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visualization + design
If you are interested in color, explore my other color tools, Brewer palettes resources, color blindness palettes and math and an exhausting list of 10,000 color names for all those times you couldn't distinguish between tan hide, sea buckthorn, orange peel, west side, sunshade, california and pizzaz.

Designing for Color blindness

Color choices and transformations for deuteranopia and other afflictions

Here, I help you understand color blindness and describe a process by which you can make good color choices when designing for accessibility.

The opposite of color blindness is seeing all the colors and I can help you find 1,000 (or more) maximally distinct colors.

You can also delve into the mathematics behind the color blindness simulations and learn about copunctal points (the invisible color!) and lines of confusion.

Terminal color-blind-safe schemes

The terminal and text editor themes shown here were designed by Alan Welsh for green-weak colorblind users. If there are any red-weak users who find these themes unsuitable and would like to help in designing more, please reach out to Alan.

1 · Carribean dusk

CSS | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
CSS | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
PY | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
PY | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
HTML | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
HTML | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
JS | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
JS | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
C | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
C | Carribean Dusk terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh

2 · Bay of alabaster

CSS | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
CSS | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
PY | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
PY | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
HTML | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
HTML | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
JS | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
JS | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
C | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
C | Bay of Alabaster terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh

3 · Black Russian cotton candy

CSS | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
CSS | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
PY | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
PY | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
HTML | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
HTML | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
JS | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
JS | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh
C | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh / Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
C | Black Russian Cotton Candy terminal and text editor color palette by Alan Walsh

news + thoughts

Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring

Mon 21-11-2022

If you sit on the sofa for your entire life, you’re running a higher risk of getting heart disease and cancer. —Alex Honnold, American rock climber

In a follow-up to our Survival analysis — time-to-event data and censoring article, we look at how regression can be used to account for additional risk factors in survival analysis.

We explore accelerated failure time regression (AFTR) and the Cox Proportional Hazards model (Cox PH).

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Regression modeling of time-to-event data with censoring. Nature Methods 19.

Music video for Max Cooper's Ascent

Tue 25-10-2022

My 5-dimensional animation sets the visual stage for Max Cooper's Ascent from the album Unspoken Words. I have previously collaborated with Max on telling a story about infinity for his Yearning for the Infinite album.

I provide a walkthrough the video, describe the animation system I created to generate the frames, and show you all the keyframes

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Frame 4897 from the music video of Max Cooper's Asent.

The video recently premiered on YouTube.

Renders of the full scene are available as NFTs.

Gene Cultures exhibit — art at the MIT Museum

Tue 25-10-2022

I am more than my genome and my genome is more than me.

The MIT Museum reopened at its new location on 2nd October 2022. The new Gene Cultures exhibit featured my visualization of the human genome, which walks through the size and organization of the genome and some of the important structures.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My art at the MIT Museum Gene Cultures exhibit tells shows the scale and structure of the human genome. Pay no attention to the pink chicken.

Annals of Oncology cover

Wed 14-09-2022

My cover design on the 1 September 2022 Annals of Oncology issue shows 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers. Each case shows the number and type of actionable genomic alterations that were detected and the length of therapies that resulted from the analysis.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
An organic arrangement of 570 individual cases of difficult-to-treat cancers showing genomic changes and therapies. Apperas on Annals of Oncology cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022).

Pleasance E et al. Whole-genome and transcriptome analysis enhances precision cancer treatment options (2022) Annals of Oncology 33:939–949.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
My Annals of Oncology 570 cancer cohort cover (volume 33, issue 9, 1 September 2022). (more)

Browse my gallery of cover designs.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
A catalogue of my journal and magazine cover designs. (more)

Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring

Fri 05-08-2022

Love's the only engine of survival. —L. Cohen

We begin a series on survival analysis in the context of its two key complications: skew (which calls for the use of probability distributions, such as the Weibull, that can accomodate skew) and censoring (required because we almost always fail to observe the event in question for all subjects).

We discuss right, left and interval censoring and how mishandling censoring can lead to bias and loss of sensitivity in tests that probe for differences in survival times.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. (read)

Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M & Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Survival analysis—time-to-event data and censoring. Nature Methods 19:906–908.


© 1999–2022 Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA