Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - contact me Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca on Twitter Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Lumondo Photography Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Art Martin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Hilbertonians - Creatures on the Hilbert CurveMartin Krzywinski / Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre / mkweb.bcgsc.ca - Pi Day 2020 - Piku
Safe, fallen down this way, I want to be just what I am.Cocteau Twinssafe at lastmore quotes

piet mondrian: beautiful


The Outbreak Poems — artistic emissions in a pandemic


visualization + design

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A `\pi` day music video!: Transcendental Tree Map premieres on 2020 Pi Day from Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself. Watch live from Barbican Centre.
Music video of the “Transcendental Tree Map” Max Cooper's Yearning for the Infinite album. This video premiered on 2020 Pi Day. Music by Max Cooper. Animation by Nick Cobby and myself.
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
The 2020 Pi Day art celebrates digits of `\pi` with piku (パイク) —poetry inspired by haiku.
They serve as the form for The Outbreak Poems.
Tau Day tree map animation of 8,909 digits of `\tau = 2 \pi` created with 40,015 lines. The video is 6:28 minutes long.

`\pi` Day 2015 Art Posters


Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2019 `\pi` has hundreds of digits, hundreds of languages and a special kids' edition.

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2018 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2017 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` approximation day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2016 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2015 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` approx day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2014 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2013 `\pi` day

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Circular `\pi` art

On March 14th celebrate `\pi` Day. Hug `\pi`—find a way to do it.

For those who favour `\tau=2\pi` will have to postpone celebrations until July 26th. That's what you get for thinking that `\pi` is wrong. I sympathize with this position and have `\tau` day art too!

If you're not into details, you may opt to party on July 22nd, which is `\pi` approximation day (`\pi` ≈ 22/7). It's 20% more accurate that the official `\pi` day!

Finally, if you believe that `\pi = 3`, you should read why `\pi` is not equal to 3.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
All art posters are available for purchase.
I take custom requests.

Not a circle in sight in the 2015 `\pi` day art. Try to figure out how up to 612,330 digits are encoded before reading about the method. `\pi`'s transcendental friends `\phi` and `e` are there too—golden and natural. Get it?

This year's `\pi` day is particularly special. The digits of time specify a precise time if the date is encoded in North American day-month-year convention: 3-14-15 9:26:53.

The art has been featured in Ana Swanson's Wonkblog article at the Washington Post—10 Stunning Images Show The Beauty Hidden in `\pi`.

This year's art has a modern Bauhaus style. Sharp edges, lines and solid colors. Potato farms from space. CPUs from up close. If the pieces look like the art of Piet Mondrian, you'd be right.


Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
3,628 digits of `\pi` in a 6 level treemap. Uniform line thickness. Bauhaus prime colors. (posters, BUY ARTWORK)

The digits of `pi` are encoded in something that looks like a treemap. I explain how this is done in the methods section, but before reading it, try to see if you can figure out how it's done.


Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
2,258 digits of `\phi`, 3,855 digits of `e` and 3,628 digits of `\pi` in 6 level treemaps. Uniform line thickness. Brewer palette sequential greys. (posters, BUY ARTWORK)

I briefly experimented with the 4-color theorem in trying to apply color to the treemap, but it turned out to lack interesting stucture. Well, at least some graphs were made.

I experimented with different treemap resolutions. For treemaps that use an outline around each rectangle, I decided to stop at 8 levels, at which 111,469 digits of `pi` can be encoded.


Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
3,628 digits of `\pi` in a 6 level treemap. Uniform line thickness. Bauhaus prime colors. (posters, BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
20,244 digits of `\pi` in a 7 level treemap. Uniform line thickness. Bauhaus prime colors. (posters, BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
111,469 digits of `\pi` in an 8 level treemap. Uniform line thickness, slightly thinner than for the 7-level map. Bauhaus prime colors. (posters, BUY ARTWORK)

I also made a level 9 treemap without the outlines, which encoded 612,330 digits. When rendered at 20,833 × 20,833 pixels (I needed the image in bitmap form to provide the posters for sale), some regions are essentially a pixel in size, as seen in the 1-1 crop below.


Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca buy artwork
612,330 digits of `\pi` in an 9 level treemap. Bauhaus prime colors. (posters, BUY ARTWORK)

Pi Day 2015 Art Posters
 / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
1-1 crop of 612,330 digits of `\pi` in an 9 level treemap. Bauhaus prime colors. (posters)

Treemap art and history

If you enjoy treemaps, explore Ben Shneiderman's History of Treemaps and Treemap Art.

VIEW ALL

news + thoughts

The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics

Thu 18-06-2020

Realistic models of epidemics account for latency, loss of immunity, births and deaths.

We continue with our discussion about epidemic models and show how births, deaths and loss of immunity can create epidemic waves—a periodic fluctuation in the fraction of population that is infected.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. (read)

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore epidemic waves and introduces the idea of the phase plane, a compact way to understand the evolution of an epidemic over its entire course.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. Nature Methods 17:557–558.

Background reading

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

Gene Machines

Fri 05-06-2020

Shifting soundscapes, textures and rhythmic loops produced by laboratory machines.

In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Segue was commissioned to create an original composition based on audio recordings from the GSC's laboratory equipment, robots and computers—to make “music” from the noise they produce.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Gene Machines by Segue. Now available on vinyl.

Virus Mutations Reveal How COVID-19 Really Spread

Mon 01-06-2020

Genetic sequences of the coronavirus tell story of when the virus arrived in each country and where it came from.

Our graphic in Scientific American's Graphic Science section in the June 2020 issue shows a phylogenetic tree based on a snapshot of the data model from Nextstrain as of 31 March 2020.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Virus Mutations Reveal How COVID-19 Really Spread. Text by Mark Fischetti (Senior Editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: Nextstrain (enabled by data from GISAID).

Cover of Nature Cancer April 2020

Mon 27-04-2020

Our design on the cover of Nature Cancer's April 2020 issue shows mutation spectra of patients from the POG570 cohort of 570 individuals with advanced metastatic cancer.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Each ellipse system represents the mutation spectrum of an individual patient. Individual ellipses in the system correspond to the number of base changes in a given class and are layered by mutation count. Ellipse angle is controlled by the proportion of mutations in a class within the sample and its size is determined by a sigmoid mapping of mutation count scaled within the layer. The opacity of each system represents the duration since the diagnosis of advanced disease. (read more)

The cover design accompanies our report in the issue Pleasance, E., Titmuss, E., Williamson, L. et al. (2020) Pan-cancer analysis of advanced patient tumors reveals interactions between therapy and genomic landscapes. Nat Cancer 1:452–468.

Modeling infectious epidemics

Tue 16-06-2020

Every day sadder and sadder news of its increase. In the City died this week 7496; and of them, 6102 of the plague. But it is feared that the true number of the dead this week is near 10,000 ....
—Samuel Pepys, 1665

This month, we begin a series of columns on epidemiological models. We start with the basic SIR model, which models the spread of an infection between three groups in a population: susceptible, infected and recovered.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (read)

We discuss conditions under which an outbreak occurs, estimates of spread characteristics and the effects that mitigation can play on disease trajectories. We show the trends that arise when "flattenting the curve" by decreasing `R_0`.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (read)

This column has an interactive supplemental component (download code) that allows you to explore how the model curves change with parameters such as infectious period, basic reproduction number and vaccination level.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Modeling infectious epidemics. (Interactive supplemental materials)

Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.

The Outbreak Poems

Sat 04-04-2020

I'm writing poetry daily to put my feelings into words more often during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Ideas,
light
in a shadow.
Falling Moon
caught
by horizon.
Distant shout
comes 
in a whisper.

Read the poems and learn what a piku is.