day music video!: Transcendental Tree Map premieres on 2020 Pi Day from Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself. Watch live from Barbican Centre.
Music video of the “Transcendental Tree Map” Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite album. This video premiered on 2020 Pi Day. Music by Max Cooper. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2020 Pi Day art celebrates digits of `\pi` with piku (パイク) —poetry inspired by haiku.
They serve as the form for The Outbreak Poems.
Tau Day tree map animation of 8,909 digits of `\tau = 2 \pi` created with 40,015 lines. The video is 6:28 minutes long.

`\pi` Day 2016 Art Posters


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

This year's `\pi` day art collection celebrates not only the digit but also one of the fundamental forces in nature: gravity.

In February of 2016, for the first time, gravitational waves were detected at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).

The signal in the detector was sonified—a process by which any data can be encoded into sound to provide hints at patterns and structure that we might otherwise miss—and we finally heard what two black holes sound like. A buzz and chirp.

The art is featured in the Gravity of Pi article on the Scientific American SA Visual blog.

this year's theme music

All the art was processed while listening to Roses by Coeur de Pirate, a brilliant female French-Canadian songwriter, who sounds like a mix of Patricia Kaas and Lhasa. The lyrics Oublie-moi (Forget me) are fitting with this year's theme of gravity.

Mais laisse-moi tomber, laisse-nous tomber
Laisse la nuit trembler en moi
Laisse-moi tomber, laisse nous tomber
Cette fois

But let me fall, let us fall
Let the night tremble in me
Let me fall, let us fall
This time

The art is generated by running a simulation of gravity in which digits of `\pi` are each assigned a mass and allowed to collide eand orbit each other.

The mathematical details of the simulation can be found in the code section.

exploring force of gravity in `\pi`

A simulation starts with taking `n` digits of `\pi` and arranging them uniformly around a circle. The mass of each digit, `d_i` (e.g. 3), is given by `(1+d)^k` where `k` is a mass power parameter between 0.01 and 1. For example, if `k=0.42` then the mass of 3 is `(1+3)^{0.42} = 1.79`.

collapsing three digits—3.14 collide

The figure below shows the evolution of a simulation with `n=3` digits and `k=1`. The digits 3 and 4 collide to form the digit `3+4 = 7` and immediately collides with 1 to form `7+1=8`. With only one mass left in the system, the simulation stops.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The evolution of a simulation of gravity using `n=3` digits of `\pi` and the mass power `k=1`. The masses are initialized with zero velocity. (zoom)

adding initial velocity to each mass

When masses have initial velocities, the patterns quickly start to get interesting. In the figure above, the masses are initalized with zero velocity. As soon as the simulation, each mass immediately starts to move directly towards the center of mass of the other two masses.

When the initial velocity is non-zero, such as in the figure below, the masses don't immediately collapse towards one another. The masses first travel with their initial velocity but immediately the gravitational force imparts acceleration that alters this velocity. In the examples below, only those simulations in which the masses collapsed within a time cutoff are shown.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The evolution of a simulation of gravity using `n=3` digits of `\pi` and the mass power `k=1` in which all masses collapsed. The masses are initialized with a random velocity. (zoom)

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The evolution of 16 simulations of gravity using `n=3` digits of `\pi` and the mass power `k=1` in which all masses collapsed. The masses are initialized with a random velocity. (zoom)

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The evolution of 49 simulations of gravity using `n=3` digits of `\pi` and the mass power `k=1` in which all masses collapsed. The masses are initialized with a random velocity. (zoom)

allowing the simulation to evolve

Depending on the initial velocities, some systems collapse very quickly, which doesn't make for interesting patterns.

For example, the simulations above evolved over 100,000 steps and in some cases the masses collapsed within 10,000 steps. In the figure below, I require that the system evolves for at least 15,000 steps before collapsing. Lovely doddles, don't you think?


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The evolution of 36 simulations of gravity using `n=3` digits of `\pi` and the mass power `k=1` in which all masses collapsed after a minimum amount of time. The masses are initialized with a random velocity. (zoom)

exploring ensembles

When a simulation is repeated with different initial conditions, the set of outcomes is called an ensemble.

Below, I repeat the simulation 100 times with `n=3` and `k=0.2`, each time with slightly different initial velocity. The velocities have their `x`- and `y`-components normally distributed with zero mean and a fixed variance. Each of the four ensembles has its simulations evolve over progressively more time steps: 5,000, 7,500, 10,000, and 20,000.

You can see that with 5,000 steps the masses don't yet have a chance to collide. After 7,500, there have been collisions in a small number of systems. The blue mass corresponds to the 3 colliding with 4 and the green mass to 1 colliding with 4. After 10,000, even more collisions are seen and in 3 cases we see total collapse (all three digits collided). After 20,000,


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The evolution of 100 simulations of gravity over total time `t` using `n=3` digits of `\pi` and the mass power `k=0.2`. Within each ensemble, the masses are initialized with a different random velocity in each instance. (zoom)

varying masses

The value of `k` greatly impacts the outcome of the simulation. When `k` is very small, all the digits have essentially the same mass. For example, when `k=0.01` the 0 has a mass of 1 and 9 has a mass of 1.02.

When `k` is large, the difference in masses is much greater. For example, for `k=2` the lightest mass is `(1+0)^2=1` and the heaviest `(1+9)^2=10`. Because the acceleration of a mass is proportional to the mass that is attracting it, in a pair of masses the light mass will accelerate faster.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Larger values of `k` create greater diversity among the masses. Shown are simulations of 36 digits with `k` values varying from 0.1 to 3. The total mass of the system, `\Sigma m`, is also shown.`. (zoom)

increasing number of masses

As the number of digits is increased, the pattern of collapse doesn't qualitatively change.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Simulations for `n = 50, 100, 250` and `500` masses with `k = 0.5`. (zoom)

gravity makes beautiful doodles

I ran a large number of simulations. For various values of `n` and `k`, I repeated the simulation several times to sample different intial velocities.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Thumbnails of `\pi` digit orbital simulations for various values of `n` and `k`. (zoom)

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gravitational attraction paths of the first 100 digits of `\pi` for `k = 0.3`, `0.6` and `0.8` with initial velocities randomly set. Three instances of the simulation are shown, each with different intital velocities. (zoom)

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gravitational attraction paths of the first 60 digits of `\pi` for `k = 1`. After 100,000 time steps, some masses are still orbiting within the canvas (e.g. green mass at bottom right). The numbers next to the masses correspond to the digits (those around the circle are the first 50 digits of `\pi` and others are the sum (mod 10) of digits that collided). Also shown next to the numbers is their mass, index and indices of masses that formed them. (zoom)

Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gravitational attraction paths of the first 50 digits of `\pi` for `k = 0.4`. The numbers next to the masses correspond to the digits (those around the circle are the first 50 digits of `\pi` and others are the sum (mod 10) of digits that collided). (zoom)

Below is a great example of how a stable orbital pattern of a pair of masses can be disrupted by the presence of another mass. You can see on the left that once the light red mass moves away from the orange/green pair, they settle into a stable pattern.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gravitational attraction paths of the first 50 digits of `\pi` for `k = 0.9`. The numbers next to the masses correspond to the digits (those around the circle are the first 50 digits of `\pi` and others are the sum (mod 10) of digits that collided). (zoom)

The figure below shows one of my favourite patterns. As the digits collide, three masses remain, which leave the system. They remain under each other's gravitational influence, but are moving too quickly to return to the canvas within the time of the simulation.


Pi Day 2016 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gravitational attraction paths of the first 90 digits of `\pi` for `k = 0.8`. The digits collide, leaving three rapidly-moving masses, which leave the canvas. (zoom)

how the idea developed

interactive gravity simulator

Use this fun inteactive gravity simulator if you want to drop your own masses and watch them orbit.

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

"This data might give you a migrane"

Tue 06-10-2020

An in-depth look at my process of reacting to a bad figure — how I design a poster and tell data stories.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A poster of high BMI and obesity prevalence for 185 countries.

He said, he said — a word analysis of the 2020 Presidential Debates

Thu 01-10-2020

Building on the method I used to analyze the 2008, 2012 and 2016 U.S. Presidential and Vice Presidential debates, I explore word usagein the 2020 Debates between Donald Trump and Joe Biden.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Analysis of word usage by parts of speech for Trump and Biden reveals insight into each candidate.

Points of Significance celebrates 50th column

Mon 24-08-2020

We are celebrating the publication of our 50th column!

To all our coauthors — thank you and see you in the next column!

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance: Celebrating 50 columns of clear explanations of statistics. (read)

Uncertainty and the management of epidemics

Mon 24-08-2020

When modelling epidemics, some uncertainties matter more than others.

Public health policy is always hampered by uncertainty. During a novel outbreak, nearly everything will be uncertain: the mode of transmission, the duration and population variability of latency, infection and protective immunity and, critically, whether the outbreak will fade out or turn into a major epidemic.

The uncertainty may be structural (which model?), parametric (what is `R_0`?), and/or operational (how well do masks work?).

This month, we continue our exploration of epidemiological models and look at how uncertainty affects forecasts of disease dynamics and optimization of intervention strategies.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Uncertainty and the management of epidemics. (read)

We show how the impact of the uncertainty on any choice in strategy can be expressed using the Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI), which is the potential improvement in outcomes that could be obtained if the uncertainty is resolved before making a decision on the intervention strategy. In other words, by how much could we potentially increase effectiveness of our choice (e.g. lowering total disease burden) if we knew which model best reflects reality?

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore the impact of uncertainty in `R_0` and immunity duration on timing and size of epidemic waves and the total burden of the outbreak and calculate EVPI for various outbreak models and scenarios.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Uncertainty and the management of epidemics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Uncertainty and the management of epidemics. Nature Methods 17.

Background reading

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. Nature Methods 17:557–558.

Cover of Nature Genetics August 2020

Mon 03-08-2020

Our design on the cover of Nature Genetics's August 2020 issue is “Dichotomy of Chromatin in Color” . Thanks to Dr. Andy Mungall for suggesting this terrific title.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Dichotomy of Chromatin in Color. Nature Genetics, August 2020 issue. (read more)

The cover design accompanies our report in the issue Gagliardi, A., Porter, V.L., Zong, Z. et al. (2020) Analysis of Ugandan cervical carcinomas identifies human papillomavirus clade–specific epigenome and transcriptome landscapes. Nature Genetics 52:800–810.

Poster Design Guidelines

Wed 15-07-2020

Clear, concise, legible and compelling.

The PDF template is a poster about making posters. It provides design, typography and data visualiation tips with minimum fuss. Follow its advice until you have developed enough design sobriety and experience to know when to go your own way.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Poster Design Guidelines — Clear, concise, legible and compelling..