Let me tell you about something.

Distractions and amusements, with a sandwich and coffee.

Lips that taste of tears, they say, are the best for kissing.
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• get cranky

numbers.tgz

1,000,000 digits of π, φ, e and ASN.

All the artwork can be purchased from Fine Art America.

The accidental similarity number is a kind of overlap between numbers. I came up with this concept after creating typographical art about the 4ness of π.

To construct this number for π, φ and e we first write the numbers on top of each other and then identify positions for which the numbers have the same digit.

3.1415926535897932 … 21170679821 … 10270193852 … 1.6180339887498948 … 93911374847 … 08659593958 … 2.7182818284590452 … 51664274274 … 32862794349 …

These digits are then used to create the accidental similarity number. In thise case,

0.979 …

By definition, the decimal is held in place.

The poster shows the accidental similarity number for π, φ and e created from the first 1,000,000 digits of each number. There are 9,997 positions in which these numbers have the same digit, but only 9,996 are shown because the distance between positions is used to color the digit and I was limited by input files with 1M digits.

The distribution of distances follows a Poisson distribution with an average of 100, with about 1-1/e values being smaller than 100.

The font is Neutraface Slab Display Medium.

Any properties are accidental, but curiously ASN(π, φ, e) ≈ 1.

If you find other curiously accidental properties, let me know.

Download the first 9,997 digits of the accidental similarity number. This file provides the ASN digit index, the digit and the position from which it is sampled.

I came up with Accidental Similarity Number immediately after creating this poster of the overlap between π, φ and e.

This thought stream started with the 4ness of π.

In the April Points of Significance Nature Methods column, we continue our and consider what happens when we run a large number of tests.

Observing statistically rare test outcomes is expected if we run enough tests. These are statistically, not biologically, significant. For example, if we run *N* tests, the smallest *P* value that we have a 50% chance of observing is 1–exp(–ln2/*N*). For *N* = 10^{k} this *P* value is *P*_{k}=10^{–k}ln2 (e.g. for 10^{4}=10,000 tests, *P*_{4}=6.9×10^{–5}).

We discuss common correction schemes such as Bonferroni, Holm, Benjamini & Hochberg and Storey's *q* and show how they impact the false positive rate (FPR), false discovery rate (FDR) and power of a batch of tests.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of Significance: Comparing Samples — Part II — Multiple Testing *Nature Methods* **11**:215-216.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of Significance: Comparing Samples — Part I — *t*-tests *Nature Methods* **11**:215-216.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of Significance: Significance, *P* values and *t*-tests *Nature Methods* **10**:1041-1042.

Celebrate Pi Day (March 14th) with the art of folding numbers. This year I take the number up to the Feynman Point and apply a protein folding algorithm to render it as a path.

For those of you who liked the minimalist and colorful digit grid, I've expanded on the concept to show stacked ring plots of frequency distributions.

And if spirals are your thing...

In the March Points of Significance Nature Methods column, we continue our discussion of *t*-tests from November (Significance, *P* values and *t*-tests).

We look at what happens how uncertainty of two variables combines and how this impacts the increased uncertainty when two samples are compared and highlight the differences between the two-sample and paired *t*-tests.

When performing any statistical test, it's important to understand and satisfy its requirements. The *t*-test is very robust with respect to some of its assumptions, but not others. We explore which.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of Significance: Comparing Samples — Part I *Nature Methods* **11**:215-216.

Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of Significance: Significance, *P* values and *t*-tests *Nature Methods* **10**:1041-1042.

Beautiful Science explores how our understanding of ourselves and our planet has evolved alongside our ability to represent, graph and map the mass data of the time. The exhibit runs 20 February — 26 May 2014 and is free to the public. There is a good Nature blog writeup about it, a piece in The Guardian, and a great video that explains the the exhibit narrated by Johanna Kieniewicz, the curator.

I am privileged to contribute an information graphic to the exhibit in the Tree of Life section. The piece shows how sequence similarity varies across species as a function of evolutionary distance. The installation is a set of 6 30x30 cm backlit panels. They look terrific.